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Full text of "Notes on Spain and the Spaniards, in the summer of 1859, with a glance at Sardinia"




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NOTES 



ON 



• 



SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS, 

In the Su^niKK of 1859, 

WITH A 

GLANCE AT SAEDINIA. 

BY 

A CAEOLINIAK. 

(J. J. r.) 



FOR riUVATE CIRCULATION. 



Quid dignum momoraro tuis, Ilispauia, tcrris 
Vox humana valet? 



CHARLESTOJS : 

STEAM-rOWEU PRESSES OF EVANS & COGSWELL, 
No. 3 Broad and 10.3 East Bay Street. 

1861. 






PEEFACE. 



Another book ! Yos, but a small one, and mostly about Spain. 

Every person thus assaultinjr the Public should be prepared to excuse 
himself, by stating the provocation, the purpose, and his capacity for exe- 
* outing that purpose. • 

For provocation, I can pretend little beyond the itching which tempts 
everyone to commune with others about what has profoundly interested 
himself. The book Avill show that the offence has not been committed with 
malice aforethought. Nothing Avas further from my intention on crossing 
the Pyrenees than to become an author. I went to Spain actuated by the 
purest motives of selfishness — to gratify myself. On my return, 1 was 
strongly impressed with the erroneous ideas prevalent among my acquaint- 
ances upon this subject ; ideas transmitted to us generally by the often- 
times clever, but always partial writings of English travellers and historians 
(whom we should have learnt by painful experience suOieiently well to 
appreciate), and fostered by political troubles of our own. The conception 
we still retain of the Spaniard, notwithstanding the many excellent pro- 
ductions for which the world is indebted to our countrymen, would repre- 
sent him enveloped in a huge cloak, shaded by a still huger sombrero, and 
rejoicing in a half-drawn stiletto, his country devastated by the Inquisition, 
and the abode of ignorance, idleness and prejudice. Such I have not 
found it. 

The purpose, therefore, is to portray the country in the plain, unadorned 
light of truth, so far as I am able, without exaggerating its beauties or its 
defects; sometimes narrating the incidents of travel with, perhaps, unjus- 
tifiable minuteness, at others indulging in generalization, seeking an excuse 
for its want of method, its mixture of personal and public concerns, of 
fact and reflection, in the title which the volume bears. I have not the 
vanity of expecting or hoping to instruct such as have been there already, 
and arc better acquainted with the Peninsula than myself. My whole 
ambition ha.s been to present it as it appeared to me — a faithful reflex of 



258273 



("ONTKNTS. 

tbo journey. If, upon wmo faron'd spot. I have felt the spirit of the Past 
upon nn", it has not lK>«n banished from the narrative, however inconfiru- 
ou» tin- roosaif miphl sei-m. for tin- Past of Spain is perpetually recurring 
to the traveller, and ho who re;rards only the Present renounces half the 
pl»'a5ure of his op|»orlunity. It has seemed to me, therefore, most in keep- 
ing to adopt tlu' tpi^tolary •^tylc, in substance if not in appearance, and so 
I have donr. 

For <|iialifK-ation, I may say that, some years ago, when more youthful 
and impri's>iblc, I travelled there extensively under certain advantages; 
that my lhou(;ht« since have often been directed thither, and that though 
ihr pH'sent journey embraced a comparatively small extent of country, it 
«?rvfd to correct previous misconceptions, and to give me confidence in the 
opinions I have formed. Upon one point I have been inexorable — in 
n-fraining from any .illusion, however remote, to sucli as have extended to 
me the courtesies of hospitality or acrpiaintance, though rendered aware, 
by the example of Europeans in America, how much such breaches of j)ro- 
priety add to the piipiancy of mere books of adventure. I conclude by 
vouching that the following pages contain, in my belief, the truth and 
nothing but tlic irutli. and as sufli T liavc vciitiircd to give them to the 
public. 

June, 1860. 



CONTENTS, 



Chapter I. — The Italian War. 

Mount Cenis — Entrance into Italy — A Prisoner of War — Feeling in Turin — 
Announcement of the Armistice — Of the Peace — Sketch of Sardinian Politics 
— Position of France — Of Germany — Austrian Tyranny — Events of the War 
— French and Austrian Armies — Peace of Villafranca — Conduct of Russia — 
EflFcct of the War — Ultimate Aims of Napoleon 1 

Chapter II. — Turin, by Genoa to Luciion. 

Off for Spain — Situation of Turin — Novarra — Rice Plantation — Beauty of the 
Country of Italy — French Officers — Approach to the Mediterranean — Gle- 
noa — The Young Poictcvine — The Palaces — Reception of the New.s of the 
Peace — Voyage to Marseilles — French Manceuvring Squadron — Marseilles — 
The Provcn^-caux — Journey to Toulouse — Cette — The Hungarians — Langue- 
doc — Capt. Ingraham .and Koszta — Carcassone — Toulouse — French Central- 
ization — Arrive at Luchon 17 

Chapter III.— Bagnerres De Luchon. 

Situation and Scenery — Historical Reminiscences — Baths — Company — Guides 
— Lac d'Oo — Vallee de Lys — Boucanere — Val d'Aran — Departure 36 

Chapter IV. — Luchon, by Barbastro to Zaragoza. 

The Port de Venasquc — The Maladctta — Entrance into Spain — Scenery — Vc- 
nasque — The Ca>>tillian — Change Guides — Le Peila de Ventimilla — Campo — 
The Bota — Sta. Liestra — The Young Student — Graus — Scenery of Aragon — 
Barbastro — Company to Huesca — Sertorious — Arrive at Zaragoza 49 

Chapter V. — Zaragoza — Journey to Madrid. 

Maid of Zaragoza — Siege — The Seo — El Pilar — The Miracle — Casa de Diputa- 
cion — Aragoncse Liberty — Panorama — Aljafcri.i — Life — Journey — Spanish 
Diligence — Accident — Calatayud — Alcoloa del Pin.or — A Spanish Beauty — 
Guadalajara — The Mendozas — Alcalii ... 7.1 



258273 



vi CONTENTS. 

CnAPTER \n.— Madrid. 

Lf»d(r»ne«— D. in< 'tir Life— Situation and Climato— Office SeckinR— Pucrta del 
g,,l— Til.' .'■ui;,..t "f Talk— It« Attractions— Gallegos—Manolii.s—Soeicty — 
Opera ati'l Th<air« — Tin- Madrilofios— Chri!«tnias — La Noche Bucua — lIaV)its 

of Life The Pra.lo— Kl I)o» «ie .Mayo— Palate — The Manzanarcs — Academy 

of Saa Femsado — The Mueeo — Tho Armeria — Street Scenes !U 

ClCAI'TKU VII. — Tol.KDO. 

Approarh to the City— M"ori>h Aspect — Sta. Cruz and the Alcazar — The Catbc- 
draJ — The Mu2aral)» — Tliu Fi.nda — Padilla and the Comuncros — Escalona 
— The Synagogues — Jews in Spain — San Juan de los Reyes — Don .Julian 
an.i III (':iv:i Mamifiirtor.v of Anns — Beautiful View of the City — General.. 122 

CuAi'TKK VIII. — Madrid to Seville. 

Departure — La .Manclia — Don Quixote — Entrance into Andalusia — La Carolina 
— Battle of Las Navas do Tolo.«a — Battle of Bailen — Andujar — The Country 
— View near Carpio — Cordova — ValUy of tho (luadal(iuivir — Party from 
Lora — Approach to Seville 140 

C'nAi'TKU IX. — Seville. 

Hotel — The Barber — Seek Lodgings — La Giralda — TbeBells— Tho View — Stas. 
Justa y llufiua — Promenade — Plaza Isabel — The Scene — Costume of Span- 
ish Ladies — Mantilla — Fan — Beauty of tho Ladies — Their Walk — Their 
(Jrace — My New Doujicilc — The Serenos — Las Dclicias — Morning ^V;llk — 
Scene in Winter — Tho Guadalciuivir 159 

CiiAi'TER X. — The Cathedral and Paintings. 

Its Foundation — The Patio de los Naranjos — General Impression — Descrip- 
tion — The Hetablo — Sacred Music — Sculptures — Paintings — Marshal 
Soult — The Guardian Angels — Tombs — Church Feasts — The Virgin — 
Grand Effect of the Cathedral — Paintings in La Caridad — The Museo — 
Murillo's Conceptions 177 

Chapter XI. — The Alcaz.\r and other Edifices. 

Tho Alcazar — Don Pedro and Maria de Padillo — Casa de Pilatos — Tho Lonja — 
Tho University — The Riberas — Tobacco Manufactory — The Streets — Flowers 
— Theatre — Dances, origin, character — Tho Funcion — El OK' — El Vito — 
Gipsy — Comparison — Religious and Social 190 

Chaitku XII. — Bull Fights. 

nistorical — Plata do Toros — Majo and Maja — Tho Cuadrilla — Description of 
tho Corrida— The Novillos— Embollados- Breeds and Qualities of tho Bulls 
— Progress of the Science— Its morality ; its effect upon the audience; upon 
the economy- Tho Bull in Spain— Expense 208 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHArTEK XIII. — Environs. — Historical. 

Environs — Sun Juan dc Alfarachc — Castillcja — Italica — The Guzmans — Alcala 
— Early History — " Spain " — " Andalusia " — " Seville " — Al Mutadcd — Dis- 
covery of America — Pro-spcrity of Seville 228 

CiiAPTER XIV. — Social Lu-e. 

Influence of Climate — Temperance — Domestic Habits — The Houses — Tcrtulia 
— Spanish Ladies — Their Characteristics — Style of Beauty — Marriages — Intel- 
ligence — Family llclations — Historical — Influence of the Virgin — Of the 
Mohammedan Religion — Farewell 242 

Chapter XV.— Cordova. 

Journey — The Asturiau — Foundation of the Empire — Its Glory — The Beni 
Omeyah — Government — Subject Christians — The Mezquita — Subsequent 
History — Azzabra — Abd-er-Eahman III — Almansour — Lamentation over 
its Fall — Distinguished Men — Osius — Market — General Appearance of the 
City— Horses — The Schoolboys — Montilla Wine 264 

Chapter XVI. — iCordova, by Malaga and Alhama to Granada. 

Depart with Arrieros — Goats — Historic Towns — Lucena — Antequera — Pena 
dc los Enamorados — View from the Sierra — Down the Valley to Malaga — 
Grapes — The City — Inhabitants — Alameda — English Party — Spanish Curi- 
osity — Sea Bathing — View from the Water — Visitors from the Springs — 
Journey to Granada — Velez Malaga — Spanish Riding — Horsemanship — The 
Bull — I am Assassinated — Alhama — The Posada — The Fair — Fandango — 
Morning Scenery — Shepherd Dogs — The Sick Morisco — Hog Lottery — Ap- 
proach to Granada 285 

Chapter XVII. — Granada. 

Bull Fight — Cruelty — Promenades — The Inhabitants — Moorish Blood — Alham- 
bra — The Hand and the Kcj' — Patio de la Albcrca — Dc Los Leones — Tociidor 
— Restorations — View from the Torre do la Vela — The Vega — Generalife— ^ 
The Cathedral — Chapel of the Kings — The Cartuja — San Juan De Dios — 
Old Streets — Albaycin — The Gipsies — The Dance — Expulsion of the Moriseoes 
— Romantic Character of their Wars — Origin of Chivalry — Pundonor 307 

Chapter XVTII. — Granada, by Jaen to Madrid. 

Puerto dc Arenas — Approach to Jaen — View from the Castle — The Paseo — 
To Bailen — Menjibar — Despefiaperros — Leave Andalusia — La Mancha — Oil 
Jars — Beggars — Arrive at Madrid 333 

Chapter XIX. — Madrid Auain. 

Second Impression — The Fire — Spanish School of Painting — Apartado of 
the Bulls — Procession to Atocha — Ambassadorial Quarrel — Escorial 341 



VIII <MNTKNT.s. 

iuAiirii XX. — Madrid to Buncos. 

I>«pMlaro— Tbc Counirj — Somo Sierra — View over New Castile — First Iraprcs- 
»ion of gp*in— Anuid*— Lcrm» — Burgos— Lax lluclgas— Miraflores— Car- 
«JcD»— T'.- I -i •■!J9 

Chakiku XXI. — HuuGos to thk Fkontiek. 

Jotirtxv t . I'nncorbo — Battli- <>f Vitoria — FruDfih Marshals — Vitoria — The 
Ba^cjui F iinil Uuir Fucrog — The Pyrenees — Dangers of an Upset— National 
l»n<l»- 7.uii.;ilii<:irri'gui — Appearance of the People — .San Sebastian — Inin 
— Tbt li niarna — France 300 

CuAi'TEU XXII. — Gkmojial. 

Political LHvigiong — States Rights — Self-Esteem and Loyalty — l\rdin:iinl 
VII — The Carlists — Revolution of 1854 — Espartero — O'Doniiel — The Nobil- 
ity — Grandees — Number — Character — Liberality in Politics — Wealth and 
Povcrt}' — The Spanish People — Dignity and Worth — Middle and Industrial 
Classes — Pride — Indolence — Want of Respect for Life — Independence of 
Money — Beggars 374 

ClIAl'TKK XXIII. — GeNKUAL CONTINUED. 

The Church — Reforms — Religious Sincerity of the Spaniards — The Army — 
The Press — Internal Improvements — Police — Political M'ants SUS 

Chapteu XXIV. — Political. 

Our Troubles with Spain — Anglo-Saxunism — Entente Cunlinle Directed Against 
US by England — Filibusters — Spanish Political Desires — Means of Acciuiring 
Cuba Honorably — Standing of Americans in Europe — Influence of our 
Diplomatic Corps — Our Position in Spain — Adios 415 



Chapter I. 
THE ITALIAN WAE. 

Mount Cenis — Entrance into Italy — A Prisoner of War — Feeling in Turin — An- 
nouncement of the Armistice — Of the Peace — Sketch of Sanlinian Politics — 
Position of France — Of Germany — Austrian Tyranny — Events of the War — 
French and Austrian Armies — Peace of Villafranca — Conduct of Russia — EfiFect 
of the War — Ultimate Aims of Napoleon. 

It was Oil the night of the 4th of July, 1859, that I crossed 
Mount Ccni.s, on the Avay to Turin. Though the precise date 
■was a matter of accident, its associations were in happy unison 
with the ohject of the journey and the sentiments which 
prompted me. It was my birtluhiy; l)ut far more, it was the 
day that ushered into life my native land — a day ever memor- 
able in the history of the world — not so much because it had 
added another to the ftimily of nations, as because it liad an- 
nounced, amid the crack of rifles and the groans of expiring 
patriots, the great principle, that every people has an inalien- 
able right of self-government, without responsibility to aught 
on earth, save such as may be imposed by a due respect for the 
opinions of mankind. Once more this great battle was to be 
fought, no longer in the wilds of the American forest, but on 
land renowned through all ages, and rendered sacred by recol- 
lections of intellect, art and religion. Now, as then, a tyrant 
empire had, with vain boastings, poured her legions upon a 
devoted land ; now, as then, the oppressed few, forgetting their 
dissensions, had risen to burst their chains asunder; and now, 
too, as then, a great nation, the generous French, were rushing 
with disciplined battalions to aid struggling, expiring humanity. 
It was certainl}' humiliating that so large a portion of Europe 
should have remained unsyinpathizing spectators of the contest. 
On the part of an American, acquiescence in such neutrality 
would have been treason against nature. Inspired by these sen- 
timents, I was hurrying with what speed I might to offer my 



2 SPAIN AND THK SPAMAKHS. 

services to the Sardiiiiaii (iovornment, and to ask the privilege 
of serving as a volunteer in her armies — perhaps a foolish 
errand, if measured bj' the ideas of this unromantic century. 
No emotion of mv life was ever so pure, so free from every 
shade of conscientious doultt or selfish consideration. At the 
distance of four thousand miles, we Avcre ha])])i]y ignorant of 
the underhand intrigues, if any there were, which so frequently 
disgust one in the turmoil of politics. I saw but the spectacle 
of an injured people struggling, as America ha'l done, to throw 
off tlie j^oke of a foreign and, comparatively, barbarous oppres- 
sor, and as we passed battalion after battalion of brave French, 
slowly ascending the mountain, I felt toward them all the fer- 
vor of youth, tired by the grateful ti-aditions of eighty years 
ago. 

The rays of the Avestern sun beat with their utmost intensity 
upon the troops, many of whom, particularly the younger ones, 
appeared utterly exhausted. The effect of the heat in rendering 
them deaf was remarkable. The}" would frequently be first 
made aware of our approach by feeling the horses' breath upon 
their necks. We aided them as much as lay in our power by 
taking their knapsacks, which were hung about on the dili- 
gence, giving it the appearance of a huge pedlar's wagon. 
There were several battalions of the line, one of chasseurs de 
Vincennes, and some squadrons of cavalry scattered along, the 
men by no means large, but of well-developed muscles and pre- 
possessing countenances. As night came on they halted to 
camp, and we continued our joui'iioy alone. The snow still 
lingered on the summit of the Pass, but descending about three 
o'clock, we suddenly turned to the east, and the hot air smote 
us as from an oven's mouth. A\''e were in Italy. Soon the gor- 
geous vegetation of the southern slopes of the Alps appeared 
to delight our eyes, the morning breeze springing up saluted us 
with the refreshing odors of the tropics, and amid vineyards and 
well-cultivated lands we wound our way down the mountain to 
the railroad station at Susa, where 1 was charmed to get rid of 
a fat, vulgar, French commis, who had been ver^- brave and 
warlike until we commenced the descent; it then became neces- 
sar}' lor him and the conductor to exchange words as to the 
projd-r speed of the diligence, such was the creature's fears of 
being precipitated over the pai-apet. A few hours more brought 
us to Turin. On entering the station I saw a new sight, which 



A PRISONER OF AVAR. 6 

made a strange impression upon me at the time — a prisoner of 
Avar. I can scarcely describe the painful eifect it produced. A 
dead man is simply a man dead — nothing uncommon. All men 
are mortal, and a few years more or l6ss matter little, but hei-e 
was a train filled with beings who had deserved well of their 
country, and perhaps even acquired the respect of their con- 
querors, who were yet deprived of that dearest of all liberties — 
the liberty of locomotion. It furnished food for reflection : for 
of all the misfortunes of Avar, this seemed to me the most dire- 
ful, involving the loss of honor and liberty alike. On our train 
was a party of conscripts from Savoy, who had been in high 
glee all the Avay, singing and rejoicing at the prospect of en- 
countering the enemy. The meeting betAveen them and the 
Austrians Avas amusing. The latter, as far as I could see, 
appeared quite contented Avith their lot, and receiA'ed the good- 
humored raillery of their victors Avith smiles. The sight Avas 
refreshing to humanity — this sejiaration of the CxOA^ernment 
from the individual ; but there Avas something unnatural in it, 
and I Avould have been far better pleased to see theuT scowling 
from the Avindows of their prison, as th(»ugh they had felt a 
conviction of the Justice of their cause, and a ])ersonal ii\terest 
in its success. But such can only be in Republics, Avhere those 
Avho declare the Avar fight the battles. Leaving the prisoners 
to their fate, I entered a little omnibus — one of the blessings 
Avhich the last ten 3'ears h.ave conferred upon Turin — and in a 
few minutes was comfortably lodged in an old palace, noAv eon- 
verted into a hotel, the apparently inevitable fate of such struc- 
tures in Italy. 

As it Avas still early, I sallied forth into the streets. The city 
presented, in one respect, a striking aspect — the total absence 
of young men : all Avere gone to the Avars. The better class of 
ladies, too, had disappeared from the promenade — for they had 
either lost or Averc in daily apprehension of losing some dear 
friend. The Avar news Avas, of course, the absorbing topic of 
couA'crsation among the men, Avho collected under the Arcades 
and in the Cafes, discussing the chances Avith anxious counte- 
nances. Tliey felt confident of ultimate success. Enthusiasm 
pervaded all classes; nor Avas it the enthusiasm Avhich delights 
in loud boasts and empt}' professions, but that much more val- 
uable qualitj' Avhich, having counted the necessary sacrifices, 
devotes itself to the accomplishment of a great Avork. Mere 



itr/ 



4 SPAIN AM) TIIK SrA.MAUDS. 

isocial intercourse could, therefore, bo scarce!}- said to exist. 
Over the city reigned the breathless calm which precedes a 
convulsion — for any moment might l)ring news of another and, 
perhaps, tinal struggle uudcr the walls of Verona. In the midst 
of this state of suspense, the public ear was suddenly startled 
Ity the rumor of an armistice to be granted at the urgent request 
of the Emperor of the French. Words cannot express the aston- 
ishment of the community ujjou learning that the (Joneralissimo 
of the allied armies had paused in the heiglit of success to crave 
a delay which could only operate in favor of the weaker party, 
by affording them an opportunity of recovering from their de- 
moralization. As Kapoleon had never 3-et acted without some 
adequate motive, there was a general disposition to suspend 
Judgment upon the armistice until the press should communi- 
cate the reasons. None were given, and the world was left to 
conjecture what advantage could accrue to the Allies which, 
by an}- possibility, might compensate for the injustice of leaving 
Venetia exposed to the forced loan lately decreed. A large 
majority still felt unabated confidence in the ultimate accom- 
plishment of the famous programme, " From the Alps to the 
Adriatic." The cold, unimpassioned nature of Napoleon, the 
calculating prudence with which he had hitherto conceived, 
the tenacity with which he had maintained, the skill with 
which he had executed evciy pglitical plan, rendered them sure 
of the fulfilment of the late promises. In this belief they were 
confirmed by the vigorous preparations made for continuing 
the contest. A few far-seeing politicians began already to sus- 
pect that the armistice was preliminary ro some arrangement, 
whereby France and Austria might be united against any 
power that should prove disagreeable in the future settlement 
of Eui-ope, but they were in a small minority. These doubts 
were soon solved by the announcement of the Peace of Villa- 
franca. Its announcement fell like a thunderbolt. The first 
impression was a stupefaction. Men stared at each other in 
gaping wonder, as though their senses were unable to compre- 
hend the intelligence. To this succeeded a furious outburst of 
indignation against the Emperor Napoleon. Execrations Avere 
poured upon his name and race. The late idol had been trans- 
formed into a hideous dcjnon. His portrait was withdrawn 
from the shop windows, and it is said that Orsini's appeared. 
This may be true, though I did not see it myself, but it must 



ANNOUNCEMENT OP THE PEACE. 

not be forgotten that Orsini is regarded l\y veiy respectable 
persons in Ital}* as a Brutus, nobly saerilioing himself for the 
good of his eoiintrj, rather than a fanatical assassin, -which is 
his position in America. Bitter comparisons were instituted 
between the glorious proclamations with which the French 
army bad crossed the Alps and their impotent conclusion. 
Every wild and impracticable scheme was suggested ; some 
even proposed to continue the war alone. But the rage of 
indignant Italy was fruitless — lur it was worse than folly to 
suppose that Sardinia coiild contend single-banded with Aus- 
tria, aided, perhaps, by France. The war, for the present, was 
ended. In the midst of all this excitement, there was one 
feature highly creditable to the Sardinians — the generous, 
unselfish manner in which the news was received. Their own 
country, Lombardy, Tuscany, Romagna, Avere forgotten in uni- 
versal commiseration for the condition of Venice, so cruelly 
abandoned to the oppressions of the common tyrant, thrust 
back, as it were, into the vindictive jaws of the monster. The 
sentiment was expressed in every way known to the heart. 
Among the poetical etfusions, was one peculiarly beautiful upon 
the separation of the two sisters, Lombardy and Venitia, which 
I regret not having preserved. A ])rofound gloom shrouded the 
city as though it had been overwhelmed by some terrible disas- 
ter. The Bourse fell, not from want of contidence, but because 
the purchasers were in mourning; it was not a time to buy and 
sell. There was no marrA-ing or giving in marriage that day in 
Turin. 

The war, so far as it involved external enemies was, in my 
opinion, hopelesslj^ over, for the fifty thousand French soldiers 
that were to be left in Parma, Modena and Tuscany Avould re- 
press any attempt at a popular movement in those Provinces, 
and the accumulation of Austrian troops in Venetia rendered 
idle all thought of insurrection there. Nor was it probable 
that France and Austria would re-commence hostilities imme- 
diately. A civil war between the Bolognese and the Papal 
troops was much more within the range of possibilities. But 
for a foreigner to interfere in any such contest would not only 
be impertinent but unwise, as in these conflicts it is very diffi- 
cult to find out the truth, much less to strike the balance of 
right, so I concluded to spend the summer in some agreealtle 
country, within call in case of a renewal of hostilities, when 



G SPAIN ANIJ TIIK SPANIARDS. 

tin* Opportunity would Ir- ivncwed of whicli the armistice or 
rather the peace had deprived lue. It wouhl, however, be 
scarcely adinisniblc to leave Italy without a word upon the 
events of the summer. 

The ill-advised campaiifu of 1841>. which ended with tiu' l»:it- 
tle of Xovarra, placed Sardinia at the feet of Kadetsky. and 
had not France, aided by lMii;land, interposed to arrest the 
progress of the Atistrian anus, it is more than ))robabie that 
their domination would have extended from Turin to Messina. 
Mouthini; <iema^ogues, useless there as elsewhere for jiractieal 
good, had, against the opinion of ever}' sensible patiiot, pre- 
cijiitated their country to the brink of the abyss. The ambas- 
sadors of France and ilngland protested against the movement 
in advance upon Lombardy. Thu reply was: "Will you guar- 
anty the existence of the monarchy? for further resistance to 
this agitation will cost us the throne, and wc will be as far 
as ever from the object of jour wishes — the preservation of 
peace." As such a guaranty was impossible, under the circum- 
stances, the drama was played out to its catastrophe. Fortu- 
natfly, the iii(lej)endence of this corurr <»f Italy was saveil 
from the general wreck, and from it Italy is destined to be 
regenerated, gradually, perhajis, but as surely as Spain wns 
from the mountains of the Asturias. The demagogues having 
been fairly tried, and found wanting, gave way to honester 
men, and the woi"k of regeneration commenced. I'pon the 
abdication of Charles Albert, Victor Emanuel asceiuled tlie 
throne, fresh from the bloody tield where the Italian cause had 
gone down. Never for a moment has he swerved from the 
role which his good fortune cast upoii him. Conscientiously 
has he maintained his coronation oath as a constitutional king, 
and with e<jual firmness has he lultilled the duty, to which he 
was bound by no wi-itten oath, of inspiriting a new life into 
his whole country. The i)articular line of policy, j)ursued 
with consistent and masterly statesmanship, is probably due to 
Count Cavour, and was a hajipy combination of ]>assive and 
active warfare. The former consisted in offering to Italy and 
entin- Kurope the spectacle of an llalian nation enjoying the 
advantages of self-government, alilie removed from the vio- 
lence and anarchy oi' Democracy and the tyranny of military- 
dictatorship. The latter in sustaining the spirit of tlie Italian 
patriots l»y every means which <lij)lomacy could suggest or 



rOSITION OF FRANCE. t 

excuse, and allowiiiii; no new outra<;-e on the part of Austria to 
pass without, at least, a protest. Tlie last, and not the least, 
precaution consisted in enlisting the moral support of France 
and England, previous to every important step. The contin- 
gent furnished to the Crimean war was thus a skilfully con- 
ceived idea, as. hesides gratifying the Allies, it necessarily 
procured the admission of the Sardinian plenipotentiaries into 
the Paris Congress, and gave France, England and llussia an 
opportunity- of protesting against the Austrian-Italian system, 
though from widel}^ ditFerent motives. The world knows how 
admirably the whole plan succeeded. The e3'es of all Italian 
patriots wei-e turned incessantly towards Sardinia, which rep- 
resented throughout Europe the Italian idea, the heart; to 
Austria were left onl}- the manacle and the bayonet. 

The interest of France in the Italian question, to a certain 
extent, is patent. The rivalry which, in ages past, caused 
such bloody wars upon these very fields still exists, and will 
continue to exist, so long as Austria maintains a footing south 
of the Alps. Nor can any French Government look Avith 
indifference upon the extension of either the influence or terri- 
tory of its hereditary eneni}- towards the south-eastern fron- 
tier. It is a feeling, therefore, which partakes both of the past 
and present, and the Avarnings of histor^^ upon this subject 
cannot be safely disregai-ded by the statesmen of St. Cloud. 
But I am disposed to give Napoleon himself more credit for 
sentiment in the matter than is generally done. It is only 
natural that he should desire to be the benefactor of the land 
whence his family derive their origin. He is too exi)ericnced 
not to see that, after the brilliant career of the first Emperor, 
something more than mere military glor}^ must be his distin- 
guishing merit with posterity. He has manifested a determin- 
ation to batter, undermine, dcstro}', by every means in his 
power the treaties of 1815, which were directed principally 
against his famil}' and country. But I believe he is really 
ambitious of advancing humanit}-, so far as that can be done 
cor.sistently with the maintenance of Bonapartist ideas. The 
Italian Avar, moreover, coincided Avith his avoAved policj- of 
uniting the so-called Latin nations under the lead of France — 
constituting a moral, if not a geograi)hical, empire. Of course, 
most persons having control of half a million soldiers Avould 
like to make a trial of their skill; but he is too politic to stake 



8 SPAIN AND THE SPANIAUDS. 

much upon so uncertain a venture, merely for tlie pleasure of 
playing at the game of war. It soon became apparent to hoth 
France and Italy, that a collision was possible, if not inevit- 
able, and that Jealousy of the former power might perhaps 
enlist a certain portion of Europe in behalf of Austria. Napo- 
leon, following the example of the wise steward, sought to 
make friends against that contingency. The Tory administra- 
tion of England having scouted the idea of an alliance, secret 
application was made to Ilussia, who, to avenge hersglf upon 
Austria, most willingly' accepted the office of "keeping the 
crowd olf," as they say in the backwoods, and letting the par- 
ties tight it out fairly. I do not think that the Emperor of the 
French expected war, certainly not so soon ; but he had made 
every possible preparation. Herein did he show consummate 
skill as a ruler; forming a striking contrast to those imbecile 
fatuities, who are ever ready to plunge in without first count- 
ing the cost, or taking the slightest precaution against defeat. 
The conduct of Austria in taking the initiative can hardly 
be pronounced impolitic, as the ultimate choice lay between 
war and a Congress, and the latter would certainly have been 
fatal to her influence. It is true, that b}- placing herself in 
the aggressive, she gave lukewarm friends an excuse for declin- 
ing to step forth in her behalf; but upon whom could she rely? 
Many persons in England did, and do still, doubt the capacity 
of the Italians for self-government; but the English people 
never would have tolerated a war simply for the purpose of 
ui)liol(liiig- Austrian usurpations, and after the reiterated de- 
nials by the French Government of any intention of acquiring 
an increase of territory for France, there would have remained 
no other excuse for interference, (rerraany, headed by Prussia, 
played apparently a hesitating and very undignified part, but 
such was unavoidable. The Germans had a just want of confi- 
dence in and an apprehension of Napoleon, and were, therefore, 
not disposed to see Austria defeated and cowed by him ; but 
they felt an equal detestation of Austria, and would have been 
delighted to see her driven out of Italy by the Italians. The 
more clear-sighted, moreover, believed that even for the pur- 
l)Ose of resisting French aggression, she would be much more 
available after her unsound Italian members bad been lopped 
off than before. It was impossible for Prussia to take any 
decided part until the war reached the frontier of Germany, 



THE NATURE OF AUSTRIAN TYRANNY. M 

more particularly since Russia Avas prepared to pour an army 
corps across the Polish border at the first movement. The 
loud school-boy cries uttered by Austria after the peace, that 
her friends had not helped her, were, therefore, not only undi<5- 
nified, but unjust, as she was in a position which precluded any 
honest sympathy. In view of all these circumstances, I must 
think that her policy of sudden invasion, before the Allies could 
finish their preparations, Avas bold, perhaps desperate, but well 
conceived, as it offered the additional advantage of relieving 
her from the immense cost of constant expectation, which her 
exhausted credit could ill sustain. 

The question has been mooted whether Sardinia were justi- 
fiable in provoking the war, but of this I cannot entertain the 
shadow of a doubt. I consider the presence of an Austrian 
soldier in Italy as a constant cause of resistance — a standing 
grievance. The nature of the Austrian tyranny is not per- 
fectly^ understood in America. Up to the period of the reac- 
tion which followed the downfall of Napoleon, the Austrian 
Government truly merited the name of patriarchal. The mild- 
ness, the unaffected simplicity of its rule, its respect for vested 
right were universall}- acknowledged. Then the ncAV ideas 
began to ferment. Progress is the child of education and intel- 
ligence. It was, therefore, only among the educated intelligent 
classes that these ideas took root. In an unfortunate hour for 
the Government, it adopted the S3'stem of Metternich. which 
he had borrowed from Napoleon, and which consisted in the 
repression b}' armed force of all libertj'' of intellect. Fouche 
re-appeared with his legion of spies. After the Eevolution of 
1848, this detestable scheme became a mania. The laborer 
who contented himself with the plough or last, cannot be said 
to have been oppressed. Rather the contrary, for the effort 
was to break down the influence and authority of the better 
classes over this very population. But let any one, high or low, 
aspire to the impertinent liberty of thinking for himself, and 
he became at once an object of suspicion to the police. The 
fundamental laws of the empire were rudely broken, with the 
hope of reducing all to a hopeless, savourless, aV>ject equality 
of servitude. The sUme polic}', with twofold stringency. Avas 
extended to Italy. The peasant, who tilled his land and ate 
his grapes, and sang and danced in the cool evening, was a 
favorite, and, in manj- respects, fared better than under the 



10 SPAIN AM) TIIK .srAXIARDS. 

effete noljility, who onjoyed u monopoly of tlic soil. But woe 
to him who thought that man wa* endowed with intelligence 
for other and higher ends I For such there was no mercy : 
every sjjecies of obloquy and insult was heaped upon them, 
and, unfortunately, they comprised the most influential portion 
of a j)c)j)nlation whoso lively imaginations, excited h}' the con- 
tinual contt'mjilalion of the memorials of past freedom, would 
not permit them to remain content with the lot of mere hewers 
of wood and drawers of water. Surely the patriots who at- 
tempted to procure for their country a nobler future, need no 
apology to an American public. It will thus appear why the 
Austrians, not entirely without reason, counted upon a party 
among the peasantr}-, though the doors of ever}' respectable 
house in Milan and Venice were closed against them, and ladies 
refrained from appearing on the public promenades, lest they 
should be insulted by courtesies from their hated oppressors. 
The dearest luxuries of life were resigned merel}" for the pur- 
pose of making a demonstration. On one occasion, the whole 
population gave up the use of tobacco, to prove their uncon- 
querable determination of embarrassing the Government by 
every means in their power, while, by way of counter-demon- 
stration, soldiers and police agents were required to smoke in 
])ul)lic on all occasions. Man}' found a melancholy pleasure in 
subscribing to the monument on the Citadel square at Turin, 
or the armament of Alessandria, both of which produced vio- 
lent recrimination on the part of Austria. Such was the situa- 
tion of affairs when the cloud of war burst. 

The energy displayed by Austria in commencing hostilities 
was short-lived. Some obstacles prevented the entire success 
of the plan, but there was scarcely a sufficient military reason 
for not throwing ahead at least a sti'ong advanced guard, 
which might have done intinite mischief, and perhaps have 
taken Turin, for the Allies were evidently surprised, and once 
at Turin, it might have lain like a huge armadillo, and di-awn 
in the French contingents as they successively arrived. The 
inaction which ensued at Austrian headquarters, had the ap- 
])earance of paralysis. The whole advantage of the forward 
movement was lost, and time was afforded for the concentration 
of a respectable force advancing simultaneously by way of 
Susa and Genoa upon their left flanks. Then came the battle 
of Montebello, fought, as Gen. Giulay said iu his despatch, to 



CAUSES OF THE DEFEAT OF THE AUSTRIANS. 11 

make the enemy develope bis force. If tluit Avere his object, it 
must be confessed be succeeded admirably, 'i'his was followed 
by Palestro, where Victor Emanuel proved himself to be the 
first in war, as he had been in peace. Then came the beautiful 
turning of the Austrian right flank, and the battle of Magenta, 
in which the gallant MacMahon, mananivring principally for 
the safety of his own corj)8. had the good luck to cause the 
utter defeat of the enemy, and was rewarded with the Baton 
of Marshal and the title of Duke. The great battle of Solfc- 
rino crowned the whole. In a military point of view, the 
campaign was most remarkable. The Austrians fought well 
and braveh', and with the energy of despair, for their officers 
had strangely enough inoculated them with the idea, that if 
taken prisoners they would either be murdered in cold blood 
and devoured by the Turcos, or poisoned. Days after the 
battle of Palestro, many were dragged half-starved from places 
of concealment, who refused to drink wine or other colored 
fluid from the hands of their captors. Their being so com- 
pletely out-witted in strategy is partly OAving to the fact, that 
the}' with difficulty procured any information of the enemy's 
movements, Avliile they could scarcely parade without its being 
as Avell known at the Allied headquarters as at their own; and 
subsequent developments have shown that even some of their 
Generals were in French pay. Another great cause Avas the 
Avant of ui\ity in the command, for, as Napoleon says, "in Avar 
men are nothing: one man is CA^ery thing." In this respect 
the state of aff'air.s in the Austrian camp Avas lamentable, and 
Gen. Giulay received great blame for a A^acillation, Avhich, in all 
probability, Avas attributable to the Council of "War at A'ienna, 
rather than to him. 

But still the difficult}' remains of explaining hoAv, in a suc- 
cession of pitched battles, the}^ Avere iuA'ariably defeated. Ac- 
cording to theNapoleonists, it Avas due to the rifled cannon, but 
in many of the encounters they Avere not used. Others attrib- 
ute their success to the innate superiority of the French. 
Quien snbe. The fact is incontestable that the Austrians Avere 
most outrageously l)caten. In one respect, the experience of 
the Avar Avas very diff'erent frorii Avhat had been anticipated. 
The invention of the Minie ball and the rifled cannon Avould, 
it was thought, aljolish caA'aliy and reduce infantry charges 
within a small compass. Yet the proclamation of the Emperor, 



12 PPAIN A\n TIIF, SPANIARDS. 

warning the army that, notwithstanding the improvements in 
fire-arms, the bayonette still continued tlic Frenchman's wea- 
pon, was fully justified by subsequent events. Never before 
had it been brought into such terrific play. The Zouaves, 
indeed, had the dangerous hal)it of throwing away their cart- 
ridges in order to force a charge with the favorite weapon. 
The Sardinians have not received their full share of praise for 
the ])art they performed. The battle of San Martiuo, though 
nominally a part of Solferino, was almost a distinct engage- 
ment, even more warmly contested than the other, and if the 
palm of bravery can be awarded where all are equally brave, it 
should rather be to the Italians, the most of whom had never 
before seen service. Four times were the}' driven from the 
plateau, and four times did they steadily regain it against 
superior numbers and with immense loss. But, as usual, the 
larger nation has carried off the lion's share of the glory. The 
French army is certainly a magnificent engine. The conscrip- 
tion, tliough it bears heavily upon the country, gives a much 
higher tone to the rank and file than the recruiting sj'stem, 
and the plan of reserving a certain number of i:)romotions for 
the bravery that is without the aids of lortune or i-ank, offers a 
stimulus of which we can form little conception. The French 
cavalry, somewhat unex|)ectedly, also beat the Austriansj but 
I think an American will be struck with the abominable horse- 
manship of all Western Europeans, except the Spaniards, who 
are really caballeros. No Mexican would ever have made the 
mistake of supposing French, Germans or Italians to form one 
animal with their steeds. They flop about in a most teri-ific 
iiiiiiiiuT. and Hceni, if one may judge ,1)}' the great jn-ecautions 
taken in the way of bits, to i-cgai-d the lioi-se as an enemy, a 
sort of wild beast. The English have written themselves into 
an equestrian reputation, but those who come to America are 
certainl}^ neither graceful riders, nor masters of the animah 
Bad as they are, however, they are better than some of their 
neighbors. 

One portion of the French army — the light corps, such as 
Zouaves and Chasseurs a pied — is beyond criticism. They 
seem to unite every requisite of a soldier. As skirmishers, in 
the advance or retreat, they are naturally without superiors. 
Yet it is in line with the bayonette, that their princij^al glory 
has been acquired. Easily subsisted, always cheerful, having 



THE TEACE OF VILLAFRANCA. 13 

the courago of desperadoes ■without their lawlessness, the voice 
of the officer never fulls to meet a response in the deeds of his 
men. At the battle of Palestro, whei-e the third regiment 
fought with the t\iry of demons, the}" Averc seen one moment 
thrusting the Anstrians over the bridge, and the next extend- 
ing the butts of their rifles down to save them from drownin<;. 
Such is the French soldier. 

At the signing of the peace -of Yillafranca, the Austrian 
arm^' was still strong in numbers, but utterl}^ demoralized, with- 
out confidence in their Emperor, their Generals or themselves. 
Peschiera would have fallen in ten da^'s ; Mantua Avas block- 
aded; the impregnability of Verona laughed at; Venice awaited 
but the first bomb to rise, and the machinations of Kossuth 
and lvla])ka had reduced the Empire to the brink of internal 
dissolution. The feeble remnant of its credit was gone, and 
the abyss of bankrujjtcy had already began to yawn at its feet. 
No wonder Europe was astounded when Napoleon commanded 
the troubled elements to be still, and sued the prostrate Ilaps- 
burg for peace, lie had told the Italians that Italy was to be 
free from the Al])s to the Adriatic; that their own wishes would 
be consulted as to their futui'e destiny; he had called upon 
them to be soldiers to-day, in order that they might be free 
citizens of a great country to-morrow. Yet, in the face of all 
this, a peace was concluded, in which Lombardy was bandied 
about between the two Emperors as though it had been a mere 
piece of land ; Venice was left, practically, in its original con- 
dition. The Dukes, who with unpi-ecedcnted unanimity' had 
been driven from their thrones for complicity with the common 
enemy, and who had even drawn the sword at Solferino, were 
to be restored again upon an extorted promise not to do so a 
third time. Yet it was coolly announced that the " mission" 
had been fulfilled, because forsooth Italy was to become a Con- 
federacy, that is, Sardinia was to be crowded into a council 
chamber, with one powerful and bitter foe — Austria — two other 
scarcely less decided opponents — Rome and Naples, and three 
satellites of Austria. This latter proposition was received with 
cries of derision, and fell still-born. The French Pr<jvincial 
Press, Ics Joxirnax des Prcfets, which are without independence 
and utterly undeserving of respect, abused the Italians in 
round terms for their ingratitude, pretending that the pro- 
gi-ammc had been carried out fully, as though the war had 



14 SPAIN ANT» TMK SPANIARDS. 

been undertaken for tlie purpose of liboratiuf!; Lombard}', 
wherexs its object was to drive tlic Austrians out alto<ji;othor — 
Italy for tbe Italians — in a word, a principle not a fact. I by 
no means say tbat every one was willing to ii;o tbe length of 
an entctc Frenchman opposite to me at the tal)lc d'hote, who 
exclaimed with great emphasis, " c'est le principe, Messieurs! et 
nwi, je tuerais mon pcrc et ma mere pour un principc," but it was, 
nevertheless, the idea that the}' were fighting for a great prin- 
ciple which aroused the Italian nation. The Emperor, who is 
a far honester man than bis supporters, in bis manly speech to 
tbe Corps Legislatif, at St. Cloud, admitted that he had been 
compelled to leave bis programme incomplete, assigning as a 
reason therefor that lie found himself on the verge of being 
involved in a war with the Germanic Confederation, and assert- 
ing that bis course had been dictated solely by the interests of 
France. Had be added " the interests of bis d3-nast3'," tbe 
whole truth might have been told. This speech had the effect 
of opening tbe eyes of the Italians to the real motives for the 
powerful assistance they bad received. It was not purely for 
an idea, nor from any quixotic generosity that so much French 
blood bad been poured out upon the plains of Lonil)ar(l_y, l)ut 
merel}' to lessen Austrian influence iu Italy, so far, and so far 
only, as might keep her depeiiilent upon the ruler of France, 
not to make her united, independent, self-subsisting, and, least 
of all, to place her under a constitutional (xovernment, which is 
as abhorrent to the House of l>ouMparte as to the House of 
Hapsburg. But let us bless the giver, and luit look the gift- 
horse in the mouth. In truth, too nuuh liad been expected, 
and the Emperor himself for once forgot his caution in specify- 
in"- too distinctly tbe goal of bis ambition. No doubt the atti- 
tude of Germany was calculated to startle him, but so long as 
Russia remained firm, there was little danger to be apprehended 
from tbat quarter. Hithei'to nothing could l»o more satisfac- 
tory than the manner in which llussia had perlbnned her part, 
not only in drawing tbe sword, but in impressing upon Prussia 
that the Germanic Confederation was a purely defensive, not 
an offensive, organization. The idea was certainly preposter- 
ous, that the League, not content with guarantying to each 
member its Germanic territory, should extend its protection 
over tbe non-Germanic provinces of Austria, though it had not 
the correlative power of enforcing a compliance, the just de- 



CONDUCT OF RUSSIA. — EFFECT OF THE WAR. 15 

mands of Foreign Powers, thus in cftect turning a nation loose 
upon the world Avith full authority to do wrong, yd shielded 
from all responsibility. In 1850, Austria had nearly eflPected 
her cherished purpose of forcing all her possessions into the 
Confederation, and Europe stood quietly by saying nothing. 
The circulars of Prince Gortschakoff, in 1859, opportunely 
restored matters to their proper footing. It was whispered 
about, however, that the visit of the Russian aid-de-camp, after 
Solferino, was to announce that the punishment of the delin- 
quent had gone far enough. The truth of this report has never 
transpired. If well founded, then Napoleon was ampl}' justi- 
fied b}- necessity in the step he took, as the democratic element 
he had aroused behind him was calculated to cause as" much 
apprehension as the enemy in front. He certainly came back 
to Paris in a ver}' bad humor. Among his several sjieeches, I 
preferred his reply to the diplon\atic corps. Its caust icily showed 
him to lie still a human being, and not entirely a machine of 
Government. That body, with a sycophancy Avortln* of the 
days of the first Napoleon, had humbly begged to be permitted 
to return thanks to him for having granted peace to Europe. 
The request was vouchsafed. His response was contained in 
two sentences, in substance as follows : '' Gentlemen, your 
Governments manifested such jealousy and impertinent suspi- 
cion, that I thought it proper to make peace. I thank 3^ou, as 
formally as I can for the honor, and the door is open for j'^ou 
to go." The confusion of les oiseaux dorcs may be imagined. 

The peace of Villafranca may be safel}' set down as the 
most complete diplomatic failure on record. Not a single pro- 
vision has been, or could have been, carried out, except the 
cession of Ijombardy, and that was a fait accompli already, 
quite independent of the treat}'. The notion of a Confederacy 
was soon given up as impracticable. The Dukes were not 
restored; though for that mercy the Italians have to thank the 
Lord and their own determined military opposition, not the 
benevolent intentions of the high contracting powers. Neither 
has Venice received those ameliorating institutions so loudly 
promised. But, thougii the effect of the peace was thus naught, 
that of the war was tremendous. It destroyed the jircstige of 
the Austrian military organization, shook every tyrant in 
Italy, revived the patriotism of the whole land. It summoned 
again into active life those who have the greatest interest in 



16 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

the stability of society, an<l wliose participation in public 
allairs is the best preservative against disorder. Few people 
have given to tiie world a nobler example of moderation and 
wisdom than the Italians since the flight of their Dukes. 
Mazziiii, and his wretched crew of assassins, were unhesitat- 
ingly and ignoininously driven out. With the exception of the 
murder of Anviti, scarcely' an act of violence has been com- 
mitted by a ])opulace, to Avlioni self-constituted apostles of 
liberty have been preaching that the stiletto was the only kc}^ 
to freedom. The provisional Governments maintained order 
and protection to life and property as vigorously at Florence 
as Napoleon did at Paris; and a considerable part of Europe 
was not only astonished, but disappointed, and, if the truth 
must be told, scandalized, to tiiul law in the place of confusion, 
and liberty where they had fondl}' expected anarchy. The drama 
is not yet played out, nor can the most far-seeing predict th^ 
ultimate result of the contest. It has pfaced France at the 
head of Europe, so that, in the language of Frederic the Great, 
not a gun can be fired without her permission. The Eixipcror, 
by the management of the resei've at Solferino, has added to 
his civic crown the laurel leaves of the conqueror. Despot as 
he is, he has rendered service to the cause of humanity, is 
crushing the embryo Ivobcspierres and Murats of the Eevolu- 
tion of 1848, and the infamous school of light literature which 
debauched the world under Louis Phili])pe. Tlic fall of the 
temple, unfortunately, along with these false gods, destroyed 
some true Indievers; but the art of preserving liberty is a mj's- 
tery as yet unrevealed to Europe, and detestable though the 
present Government be, it is by no means certain that it is not 
the best for the French. The Italians are content with inde- 
pendence; the FreiH'h need somotliing more. No Government 
can retain their respect, which is not surrounded by the halo 
of military glory. ^^UEinpire c'est la paix" was a deceitful 
dream, L' Empire est la gloire ct la guerre. Every party to the 
treaty of Vienna must be made to bow in humble atonement. 
Russia was the first to feel the wrath of the avenger. Austi-ia 
came next. Prussia will soon be made to surrender her trans- 
rhenane possessions; and, to crown the glory of all, the French 
tri-color will float over the Tower of London. Every impar- 
tial obsei-ver in Europe feels that such is the inevitable decree 
of fate. Its fulfilment may be deferred, but come it must and 
will. 



Chaptkr n. 
TUEIN, BY GENOA TO LUCnON. 

Off for Spain — Situation of Turin — Novarra — Riop Plantation — ]?eauty of the 
Country of Italy — French Oflicers — Approach to the MciUtcrranoan — Genoa — 
The Young Poictevinc — The Palaces — Reception of the News of the Peace — 
Voyage to Marseilles — French Manoeuvring S<iuadron — Marseilles — The Pro- 
venyeaux — Journey to Toulouse — Cette — The Hungarians — Languedoc — Capt. 
Ingraham and Coszta — Bascassonere — Toulouse — French Centralization — Arrive 
at Luchon. 

The ]ii'oclamatioii of i)eacc, entirely frustrating tlu' oltjoot of 
my journey, was doubly provoking, since a great battle was 
imminent under the walls of Verona, such as Europe had pro- 
babl}' not beheld for centuries. It would have been a hand to 
hand encounter, of unexampled bitterness. To have witnessed 
in cold blood this scene, from motives of mei'« cui'iosit}', could 
gratif}' a prize-figbter only, but to have borne a part in the 
excitement and dangers of a contest, pregnant, perhaps, witli 
the fate of self-government and national independence in 
Europe, would be a glorious recollection, a theme of endless 
discourse in after-years. The war, however, was over for the 
present. At least such was the general opinion, and I saw no 
reason to dissent, though there was every prospect of its break- 
ing out afresh when the time came for carrying the Treaty of 
Villafranca into execution. In the meantime I was at liberty 
to spt'iid the summer according to my preference, about which 
I had little hesitation. For an American what country pos- 
sesses such attractions as Spain ? To Spjiin does our continent 
owe its birth. The romance of its earlier history, followed by 
a military and civil empire, whose extent had Jiever before 
been equjtlled, and united with the charms of its preseiit life, 
have amply justilied tlje partiality which Americans display 
for the land of the orange and the olive. Death on the battle 
field is doubtless very pleasant, but next to that is certainly life 
in Andalusia. Some years ago, returning home from the usual 
3 



18 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

course of German education, I had passed the winter in that 
enchanted garden, and a romenil)rance of its deli«i;ht8 liad 
haunted nie ever since. Was it imagination ? "Was it the tran- 
sitory effect produced by contrast with the cheerless regions of 
the North, where my previous years had been passed ? Was it 
reality? Elsewhere in Europe there was little to compensate 
for the moss-drajied oaks, the sweet-snielliiig magnolias, the 
flowering vines of my own home: for the sensitive honor run- 
ning at times into extremes, which is yet the main-spring to 
the character of a gentleman : for the enthusiasm, sincerity, 
and gentli- nature of our own beautiful women. All these had 
a place in my recollections of Spain, and it was impossible to 
resist the attraction, even at the risk of being disillusioned. I, 
therefore, decided upon an immediate dej)arture, delaying only 
long enough to embrace the oi)j)()i-tunity otl'ered me of visiting 
a rice plantation. 

Turin is much inferioi* to other Italian cities in treasures of 
art. The Gallery of Paintings and the Egyptian Museum are 
said to contain objects worthy of a visit, and I visited tliem, 
but, in truth, the public mind was too much occui)ied witii 
other matters to allow one to appreciate these. The old cita- 
del, however, surprised rac, as it proves that all the essential 
principles of fortification, as applied to modern Avarfare, were 
well known long before the day of Vauban and Cochorn, and 
that the progress since made by the science has been much 
more gradual than is supposed, consisting simply in the devel- 
opment and application of these ]>rinci])les with increased 
accuracy. The new i)art of the city is built up with elegant 
mansions, and its general ajjpearance. is the best evidence that 
can be desired of the blessings of good govei'nment. Situated 
as it is at the junction of the Po and the Dt^ra, and in the cen- 
tre of the ample valley of Piedmont, which includes the head- 
waters of these streams, and is bounded on three sides by the 
Al})s, its environs, and the views from the elevations in the 
neighborhood, cannot but be fine. Switzerland and Italy here 
melt into each other. Tire Collina di Torino, a long hill i-un- 
ning parallel to the Po on its eastern bank, and coveretl with 
villas and groves, woulil cliarni a Neapolitan, while the pano- 
ramic view from the terrace of the little church on its summit, 
including the semi-circular range of the Alps, from Monte Rosa 
to the heights above (ienoa, reminds one of Berne. But its 



RICE TLANTATION. 19 

political iniportimcc, and the extension of railroads, have made 
Turin too lamiliar to our countrymen to need a descrijition ; so 
a sweltering morning in July found me coursing down the left 
bank of the Po. The train soon reached Novarra, Avhere the 
station was already filled with the returning baggage of the 
Imperial suite. 

I delivered ni}- note of introduction, and after an appetizing 
breakfast, we started for the country. The heat was sicken- 
ing; no Jul}' on the Pee Dee could have surpassed it, nor was 
there any sea-breeze to tem])er its violence. But this heat 
continues only for a few hours in tlie inid-da}'; as night comes 
on the cool air, descending from the neighboring peaks of 
Monte Eosa, makes ample amends for the sufferings of the 
(hiy. The summers, moreover, are comparatively short, and 
do not encourage that luxuriant tro})ical growth which ren- 
ders the tender grass plots of the North so rare in our country. 
All travellers, who can make up their minds to endure the dis- 
agreeabilities of the season, bear testimony to the beauty of 
the country of Italy during the summer. Indeed, if one wishes 
really to see Ital}-, the summer is the only time to travel 
there as elsewhere. It is peculiarly unfortunate for us of the 
South, that we should be exposed to foreign criticism in the 
nakedness of our winter garb, while the contrary rule is ap- 
l»lied to the North ; for the beauty of every cauntr}- must be 
judged by its aspect when presented under the most favorable 
point of view, and it should be seen, too, not only from the 
ramparts of great cities, but in the midst of the country itself. 
For that purpose, I could not have selected a more propitious 
time to visit Sardinia than the present. The valley of the 
Ticino is almost wholly devoted to the rice culture. The plan 
of operations differs somewhat from ours, as the water is kept 
on till a few weeks before the harvest, and thus, to a certain 
extent, the deleterious consequences of periodical irrigation 
avoided. This system adds verj' much to the beaut}^ of the 
landscape, and gives to the fields the appearance of meadows; 
but it destroys the grand views offered by our plantations, and 
the prominent feature of f^uch scenery with us, the majestic 
river, is entirely wanting. The product is not so great, nor 
docs the grain equal the American in size and whiteness. 
Whether it be as agreeable to the taste is more than I can 
tell, as it was always brought upon the table in combination 



20 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

with- some suhstance wl\icli <lisi:;uiso(l its fljvvor. The machin- 
ery for reaping, threshing, pounding and cleansing is better 
than I expected to find, but is still far behind w hat is in com- 
mon use among us. There is. however, a disposition for im- 
]u*ovement, which is fostered by tlie (iovernment as far as lies 
ill its pouxr. 1 liavt' little doubt but that the cultivation of 
rice will eventually disapi)ear from Europe. No Circassian 
constitution can withstand the malarious diseases which seem 
its inseparable concomitants at present, and unless chemistry 
or medicine come to the rescue by revealing some anti-mias- 
matic specific, it musl. in the course of time, be surrendered to 
Africans and Asiatics. 

In this part of Ital}', the duii'v secius to be considered moi-e 
profitabk' than any otluT department of agriculture. The 
perjietual snows in the neighborhood furnish thorn with a 
never failing supply of pure water, Avliich nourishes their 
meadows all the year round. The cattle were handsome and 
ill good plight, but the pootr}- of the opei'ation disappeared 
with the sight of the dairy-maid — a healthy, retl-skinned fel- 
low, clothed in a pair of short breeches, and having a one- 
legged stool strapped on behind, with which he went whisking 
abijut from cow to cow, filling his ])iggin with gi-eat alacrit}'. 
Tlie idea of officering such a department with a man was 
shockingly unpicturesque. I was surprised to learn that an 
American-patented invention for milking was not unknown. 
But if the dairy-maid was not picturesque, the liay-niakers 
certainly were. It was the mowing season. Peasants, men, 
women and children, in full Alpine costume, with broad sti'aw 
hats and flattering ribands, had ci^me down to tlio work. 
Heavily laden hay-carts, dr;iwn b}- lawn-colored, plaintive- 
eyed oxen, were returning tVoni the fiehls. On every side 
extended a wilderness of green, interspersed with hedges and 
trees, upon which hang in soil marriage the clustering vine. 
In the disttmce, rose the snowy Alps, delicately illumined by 
the rosy ra3's of the evening. It was a scene of perfect rural 
felicity. How strange it seemed, too, that 1 should from the 
bank of a rice-field gaze upon the regions of eternal ice. The 
alacrity and respectful depoi-tment of the emjiloyes struck me 
most agreeably and elicited remark; but I was informed, what 
is, indeed, true almost everywhere, that this was more appar- 
ent than real, and ceased with the business relation. The 



TO GENOA. — DFFICERS. 21 

Italians sliould be a happy people. The beautiful country, 
fine climate, the cheapness of necessai'ies, and even luxuries, 
when compared with American prices, ought to satisfy the 
most exigent. They have a greater taste for rural life than 
the nations to the north, which is not to be wondered at. 
The style of cultivation frees the countrj' from the aspect ot 
solitude which reigns in the foggy climes. Nor are they 
cursed with that class-cliaracter of disposition which erects 
such a barrier between the great landlord and all around, and 
which necessaril}- makes him lonely in his grandeur. ]iut all 
this is nothing, so long as Austria sits at the gates of Verona. 
Italy needs, and must have, a Government which can secure 
to every one the fruits of labor, b}' protecting him against the 
eternal wars, revolutions, coups d'Etat, and states of siege, 
which seem chronic in some portions of Europe. If the late 
contest have secured this end, it will prove the most profitable 
investment of treasure that was ever yet made. 

The City of Novan-a is situate ujion an eminence on the 
Avestern border of the valley of the Ticino. It is a well-built 
place, surrounded by beautiful walks, which have been laid out 
on the dismantled walls, off'ering a fine view of Monte Kosa 
and the neighboring chain. The only prominent historical 
association, is the painful one of the great battle of 1 849, which 
prostrated the Sardinian monarchy ; at present, it was the 
theatre of very different emotions. During the whole night 
crowds perambulated the streets, singing patriotic songs and 
giving vent to their joy in other less appropriate manifes- 
tations. From this place it had been my jiurpose to visit the 
battle-fields, but there is very little to be seen at such places. 
The dead are soon interred, the peasants return, plough u]) 
the land, sow it afresh, and the only evidences of the late strug- 
gle are a few shot-torn form-houses, and the increased fertility 
of the soil. The Governments in Europe, moreover, have a 
very un]ileasant way of seizing the railroad trains, which they 
intended to do here for the purpose of transporting the French 
arm}" back to France, so it might have been difficult to return. 
I, therefore, thought it better to proceed the next day immedi- 
ately to (lenoa. The train was filled with French officers 
returning from the war, in high spirits and well bronzed. 
One of them, a captain, had received a curious wound in the 
side at Magenta, a bayonette having passed between his spine 



22 SPAIN ANT* TIIK SPANIARDS. 

and his inti-stines without iluiiii^ serious injury to either. He 
was almost entirely restored. There seemed to be but one 
opinion amom; tlu-m — rej^ret and astonishment at the coikIu- 
Bion of the peace. It was evident that thc3'' felt themselves 
compromised in the public estimation b^- the i-vents of the 
last few days, thoui^h without reason, as the Italians never 
ceased to feel grateful to the French arm}' which had so nobly 
poured out its blood in their cause, wliatever might be the 
opinion entertained of the Emperor. Once, a friend came to 
the window and asked them why they were returning: "J?/* .' 
ma foi! In ynission est faite," they exclaimed, but such was not 
their real lielief Our journey was of a wholly militai-y char- 
acter. The bridge over the Po, near Valenza, was still lined 
with gabions, placed there to defend the passage, while the 
Austrians were west of the Ticino. At Alessandria, the Gov- 
ernment seized our train, tliereby affording us an unwelcome 
opportunity of walking tlii-ough the town, wliich offered noth- 
ing to our admiration, except soldiers and cannon and muni- 
tions of war. I succeeded in getting on the next train, which, 
tlu-ea<liiig the Maritime Alps by a magnificently engineered 
road, at length issued from the great tunnel, and Genova la 
Superba, surrounded by fortress-crowned summits, with the 
deep blue Mediterranean extending to the southern horizon, lay 
at our feet. 

What can equal these mountain appruaelies to the Mediterra- 
nean, whether in Italy or Spain ? They seem gates into 
Nature's Paradise. This favored sea has been, and ever will 
be, the seat of beauty and civilization. That it witnessed the 
triumphs of Greece and Pome, has added to, but did not origi- 
nate its charms. In vain many other nations of Europe erect 
splendid moiiuments, an<l sniToiind tlieinselves with all the 
luxury of boundless wealth. Tlie shores of the Mediterranean, 
even in their desohition, pf)ssess a hidden and irresistible attrac- 
tion, which will outweigh all their magnificence. No traveller 
forgets his first entry upon its magic territory; I may be par- 
doned for recurring to my own. It was in the month of March, 
before the completion of the railway to the Adriatic. AV^e had 
slowly, in the Eilwagen from Vienna, climbed the Semmering 
Alp, and traversed a dreary, crumbling country in the midst 
of snow and mist. The Grotto of Adclsberg had but served 
to deepen the gloomy impression of the journey. Early the 



BEAUTY OF SITUATION. — THE YOUNG POITFA'INE. Zfi 

next morning our little carriage reached the mountain pass, 
above Trieste. The coachman (honored be his memor}- !) with 
humane anticipation of our delight, lialted the vehicle and 
awakened us. What a prospect salutetl our wondering gaze! 
The North with its fogs and brawling l>lasts was gone; the 
lovely South smiled iipon us. Underneath lay the city, sur- 
rounded by a vegetation that seemed tropical by comparison 
with the stunted shrubbery of Carniola and Styria. The hill- 
side sparkled with villas just emerging from the shadows of 
the night. Far beyond stretched the Adriatic, its blue waters 
covered with sails, which the sun was beginning to tip with 
rosj' ligbt. Enveloping all, floated around us the pure air of 
Italy. 81iall I be ashamed to confess that wc spent the day 
seated upon the sea-wall, our legs dangling over the side, and 
our whole selves revelling in the dolce far niente? Now that I 
have seen Andalusia and Valencia, Naples and Genoa, I fear 
the view over Trieste would be common-place, but it was the 
first love, never to be forgotten. 

One niay travel through the world, and yet be astonished at 
the beautiful situation of Genoa, and the magnificence of its 
palaces. As to the former, it has been ranked with Naples, 
Lisbon, Constantinople, Algiers and Cadiz, as pre-eminent; 
and, whether seen from the sea or the land, is considered little 
inferior to its rivals. From ever}'^ elevation a magnificent view 
is unrolled, uniting the elements in such a combination as is 
rarely to be found away from the Mediterranean. The city 
was filled with French, the wives and daughters of officers, and 
it was pleasant to witness their delighted surprise at scenes so 
far surpassing even la belle France. I remember strolling up 
one evening with a mixed party of French and Italians, on a 
grand fraternization to the Castelletto. As we reached the 
terrace, and the prospect burst upon us, one of the girls, a 
young Poitevine, daughter or niece of a Captain in the Guard, 
started as though she had lost her breath, and was so overpow- 
ered that for sometime she could only articulate " J/bn Dieu! 
comme c'est beau !" until her companions became alarmed. At 
first I thought it mere Gallic affectation; but no, it was real 
emotion, I never before beheld such sensibility to the beauty of 
scenery as was manifested b\- this child. If that of (Jenoa 
needed commendation, the narration of this incident would be 
the most delicate compliment I could offer. Of course, the 



24 SPAIN ANK Tin: SPANIARDS. 

young heroine is destined by nature for a jioctess. We sat for 
a long time listening to the hum of the bus}' city, the echoes 
of the evening guns answering each other's reverberations, 
the rolling of the drums, as the patrols passed along the nar- 
row streets, and watching the ever-changing hues of the dying 
day. Yet, with all its beauty, there is a want of sutticient 
expansion in the prospect. It embraces only mountains and 
sea, wliile Naples and Cadiz relieve the too sharp contrast by 
undulating plains. 

The Palaces of Genoa degrade most others, by compai'ison, 
into mere dwellings. The grandeur of their diinensious is sur- 
passed by the elegance of the architecture. It would l»e a use- 
less task to describe what is tinniliar lo nil tlic worM : if I am 
to give a preference, it would be for the J'alazzo della Scala, 
than which I know nothing of its kind more exquisite. I vis- 
ited it ill llie inorning, when the liglit fell lull ujion the marble 
staircase and rendered it almost dazzling. The cicerone says 
that the occupant is a young bachelor. What a charming time 
he must have, and what damsel so hard-hearted as to refuse the 
owner of sueh a house ! They are filled, too, with' the works 
of the best masters, among which, 1 confess, none pleased me 
more than the portraits of a Marquis and Marchioness of the 
Brignole Sale family in the Palazzo Rosso, executed in the best 
style of Vand^'ke, and probably surpassed by none, unless it be 
those of Charles I. I thought, too, that the distribution of the 
pictures among the several collections, rendered the visits more 
agreeable. Each contains about enough to please, without 
Avearying the mind and the body, as too often happens in the 
enormous galleries of the capitals. Viewed simply from an 
jcsthetic point, these Genoese Palaces are bej'ond criticism ; 
from the historico-social, it is somewhat otherwise. The Pyra- 
mids of Kgypt were at first objects of mere wonder, then of ad- 
miration, as ])roofs of lln' wealth and resources of a kingdom, 
which couM alford such magnificent mausoleums for its sover- 
eigns. lUit suljsequent ])liil()sophers have discovered in them 
evidences of a frightful iii(M|uality, M'hich could thus absorb the 
labor of millions in gratilying the caprice or whim of a ruler. 
The history of the Middle Ages, too, is yet to be written. 
What more striking testimony to the utter insignificance of 
the mass of contemporaneous mankind than the great feudal 
fortresses with-which Huropc is studded. And so these palaces 



THE GENOESE AND TTIE PEACE. 25 

are painful evidoiico of prepoiKlcrance of a few, eoiniiianding 
the services of tlioiisands to minister to their hxxury — a state 
of things scarcely possible where the profits of industry were 
fairlj' divided between labor and capital. This system is per- 
petuated throughout Europe. I was told by a merchant — a 
prosperous one, it is true — that he paid a larger tax to the 
Govornnicnt than capitalists whose income amounted to $60,000 
a year. 

The streets of Genoa, as of niost soutliern cities, are nar- 
row, scarcely more than ten feet in width, and the houses tall, 
so that not only heat, but light is excluded. No traveller in 
the month of July will complain of them for these peculiarities, 
but they are far from complete success, for the heat was suftb- 
cating. My great delight, and the only escape, was to go ou4: 
three times a day beyond the mole and float about, without 
fear of shark or stinging-nettle. There is one pretty promen- 
ade upon the old rampart, which in the evening is thronged 
with ladies in a handsome summer costiime, the chapeau being 
replaced by a white lace or muslin veil pinned to tlie hair and 
falling over the neck and shoulders somewhat after the manner 
of a Spanish mantilla. Yet, even with this advantage, there 
were few Avhoin one would venture to call beautiful, nor did I 
think them particularly distinguished for grace. The fraterni- 
zation between the inhabitants and the French was thorough; 
the sole subject of conversation was the jieace, and but one 
opinion was expressed there, as elsewhere, without, however, 
disturbing the harmony of intercourse between the two na- 
tions. The annexation of Lombard}' to Sardinia will redound 
more to the advantage of Genoa than any other city in Italy — 
for, since the invention of railroads, it has become the natural 
outlet of the whole suij-Ali)ine region, at least as far as the 
Mincio. The same builders up and pullers down of nations — 
railroa<ls — have caused Trieste to absorb the trade of Venice, 
80 that the three cities of Trieste, Genoa and Marseilles are 
engaged in the same struggle for the commerce of the Le- 
vant and prospectively- of the Kast, which animates the Atlan- 
tic cities of our countr}- in extending their connections with 
the West. Marseilles is backed by the powerful Empire of 
France, Trieste by Austria under the shield of the Germanic 
(Confederation, to which, though an Italian town, it was most 
improperly annexed. Genoa must rely upon the valley of the 



26 SPAIN AM) THE SPANIARDS. 

Po. the railroad over Mount Cenis, aiul, pcrliaps, over the St. 
Cfothard. and, best of all, upon its free Government, 8ecurin«ji; to 
industry protection alike ai^ainst the tyranny of Governments 
and the tyranny of mobs. It was natural, therefore, that the 
Genoese should desire a further increase of territory. Tlie 
jilace was, moreover, converted into a vast mat^azine, and the 
military bureaus were daily distriljuting tliousands of francs 
aniouij; the inliahitants. Sacks and barrels of provisions of 
evei-y sort were piled upon (he wharf, all useless now. A dis- 
agreeable circumstance for Governments, but a fortunate one 
for their people, that this amusement is so costly. Genoa is 
admirably fortified, all the heights being occu])ied, with the 
intention of rendering the place impregnable against their 
northern foe, should he penetrate thus far. So that, in the 
last resort, the monarchy might find a safe retreat, and, if ne- 
cessary, revive the glories of Massena's defence. The land 
rises so abruptly from the water's edge that the place might 
be commanded from numerous points; but all the old castles 
have been dismantled to relieve the apprehensions of the cit- 
izens, as the Sardinian Government professes to rule b}' the 
voluntary submission of the people, not by virtue of ball and 
sword. The Genoese at beart are ReiDublicans, and still sigh 
for their former independence, whose loss in 1815 they attribute 
to the English influence at the Congress of Vienna, and thank 
them accordingly. Their reiDublican tendencies are excusable. 
Every allusion to their great countryman, Christopher Colum- 
bus, must brine; to their minds the former ijreatness of their 
country and the happy continent beyond the water. The me- 
moi'ials of the discoverer are cherished here with veneration. 
There are three autograph letters in the Palace of the Munici- 
])alily, whicli, somewhat out of season, were shown to me on 
the strength of ni}' nativity, for we are considered his children. 
The intelligent young gentleman in charge of them seemed 
quite as enthusiastic as myself over the flourishing old Spanish 
hierogl3'phic8. Genoa may well be proud of her son. The 
character of few heroes will bear inspection; their cpitaj)!! is, 
too often, " the greatest, wisest and meanest of mankind;" but 
Cohimbus is worthy to stand beside Washington — peers in vir- 
tue as in renown, freemen and children of freemen. 

When the time came for our departure, we found ourselves 
again incommoded by the superior necessities of State. The 



A'OYAOE TO MARSEILLES. — COMPANY. 27 

regular steamer from Leghorn had been chartered by the 
French Government to transport the victorious army to Mar- 
seilles, and we were placed aboard a miserable little affair, 
which occupied four and twenty mortal hours in the passage- 
The stewing heat of Italy rendered the sea breeze delicious, 
and the fair weather enal)led us to enjoy it to the iitmost by 
spending the night on deck, thus cheating the ravenous herd 
that awaited us in the cabin berths. No voyage can be more 
agreeable than coasting thus along the magnificent shore of 
Liguria. The loft}' range of the Appenine and Maritime Alps 
continued in sight the whole evening, and the efliect of the 
light upon their summits after the sun had disappeared below 
the horizon and left their base in darkness, is not to bo de- 
scribed to those who have never seen Italy. 

Notwithstanding the smooth sea, most of the passengers, 
particularly the women, were deadly sick; one ladj' of appa- 
rently a sound constitution, screamed vehemently, not to use a 
stronger expression. The unfeeling natui'c of man was dis- 
played in the vigor with which we supped, breakfasted and 
dined in the midst of these unromantic suiferers. A poor 
woman among the second-class passengers la}' upon the deck 
the whole time, a picture of misery. A little child of four 
years of age, tearfully attempted to ai'ouse her, until convinced 
by a kind-hearted sailor that it Avas not death, when the con- 
fiding innocent, seemingly relieved, lay beside her and slept. 
At dinner a lady feminine (T know not of what nation) sitting 
at the table, which was on deck, on the side next to the bul- 
warks, whenever overtaken, (an aeeideiit of trij)le occurrence,) 
cooly turned her head, Avithout leaving her seat, paid the pen- 
alty of those who go down to the sea in ships, and checked, but 
not defeated, returned, smiling, again to the contest. The 
person beside me incontinently left, handkerchief in mouth. I 
had no idea of being thus cheated out of my meal, but it re- 
quired a considerable effort of will. Her husband and the rest 
of the company complimented her undying courage, and to 
that, at least, she was entitled. 

Our company was of the usual mixed description that throngs 
the Mediterranean, a social olla podrida. Among others there 
was an old Scotchman who had lived a long time in Texas, 
while it was an independent State, and was thoroughly imbued 
with our local prejudices. Quite unaffected and very sharp. 



28 SPAIN ^M> THE SI'AMARDS. 

canny as canny could be, the old fellow narrated to nie sonic 
occurrence in Leghorn, in a dramatic style, making each char- 
acter speak for himself with national peculiarities. Among his 
dramatis persona: was an American, the peculiarity of whose 
conversation seemed to consist in the fact that it was entirely 
nasal and one-third of it oaths. I am sorry to say that both of 
these are considered characteristic of us in lOurope. The latter, 
at least, is unfortunately too true. A practice wliitli tlie Eng- 
lish have almost given up, seems to have become more and 
more pojuilar in America, with certainly little advantage to 
our eloquence. An Arab, two Commis, one decent enough, the 
other selfish, forward, boastful in the Avorst st3'le of his class, 
an English merchant from Leghorn, his wife and maid, whom 
I made the usual and awkward error of mistaking for the mis- 
tress, and a French family roaringly sick, completed the list. 
The steamers in sight successively passed us; but the next 
morning we overtook near Lcs Isles de Ilyere, a French fleet 
of four linc-of-battle ships, and one frigate, exercising squadron 
manoeuvres, and, as it was calm, we had the satisfaction of run- 
ning them down. This is a regular manoeuvring ground for 
the ships on the Toulon station, where the French marine is as 
carefully drilled as the army, and, if an opportunity Mere 
offered, would doubtless bear aloft tlie national staudartl upon 
the sea with as much creilit as their countrymen have done on 
hind. The French navy has entirely i-ecoverc'd from the de- 
moralization of the revolution, and is officered by the best 
blood in France, for the army is too democratic to suit the 
relics of the old regime. Every one who has had an o[>portu- 
nity of comparing, can vouch for the ditference. 

Sliortly after ])assing this S(]uadron, the morning breeze died 
awaj', tiie sun became more radiant, the sick women howled 
louder than ever, the light-haired Commis still favored us with 
accounts of his heroism on various occasions, the mate and 
myself discussed radishes, until alxnit noon, we were all de- 
lighted to see the Chateau d'if, and to glide into the enormous 
and odoriferous docks of Marseilles.' With what sickening fury 
did the sun poui- down his rays, and with what woful stenches 
did he surround the custom-house, where we w^ero detained an 
hour in the enjoyment of these luxuries. 

The i)rogress of Marseilles in the last ten years, reminds one 
of our American cities. Its connection by railroad witK Lyons 



TIIK TROVENCAUX. 29 

on the one hand, and Bordeaux on the othex*, has opened to it 
the whole of France, while the extension of its commerce with 
Algiers and the Levant, has made it the mistress of the Medi- 
terranean. Should the Isthmus of Suez be canaled, no bounds 
can be set to its greatness, though Trieste may prove a formi- 
dable i-ival. Our passports underwent a rigid inspection, and 
as a natural consequence, all honest men were delayed, while 
the rogues, if there were any, escaped free. It is strange that 
Europeans cannot be convinced of the folly of this system of 
obstructions. Inconvenient as it is to strangers, it must be 
infinitely more galling to natives, who, if out of their district, 
are liable to be arrested by any impertinent gens d'arme, and 
asked all sorts of questions, if nothing more. One must travel 
in Europe to appreciate the unspeakable blessings of American 
liberty. Being somewhat in a burr}-, I took the night train, 
not, however, without seeing between the hackmen and the 
porter of the hotel, a specinien of the quarrelsome nature for 
which the lower class of Proven^aux are distinguished in 
France. I was the unfortunate cause of the difficulty. The 
effect of the Eevolution of 1789, in putting the bottom of 
society upon the top, is more apparent here than anywhere 
else in the country, though probably Lyons is a more danger- 
ous place to the Government, as there the outbreaks are syste- 
matic. The cafes in Marseilles are magnificent, the handsomest 
in France, but they are filled with rowdyish looking blouses, 
as are all the thoroughfares. The better class of the popula- 
tion seem to withdraw from public, or at least disguise them- 
selves when they appear. Certainly, the}' are not visible to a 
mere stranger. There is here none of that bonhommie to be 
found in the gatherings of Bordeaux, Strasbourg, or Eouen. 
Judging the Marseillais by those 1 have met in travelling, and 
at watering places, I should form a good opinion of them ; 
judging them by the population in the streets, it is doubtful 
which way the balance would incline. However, I did not 
investigate them very closel}'^ upon the present occasion, as I 
left in the night train for the west, and they may not be as 
black as they paint themselves. I was much indebted to one 
of them for undertaking to wake me up at the junction, as 
travelling in vehicles at night has an overpowering somnolent 
effect upon me, and I should otherwise have found myself 
coursing up the Klione. 



30 Sl'AIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

Dawn broke upon us at Nismos, with its famous ampliitliea- 
trc, tlie first spocinu-n of its kind in Puiropo, except. i)erliap8, 
that of Verona. It has one great and not usual advantage, viz : 
that it can he seen. Montpellier, renowned in the annals of 
exile, whether by persecution or disease, next appeared. A few 
miles farther on we made a long halt at Cette, upon the Medi- 
terranean. The station is some distance from the town, close 
to the shore, (iloomy clouds hung over the sea, and its waves 
lieat sullenly upon the sandy beach. It made upon one the 
impression of being at the uttermost end of the earth, Cimme- 
rian darkness bej'ond. We here took on a number of prisoners 
of war belonging to the regiment of "Wasa, which was utterly 
destroyed at Solferino, the largest portion liaving been lelt dead 
or wounded upon the field, and the remainder, some six hun- 
dred, with the colonel and standard, taken prisoners in a church 
under peculiar circumstances. They were rather under the 
medium size of our people, and hy no means so contented with 
their condition, as I had expected to find them. One of the 
non-commissioned officers spoke German, and we had a long 
conversation, winding up with a present of a handful of cigars 
(European), which is their great want. The}- were very kindly 
treated, and had no com])]aint to make of their captors. Kow 
that the war was over, I wondered that they Avere not dis- 
charged. No such thought seemed to disturb them, as they 
made their purchases of provisions. From Cette we took the 
great road connecting the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, 
passing through the former province of Languedoc, dear to the 
French Protestants of the Carolinas, as the home whence many 
of them were driven b}" the stupid t3'rann3- of Louis XIY. It 
is a pleasant, gently rolling country-, resembling some portions 
of Spain, particularly in the absence of trees, an evil which the 
inhabitants have seen great reason to regret, but take no pains 
to remedy. The ijopulation is evidently a ditl'erent race from 
the French of the North. The}- are more fiery in their appear- 
ance, but have that graceful courtesy which is characteristic of 
the 8outh of Europe. Vineyards and olives covered the face 
of the earth. At one of the stations a gentleman entered Avho 
seemed to have more general information than is usual away 
from the great capitals. lie expi-essed profound admiration 
for the Koszta affair, which he thought worthy of a great 
nation, and was sure that Captain Ingraham must be a hero. 



CARCASONNE. — TOULOUSE. 31 

I informed him that the gallant caj^tain was a townsman of my 
own, no braggart, and one who would have done exactly what 
he threatened, had not the matter been satisfactorily arranged. 
"What interested me particularly about this gentleman was, his 
knowledge of the literature of the Troubadours, and of the 
efforts made to preserve the few remnants of the customs of his 
province, which are rapidly disappearing under the centralism 
of Paris. He took it for granted tliat I was a poet, because, 
forsooth, I had read some of that literature, and was not un- 
familiar with its distinguished names. P]uropeans, with their 
one-sided education, have no idea of the universal smattering 
which most Americans acquire, and are eternally mistaking us 
at Jirst fov savans. Even young Englishmen from the colleges 
know verj^ little of the jxist, except the ancient classics and the 
wars of this century. M}- acquaintance once thought of emi- 
grating to America, after the devolution of 1830 had over- 
thrown the Legitimists, and regretted not having done so. 1 
suggested that it was never too late to do a good thing; but 
he said he had planted his beets and his vines, and they could 
not now be transplanted. 

Nothing on the route interested me more than the distant 
view of Carcasonne. The new town on the western side of 
the river is built in the usual style, but the older portion, so 
far as outside appearance went, is a gem of the middle ages, 
and seems to have stepped out of a picture. Its lofty walls, 
machicoulis towers, and massive keep, were as well })reserved 
as though the Saracen had retired yesterday- from the siege. 
Most of the middle age fortresses are so hemmed in by modern 
buildings, and so much altered, that the isolated portions alone 
remind one of those old times. But this is left just as it was 
built, and I doubt whether there is a finer specimen in Europe. 

The face of the country began to change somewhat as we 
approached Toulouse, and to show signs of a temperate climate. 
The city is interesting for its liistorical associations, rather than 
for any present beauty. It has one or two fine squares in the 
modern style, and a grand esphinade, but there was much more 
pleasure to be derived from wandering about the irivgular. peb- 
ble-paved streets, Avhich recalled the times of Jiaymond and his 
confreres, than gazing upon the glaring common places of later 
days. The numlier of fine c»ld cities in France is great, and 
inhabited by pleasant people, but the concentration of every- 



32 SPAIN AM) THK SPANIARHS. 

thing into the hands of (lie (i<nernnienl, and tlie location of 
that at the capital, has taken the lil'e out of them. The am- 
bition of every Frenchman, noMe or roturier, is to live at 
Paris. The gradation of all emplo^'ments culminates there. 
Toulouse formerly was the t-eat of a fine university, rendered 
illustriftus liv the name of Cujas, whose memory still lives in his 
native place, ll has been absorbed by Paris. Thither young 
men of every oieupation flock, ostensibly for the purpose of 
studying, and return with the latest vices of the Quartier Latin, 
to complain of the fate which has not furnished them with the 
means of residing at the metropolis. I have frequently been 
askiMl wliy 1 <lid not live in "Washington. Charming idea, cer- 
tainly I One (lay while I was at Seville, a party of French 
engineers at the table d'hote were discoursing of the delights 
of Paris. '• But," said a Spaniard, " every Frenchman cannot 
be born at Paris." " True, but every Frenchman can move to 
Paris. I love my province, yet nothing could induce me to pass 
fifteen days there. There is no place like Paris; it is the only 
place in the world." "Yes," says another, "and the only ])lace 
in Paris is the J^oiilevard des Italiens." "Yes," says a third, 
" and the only place in the Boulevard des Italiens is the Cafe 
Tortoni." "And," maliciously, adds a fourth. " the only place 
in the Cafe Tortoni is talile No. 7." The metropolis, like the 
loadstone mountain of the Ai-abian Nights, has ilrawn the bolts 
from the trembling fabric of the provinces. 1 happened to bo 
at Bordeaux the fourth day of tiio Coup iVEtat in 1851. The 
universal exclamation Avas, what can ur- do? We must await 
the result of the contest in Paris. Jn 1814, the surrender of 
Paris sealed the fate of Napoleon. Had the allied army, in 
1793, marched upon Paris, the French Pevolution would have 
been strangled without ditliculty. It is almost imp(issil)le to 
estimate all the evil effects of such a system, which enlightened 
Frenchmen are beginning to perceive, as it makes the happi- 
ness of millions a football betM^een the garrison and the seeth- 
ing population of one or two faubourgs. " Cette belle ecntrdlisa- 
tion que toutr I'Burope 7iovs envie," is by no means so common a 
phrase as it was a few years ago. If the landed gentry w^ould 
copy the Knglish in their attachment for a country life, as they 
do in many less worthy respects, the evil might be somewhat 
remedied ; but the efforts of Louis XIV, aided by the Revolu- 
of 17(13, have eftectually demoralized the French noblesse, who 



FRENCH CENTRALIZATION. S3 

have lost the last vestige of their local influence. The titles 
themselves are fallini;- into disiise. Both the Napoleons endea- 
voi'cd to resuscitate the aristocratic idea by creating dukes who 
did not respect even their own appellations. As Duke de Ma- 
genta, McMahon is nothing, as Marechal de France, he is a 
great man. The example of the nobility in quitting their lands 
has been followed by the peo])le, until the emigration into thg 
cities has become a serious injury to the agriculture of the 
nation. The fathers of our Constitution showed their profound 
Avisdoiu in requiring that every member of Congress should be 
an actual inhabitant of the State which he represents, and it is 
a pity that the provision could not be extended to everj^ officer 
nndcr the Government. 

The present Emperor has not openl}^ evinced any desire to 
decentralize Franco; and even if he wished so to do, it would 
be too great a venture at present.. Indeed, his glory and 
strength consist in a l)rilliant government. As for attachment 
to his dynasty or to that of the Orleans family from any 
feeling of loyalty, even he must know that there is not a suspi- 
cion. The notion is laughable. The various revolutions have 
utterly eradicated any such sentiment, except here and there 
among the Legitimists. His influence is, therefore, individual,' 
and the power must he jealously retained in his own hands. 
But the injustice and danger of the present system have not 
escaped his perception, and he has eff'ected great reforms in 
8ome respects. The Government of Louis Philippe, and the 
efforts of those affiliated with him in political sentiments, were 
dhrectcd towards the establishment of a Bourgeoisie in its 
broad sense. That is to say, to the concentrating all the 
powers of Government into the cities, forgetting that by means 
of their superior knowledge of the art of party organizatiort, 
and through the press, which is substantially confined to Paris, 
the cities already exercised far more influence over the country 
than the}- were entitled to either by their stake in the commu- 
nity or by their political intcgrit3^ Napoleon was elected by 
the niral ]iopulation against the wish of the cities, though 
manj' of the Itourgcoisie <lid vole for him from a])prehonsion of 
the Socialists. He has in some measure restored the balance 
between them, and iif so far has acted as a patriot. The great 
lines of railway have been completed, the provinces have 
received a share of the appropriations for internal iinprove- 
4 



34 SPAIN AMI TIIK SPANIARDS. 

ment, and the life blood lias coinincnced ri()\viii<r liack to the 
extremities. All this is entirely contrary to the Socialist 
Governnjent established in 1S48. The sole idea then antis to 
squander the jiublie treasure, drawn from the whole country, rn 
ereetintc Is'ational workshops where the idle of Paris might be 
rewarded for lounging while the honest peasant toiled to pay 
the taxes, which were to support the iniquitous system. 
5lareehal lingeaud. on his first entr}' into the Assembly imme- 
diately after the llevolution of 18oU, exposed this abomination, 
and was most unmercifully abused therefor. The experience of 
our own country has shown that the great cities, with all their 
enlightenment, are very unsound depositories of political power. 
The complete decentralization of France is perhaps impossible 
so long as it remains surrounded by jealous and powerful neigh- 
bors; but a great step might be safely made in that direction. 
The blow given by the Emperor in 1859 to the aristocracxof 
finance, was happily conceived, happily timed, and most happy 
in its results. It had alwaj's been the habit hitherto to nego- 
tiate the great Government loans through one or two bankers, 
such as the Rothschilds, who made by the operation a certain 
per cent., frequently without incurring risk. At least it has 
•always hajipened that the big suckers escape through the net 
of national bankruptcy; the minnows onl}' are caught. Nothing 
could be more unjust than that the Kings of Change shoubl 
thus levy a tax upon the nation's necessities merel}- because of 
the advantage given them by their overgrown fortunes and 
ccnti-al ])()sitioiis. We have seen something of the saino kind 
in our ^Mexican loans. Napoleon put an end to this abuse by 
simply reversing the glass. The rate of interest was fixed, and 
investments invited, the least amount having the preference. 
The result so far as the treasury was concerned, is well known. 
Treble the required amount was subscribed, and the speculators 
wei-e deprived .of their toll. It was the egg of Columbus, and 
hereafter the example will probably be followed on all ordinary 
occasions. 

The great encouragement which he gives to the commercial 
interest reacts in the same direction, as it tends to counter- 
balance the social and financial preponderance of the metropolis. 
But all this will avail little or nothing so long as the ijolitical 
centralization continues, and that, in the present state of 
affairs, seems unavoidable. 



JOURNEY TO LUCHON. 6i) 

Sights at Toulouse arc rare. Among them is a queer bass- 
relief at the Cathedral, representing Calvin in the 8hai)e of a 
hog, preaching. Undorneatli is written : " Calvin, le pore pre- 
chant," — a relic of the good old times not yet gone out of 
vogue in the South of P'rance, when neighboring villages 
of different faith met midway to discuss their differences of 
belief by a few "apostolic blows and knocks." There is also a 
fine hospital, and a law school. But live or six hours suffice to 
see the Avonders, and about sunset I took my place on the ban- 
quette of the Luchon diligence, fortunate to get even thai 
amidst the thi'ong of passengere for the Springs. 

The country froin Toulouse is very different from that we 
passed through in the morning, which had been treeless and 
verdureless. This was Piedmont, and the early light of the next 
morning disclosed the velvety turf of the Pyrenean valley, 
through which coursed the arrowy Garonne. A mist hung 
over the land, broken by occasional showers, but gradually 
cleared awa}-, giving a fine view of the mountain Avail that rose 
before us. The road folloAved the sinuosities of the river, 
ascending rapidly. At length we entered the stately avenue 
whicli leads to the village of Luchon, and, amid the recommen- 
dations of hotel valets and lodging-house keepers, and the 
friendly salutations of beggars, Avere deposited at the Bureau on 
the Alle d'Etigney. Fortunately the hotel to Avhich I had been 
recommended was full, and 1 was transferred to an apartment 
upon the square in front of the bathing house, Avhich com- 
manded a beautiful vieAV of the mountains and the valle}' of 
the river, Avith an obliging landlord, and a couple of brisk 
Luchonaises, his daughters, Avho charged themselves Avith the 
care of the outer man. 



ClIAI'TER III. 

BAGNERKES DE LUCHOX. 

Situation and Scenery — Historical Reminiscences — Baths — Conipuny — Guides — 
Lac d'Oo — Vallee <le Lys — 13ouean<Te — Val d'Aran — Departure. 

The situation of Bagnerres de Luchon was a surprise. After 
Baden Baden and the other Ehine spas, I was far from expect- 
ing that any spot could be found to rival them; hut I must 
candidlj' give iny preference to this pride of the Pyrenees. The 
mountain chain here attains in the Maladetta its greatest 
elevation, some twelve or thirteen thousand Spanish feet, and 
presents those indispensable requisites of grand mountain sce- 
nery' in this climate — glaciers and perpetual snow. The val- 
ley of the Garonne enters the range almost perpendicularly, 
with enough variation in direction, to diversify the ride. Bag- 
nerres de Luchon is some two thousand feet above the sea (the 
same elevation of the village of Asheville, in Buncombe.) Just 
below the town the valley divides ; the left or southern leads 
to the Port de Benasque, and by another branch to the Val 
d'Aran, the right to the Valley d'Arboust and the Tiac d'Oo. 
What had Iteen lofty hills now become mountains, and close in 
upon tlie river which is transformed into a torrent. Cultiva- 
tion of the cereals ceases, except here and there a patch upon 
the slopes. Numerous subordinate valleys branch in from the 
principal one, leading to meadows and cascades, glistening 
an\id the luxurious foliage until the bare and bleak summit is 
attained, offering savage views over Aragon to the south, and 
l)eautiful landscapes on the side of France. The Pyrenees are 
certsiinl}' not so grand as the Alps. They offer nothing to rival 
iIk- view from the Col de Baunie over the Valley of Chamouni 
and Mont Hiaiu-. Indeed, what country can'/ Many years 
have ehipsed since, after a long morning's walk from Martig- 
ny. 1 crossed the crest and stood overwhelmed by the majesty 



THE PYRENEES. — HISTORICAL. 37 

of that scene. But it is as vivid in its recollection as of j-ester- 
day. Except the Eock of Gibraltar, nothing so deeply im- 
presses one with the consciousness of ^he utter insignificance of 
man. The green valley of Chamounix almost lost in the dis- 
tance ; the bare rocks lifting themselves out of endless glaciers, 
that had existed and moved before man disturbed the harmony 
of the universe; Mount Blanc, monarch of all in its spotless 
robe, placidly towering fiir above, unruffled by the commotions 
of man or natui-e, wrapped in the dead silence peculiar to that 
elevated atmosphere, and so necessaiy to the enjoyment of 
sublime emotions. It was a place to bow down and worship in 
sincere abasement, the Creator Avho made them and us alike. 
There is nothing equal to it here. Nor can the Pyrenian chain 
offer lakes such as Lucerne or Como, Geneva or Maggiore. 
But then it has visions of pastoral beauty to which SAvitzerland 
in turn has ijo counterpart; valleys that would satisfy' the 
dreams of an Arcadian poet ; gentle landscapes or rather pan- 
oramas rolling out over the fair plains of Languedoc, and 
scenes of wild gradeur over the mountains of Aragon and 
Catalonia, which, if not so sublime as the Alps, are far more 
impressive. The valleys, too, offer moi-e variety, and a never 
ending change of light and shade is produced b}' ascending or 
descending a few hundred feet, offering under a different play 
of light a different view. From any given spot, too, there is a 
far greater choice of excursions, than in the Alps, owing partly 
to the opposite physical character of the two sides of the 
Pyrenees. But it would be better to say, first, a word upon the 
town itself : 

Bagnerres de Luchon must always have been a mountain 
outpost of considerable importance, at least in the middle 
ages, when the rule among mountaineers was universal that — 

Those get who have the power, 
And th(i.«e keep who can. 

Durinii the eighth and ninth centuries, the country on both 
sides of the mountain was from time to time in possession of 
the Spanish Arabs of the Empire of Cordova, and for many 
3'ears after its downfall, the ^lohainmedan rule was perpetuated 
in the countr}' of Saragcjssa by the family of Beni llud. The 
mountains themselves were probably in the possession of the 
Spanish aboriginal inhabitants who, accustomed to the endur- 



W SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

ancc of cvcrj* privntion. aixl without the sentiment of fear, 
•Iwayn prewn'ocl an nctnal independence, until a late date, 
whon tlicy Imve snceomhed to tlie enticement of civilization and 
luxury. Travellers with well stuffed purses have cdntiuerod 
tho«k:> whom no armies could suhdue. Tliis is universal his- 
tory*, and many have wisely thoui^ht that the Florida Indians 
mi^ht have heen driven out without shedding a tlrop of Mood. 
and at one-tenth of the expense, hy simply cutting oft* their 
Intercourse with civilization, and suhjecting them to the priva- 
ti«)n of whisky an<l gunpowder. I fear the Luchonais would 
be equally ineapahle of resistance. The village was evidently 
comsidered in those days a military outpost for the defence of 
the fertile countr}- below. It commands one of the finest 
entrances for a foraging party into France. The situation of 
the Castel Viel, about which there have been so many disputes, 
would demonstrate its purpose, and nothing could bo better 
calculated for defending the entrance from the Port de Hcims- 
(pie or Val d'Aran, occupN-ing as it does a rock at their junction 
and entirel}- commanding the approach. Frequently as I sat 
upon its summit, enjoying the beautiful evening view, and saw 
the Aragonese peasants coui-sing down the path, have I fancied 
myself transported back to the time when the watchman kept 
his guard, and would have sent winged warning of the ap- 
proach of danger, and I have felt called upon to admire the 
admirable judgment which the Middle Age AYft^'iors displayed 
in the selection of such posts. The entrance down the valley 
of Arboust is similarly defended. These towers are supposed to 
be of Moorish origin. There are no other relics left of that do- 
minion. The Komans, however, seem to have been fully aware 
of the excellence of the water of Luchon, and a great many 
votive offerings, made in gratitude tor a renewed lease of life 
and health, are preserved in the Museum at Toulouse. One 
is still shown at the bathing house hero, bearing inscriptions of 
gratitude from T. Claudius Iiufus ami Fabia Festa. the former 
to the nymj)hs, the latter to the (Jod Lixoji, fron\ whom the 
place derives its name. Bui tlic bai-liariaiis who succeeded to 
the empire of the Ronuius, did not inherit their cleanliness or 
]»crhaps their maladies, and the vii'tuos of its Avatcr remained 
comparatively forgotten, until about llic middle of the last, cen- 
tury. For a long time it was forbidden to search in the liill 
for new springs, lest the existing ones should be injured; but 



BATHS. 39 

of late, excavations have been seientitically conducted Avith 
unexampled success, greatly increasing the amount and some- 
times the strengtli of the water. At present there arc sixty- 
four different sources, all of which, except eight, are due to 
these skillful investigations, and the daily yield is more than 
eight hundred thousand litres. Though the principal ingre- 
dient is sulphur, the combination is different in them all, and 
the temperature varies from 80° to 150° or more degrees, so 
that the advice of a ph3-sician is necessary to invalids, other- 
wise great injury might result from their use. The bathing 
facilities arc superb — ])lunge baths, sitting baths, tubs, douches, 
inhalation, aspiration, and every other variety, all under one 
grand establishment, which is regulated by the Government 
of the Comnmne, so that there is never confusion as to time or 
person. The alternating douch is verj' pleasant to those who 
are not sick. The performer, in an oil cloth suit, stands at one 
side of a room, with a muzzle of gutta percha, or some such 
substance in each hand, and plaj-s upon you first with the 
warm, then the cold, then the warm again, then both together, 
until the epidermis is most cffectuall}' scoured, and the vigor of 
existence elevated to the highest point. The water is also 
taken internally, but in much more moderate quantities than 
our physicians in America are in the haV)it of prescribing. It 
*s strenuously advised by the attendants to cease the use of the 
water for a few days in the middle of the cure, and leave the 
locality entircl}-. Experience has shown that the efficacy of 
the treatment is thereby doubled. The valley abounds also in 
springs of a chal^-beatc nature; of the invigorating effects of 
the one at the Castel Viel, I can speak from experience. They 
say at Luchon that the temperature and strength of the mine- 
ral waters increase in proportion to the height of the range, at 
whose base they are situate, but as Luchon is just Avhcrc the 
Pyrenees attain their greatest elevation, this statement may 
not l>e the result of strictly impartial deduction. 

In consequence of the spread of its reputation, Luchon has 
become transformed into a regular watering place. The old 
town no longer suffices for the accommodation of its numerous 
visitors, and a new one, in modern style, has been erected. 
Commodious hotels and lodging houses line the Alice d'Etignj- 
on both sides, up to and beyond the bathing house, and all the 
comforts of life abound. The neighl»oring forests are filled 



40 SPAIN AND THE SPAMARIIS. 

with ^ame, small and lar^jje, including still a few bears and 
wolves. The Museum ooniains specimens of the bouquetin, 
which must be glorious sport. The bears, to judge by one that 
wa« brought in during mj- visit, differ little in size or api)ear- 
ance from those of our swamps, but have a more fcrogious 
aspect. Verj' few visitors hunt them, antl the natives do not 
seem to know much about the scientific way of doing the thing. 
They are not sufficiently cultivated to regard Bruin in an}' 
other light than that of a thief and a robber, for sporting gen- 
erally enters very little into the aniusenK'nts of the French. 

The situation of Luchon is admirable, whether for health or 
recreation. The valley spreads out to a considerable wi<lth, 
forming rather a basin, which is speckled over with hamlets, 
and thrc^ngetl with the most ])cstileiitial l^rootl of beggar chil- 
dren to be foumi in Enro]ie. Tlie :i<liilt popiihition is entirely 
given up to the entertainment of the visitors — not that they 
are without the cxjtectation of a recompense : but they have, 
at least, the good taste to prevent this object from appearing 
too openly on the Surface, and there is room left for the fiatter- 
ing doubt whether your personality do not enter for something 
into the i)oliteness with which you arc received. The local 
costume is not pretty, nor are the neighboring villages distin- 
guished for cleanliness, but the new ])ortion of Luchon is quite 
Kjitisfactory even to a critical invalid. The bathing c.-^tablish- 
ment is unrivalled for its conveniences, which are peculiarly 
necessary at suljjhur baths, owing to the liability to take cold 
in these damp valleys, on the north of the chain. The attend- 
ants are ('(jurteous and capable. Take it all in all, I know no 
place of the kind so well conducted. 

Immediately behind the bathing establishment rises a spur 
of the mountain, called Supra-Hagnerres, whence there is a fine 
view over the village ami llic valley. Few luoi'i" animated and 
variegatc-d scenes can be foinid than that j)resented by the 
Allee d'Htigny at noon. There are the white hotels lining the 
street on each side, between tlu in the daik foliage of the four 
rows of trees arching abovi-. ami bematli this perpetual shade 
a sauntering, ever-moving throng of all nations — the inhabi- 
tants ii. the provincial costume j guides with close-fitting Jack- 
ets, a slender, active, jaunty-looking set; Aragonese traders, 
beautifully and powerfully formed, with flashing Spanish e^'es, 
dark haii- and striped mantas. Kvery now and then a fierce, 



LIFE AT THE SPRINGS. 41 

half wild Catalonian peasant offers the wares of his province. 
Anon comes an Englishman, with a tall, strajjping lad}* on eacli 
arm, in the manner irreverently styled a la chnnddle or en 
sandwich ; here a Parisienne with the latest fashion, mouse 
colored hoot, and little hat, all worn with inimitable grace; 
and sometimes, but rarely, glides by one of those matchless 
forms of beauty, one of those pensive faces, with deep, expres- 
sive eyes Avbicli Spain alone can produce. Every now and then 
the crowd opens to make Avay for some city gentleman from 
Marseilles or Bordeaux, who is venturing his first essay at 
horsemanship, with feelings depicted on his countenance which 
all may interpret, but none envy. As the shades of evening 
begin to fall, the scene is shifted to the little square and before 
the bathing estalilisliment, when the crowd is increased bj' 
numei'ous nurses and children, the latter playing with distress- 
ing jiropriety and regard for les convenances. There is one 
great want at Bagnerres, that is, a convei'sation-house or Kur- 
saal, as it is called at the Gei'man spas, in some central place, 
wliere balls could be given and pi'omenades made in bad 
weather. The old frequenters complained much of the change 
which has come over the sociability of the place. In former 
times, several of the more distinguished guests were in the 
habit of holding conversazioni, to which entrance Avas easily 
obtained, and the intercourse continued, if agreeable to both 
parties. Now, all is formal and ceremonious. The fact is prob- 
ably true, but it is in the nature of our modern civilization. 
We have the same yearl}^ complaints nearer home. Formerly 
wealth and its advantages were inherited and had been enjoyed 
by their possessor in the formation of his manners. Now they 
are most frequently acquired, and are no evidence of elegant 
deportment or correct morals; indeed, rather the contrary. 
But there is yet a much greater appearance of good breeding 
here than at most watering places. The whole race of fancy 
gents is Avanting; no 2:40 trotters, or long 9's. The orthodox 
way of passing the day is to rise at or before dawn and take a 
bath, as it is said to be much more efficacious when the pores 
are relaxed by sleep. Invalids then return to bed until the 
l)alh fever is over. The sound in bod}' and mind take a short 
walk and breakfast. Universal activity immediately ensues. 
Every species of locomotive apparatus is pressed into service, 
from the donkey up to the four-horse caleche, and to the sound 



42 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

ofcnukiiif; whips, echoed around the valley, llu' universal pop- 
ulation in off for some excursion. Those who <ret hack in time 
repeat the hathing and drinking ])rocess ; then dine, and then 
the ball, if there be one, which was rare during my sojourn. 
These t-xcursions are under the charge of the guides, whoso 
Ieadcr>hip, however, is interfered with soinetimes by powerful 
divinities. That ubiquitous rascal, Cui)id, is frequently about; 
Diana, too, and, at times. Mercur}'. Be that as it may, if one 
has j)leasant ac<[uaintanccs, the day does slip b}' with astound- 
ing rapidity. 

It is in excursions that Luchon is peculiarly rich, and they 
are in regular gradations from a half-hour's walk to a journey 
on horseback of twelve or fourteen hours, or of two or three 
days to the summit of the Maladetta. Walking, however, is 
not a favorite means of progression on the continent. For a 
gentle evening stroll, tliere is nothing more delightful than the 
avenue on the bank of the river along the Alice dcs Veuves. A 
promenade by the villages of Mamet and Montaubau in addi- 
tion orters a water-fall, rather pun}', but a very slight variation 
to the monotony becomes interesting at such places. A visit to 
the Castel Viel requires more time. The olher excursions are 
generally made on horseback. 

The tirst requisite is a guide, about whieli lliere is no diffi- 
culty, as the excursions are rarely atleiideil witli lisk. The 
whole system of guides, as every thing else, is under the 
Government organization, prices both of men and horses being 
regulated according to a tariff, and a previous examination 
being required to test their capacity. It is very seldom that 
one is dis.satisfied with his choice, as the}- unite every requisite 
for their profession. Small, and not so physically powerful as 
the Swiss, they are lithe, active', and graceful. Indeed, as they 
are always on horseback,, and have especial charge of the 
ladies, the^' may be said to bo oven elegant in their manners. 
They are ever ready to draw with invariable good humor upon 
an inexhaustible fund of small talk, some of it quite instructive 
to ♦hose who have any curiosity to penetrate beneath the sur- 
face of society. They have a ]H'oj)cr jn-idc in their country, 
and are always prepared to defend it against the assumed supe- 
riority of Switzerland. Mor are tluy wholly given up to the 
skinning of the traveller. They are the jierfection of guide for 
this iiiaci talkative if 3-ou wish tu talk; silent if you wish to 



LAC d'oo. 48 

meditate ; and having enough of the savoir faire to be agreeable 
companions. The habit of galloping thirty or forty times a 
year over the country renders them fiimiliar with every inch of 
the ground, and acquainted with the effect of light and shade, 
so necessary to the selection of the proper hour of the day for 
each visit. Of course, their knowledge is superficial. But what 
do you expect? The guide is not a schoolmaster. 

The first excursion that we undertook was to the Lac d'Oo. 
It is necessary to start at an early hour, as the effect of the 
scenery is greatest some hours either before or after tlie 
meridian, so that da3'light found us in the saddle. The Luchon 
horses are small, active, long-winded, and exceedingly sure 
footed, resembling our marsh tackles. They do not make mnch 
speed, but they seem to, and the pleasure is pretty much the 
same. Our two guides kept up a great cracking with their 
Avhips as we walked down the Allee d'Etigny, according to 
the regulation, which forbids even trotting through this street. 
The cracking of the whips seems to be an indispensal)le part of 
the performance, and it is necessary to submit to it. The 
magic word to increase the speed of mules and doiike^-s is 
" arri," which is said to be Provencal. In Spain it is pro- 
nounced '* arre," whence the word " arriero," a driver of mules 
or donkeys. But both are from the same Arabic expression, 
used for the same purposes, and its presence in Provence is a 
lingering remnant of the Moorish domination. Our horses 
needed no encouragement, however, and bounded along the 
highroad as much inspirited by the morning air as ourselves. 
The country of Arboust as far as the village of Oo was Avell 
cultivated, and for a mountain region thickly settled, in the old 
style, the hamlets being perched where they might be defended 
against a sudden assault. At Oo we took the country' road, 
and soon reaching the head of the valley, commenced a steep 
ascent of zig-zags, which occupied considerable time. As yet, 
though the ride had been very agreeable, the scener}' presented 
nothing striking; but we suddenly attained the level of the 
lake, and the view well repaid the Journey. The stream, as 
most others in these mountains, descending from the summit of 
the chain, forms deposits of water in basins at successive 
heights. There seems to be no doubt that both sides of the 
Pyrenees were once covered with snow and glaciers far down 
in the valleys. The disappearance of these evidences of former 



tJ 



44 SPAIN AM> TIIK SPANIARDS. 

cold, both here and in tlic Alps, would seem to militate against 
the theory which maintains that the world has been gradually 
coolinp:. But that subject must be left to philosophers, though 
wc discussed it at the time with vast gravity. There are at 
present no signs of lakes below the region of vegetation, and 
the few that remain are doomed to disappear in the course of 
events. The Lac d'Oo is tilling slowly by the double elfect 
of the cascade from the Lac d'Espingo, in wearing away the 
precii»ice and in precipitating its debris into the water. As yet, 
it has not sulfered much, and is about large enough to suit the 
scenery around. The mountain cliffs, denuded of all vegeta- 
tion, rise nearly perpendicularly from its western edge. On the 
east there is room for the path which leads up to the summit of 
the chain, so that it is completely walled in except on the north, 
by which we entered. Our arrival was well-timed, the lake of 
dark blue being still in the morning shade, but the light 
reflected from the westei-n cliff penetrated its waters to the 
very bottom. It is scarcely more than a half mile in length up 
to the cascade that empties the surplus of the lakes above, the 
roaring of whose waters was the only sound heard in this soli- 
tude; nor was there an}' sign of life except the chalet and the 
little boat which j)lies across to the cascade. Without entering 
more into detail, it may be safely affirmed that the scene 
deserves its reputation. The horse path ceases here, but foot 
])assengers can continue to mount by a cow trail to the Lac 
d'Espingo, which I did alone with one of the guides, for the rest 
of the i)arty remained below. The Lac d'Oo is between four 
and five thousand feet high j that of Espingo some one thousand 
feet higher, but greatly inferior in beauty. The waters have 
receded considerably, owing to the gradual Avearing away of 
the ledge over which the stream pours. The margin thus left 
is covered with luxuriant herbage, and is the pasturage-ground 
of the Commune, whose cattle pass the summer here. At a 
rough guess, the surface of the lake must have once been five 
hundred feet higher than at present. The path, if path it can 
be called, continues to scale the mountain leading to the Port 
d'Oo. None but smugglers and hunters, and they very rarel}', 
ever pass this way. There are three other small lakes. At the 
second, we turned off to the left, towards the Lac Glace. Here 
there was no sign of a path, and, though the horizontal distance 
is scarcely a mile and a half, it was one of the toughest Avalks I 



LAC GLACE. — VALLEE DE LYS. 45 

ever undertook, and I count mj'self a good pedestrian. It was 
very much like ascending the p^yramids. Perhaps the rarity of 
the atmosphere was partly to blame, for it is eight thousand 
feet above the level of the sea. All who desire to enjoy wild 
scenery should not fail to make this excursion. Its wildness 
does not consist simpl}^ in the absence of animal and vegetable 
life, but desolation seems to have become aggressively positive. 
The guide said it was a fine place to hunt bears, but the induce- 
ments that eould prevail upon even a bear to haunt such a spot 
were certainly not visible, as the prospect on all sides is over 
naked rocks. The descent was scarcely less fatiguing than the 
ascent, and it was long past noon when we rejoined our party 
at the chalet d'Oo. A lunch well earned, and well paid for 
also, restored my spirits, and we cantered back to the village. 
The excursion to the first lake is a favorite one with visitors. 
Few venture to attempt the Lac Glace, nor would it be advisa- 
ble for anj- who are not willing to make considerable phj^sical 
exertion. But for such it is the first of all. 

Up the Valley of Lj's is much easier, and, so far as beauty 
goes, more attractive. The road ascends gently through pas- 
turages and by cascades up to the head of the vallej". For 
some distance in advance can be seen the Cascade d'Enfer, 
embosomed in the dark green of the firs. I eftected a rough 
measurement by dropping stones, which succeeded very well, 
to judge by the agreement between the times. Above the Cas- 
cade d'Enfer is another — the Cascade du Coeur. The head- 
waters of the stream forming these cascades are separated 
from the Lac Glace by the Glacier of Crabioules, but the scen- 
ery of the two valleys is totall}' diff'erent. Yesterday the face 
of nature was stern and rigid; to-day it was covered with 
smiles. This is really the place for a hunter. The little bridge 
above the second cascade, the only connection between the 
banks of the cleft for a long distance, has been the death spot 
of many a bear; and as thc}^ cannot transmit their experience 
from one to another, it will probably continue fatal to the 
doomed race. This excursion being of easy accomplishment is 
very popular. The valle}- is surpassed by few in the Alps for 
its pastoral beauty, and ever}- thing connected with it is in 
unison. 

For panoramic views, it is necessary to ascend the Bouca- 
nere, situated to the north-east of Luchon, and to some extent 



46 SPAIN AMI TUF, SPANIARDS. 

isolated from iho Pvroiu'cs. The journey requires a whole day 
and fair weather, but it is wortli the trouble. Wo were not 
fortunate in the weather, for the plain to the north was over- 
spread with a haze. To the south, however, we cnjoj'cd a 
gl(»rious view of the Maladetta, and the whole chain extending 
a considerable distance east and west. Below us were the val- 
leys of Luchon and Aran, with their tributaries, their green 
fields in beautiful contrast with the snowy peaks above. It 
was truly magniticent. 

The etymolog}' of the word "Pyrenees," has puzzled the 
learned. The Greeks derived it from the fire continually burn- 
ing upon it in the forests. The inhabitants still insist upon the 
Pics Xcrcs — lilack Peaks. The Celtic scholars say Birrcnnou, 
the plural of Jh'r — a ])cak. The peaks certainly are not black, 
nor is there an}- account of fires raging on their sides, and the 
view from Boucanere would prove, at least, the applicability of 
the last derivation. The word which, by common consent, has 
been adopted to signify a "pass," (Port in French, Puerto in 
Spanish,) is certainly from the Latin, though it was not the 
common word used by the Eomans. No other modern nations 
u/je it, and no other ancient, so far as I know, except the Greeks, 
though it would seem the most appropriate. 

One da}' while the rest of the party were reposing after their 
fatigue, I strolled over to the Val d'Aran. A mule jiath leads 
up to the Port du Portillon, which is scarcely more than five 
thousand feet high, and oifers nothing remarkable. The ascent' 
is quite rapid as far as a valley half way up, level and well 
cultivated; thence it traverses a thick wood, and, at the sum- 
mit of the pass, we enter Spanish territory according to the 
treaty, but not by natural l)onndaries, for the Val d'Aran is 
upon the head-waters of the Garonne, and the natural boun- 
dary would give the whole of it to France. The French claim 
even more, for the waters of the eastern slope of the Maladetta 
disajjijcar in the earth at the Trou du Taureau, and penetrat- 
ing under the Sierra, rise again near Viella. But their south- 
ern neighbors will scarcely consent to part with an}' portion of 
the Maladetta, which is essentially Spanish in appearance and 
character. The Val d'Aran is by no means so, 'yet such is the 
influence of government and assQciation, that the inhabitants 
of Canejan and those of Fos, both upon the Garonne, and 



VAL d'aran. 47 

Avithin cannon shot of each other, are said to diflfer as much as 
Calais and Dover. 

A half hour's walk brought me to the Spanish custom-house, 
where I fraternized upon a mug of milk and a good segar, and 
exchanged a few Avords of Castillian. The common language 
of the people is a harsh Catalonian patois, quite unintelligible 
to a Spaniard. A half hour more brought me to the Chapelle 
St. Antoine, situate on the edge of the wall that lines the val- 
ley. Whether this view be celebrated or not is more than I 
can say, but it deserves to be, for I have seen but one in the 
same stj^le which merits a comparison. In the summer of 
1851, a 3-oung friend, who has since ^ittained enviable distinc- 
tion in the world of letters, and myself, stopped for dinner at 
the village of Nauders, in the valley of the Inn, on the borders 
of Tyrol. After finishing the meal, the damsel of the house, 
in her grenadier hat, put us on the way to the Engadine, in 
Switzerland. Guide book in hand, we crossed the meadow, 
threaded the little copse, ascended the mountain side, turned 
the edge of a wood, and gazed down into what seemed a min- 
iature Paradise, Avhere the serpent had never entered — the 
beautiful Swiss vallo}- of the Engadine. Those who have done 
the same, will need no description. It was the perfection of 
Alpine scenery, and though I have visited many renowned val- 
leys since, its impression has never been weakened. The pros- 
pect from the Chapel of San Antonio recalled it instantly, and 
yields to no other rival. Seen, as I saw it, it is the gem of 
the excursions from Luchon. The valley is quite broad, and 
chequered over Avith A^ariegated fields of grain, in different 
stages of maturity, extending to Castel Leon, in the direction 
of Biella. Towards the north, the prospect embraced the 
gorge at the Pont du Eoi, Avhich forms the boundary betAveen 
France and Sjiain. Down the valley placidly floAved the Ga- 
ronne, Avasliing the subui-bs of numerous villages, the principal 
being Bosost, and perched upon llio cliffs Avere others, Avhose 
Avhite Avails glistened in undctiled purity. No animate thing 
appeared to disturb the harmony of the prospect, as though 
eternal serenity had chosen here a resting-place. 1 feared to 
continue the descent, lest the sight of dirty streets and idle 
beggars should disturb the illusion, and Avould have Avillingly 
spent the day upon the rock, Avatching the shadows of the 
clouds as they floated slowly over the landscape. A couple of 



48 SPAIN AMI TIIF, SPANIARDS. 

boys broke in upon my revery with a request for coppers, con- 
senting,', in return, to dance the Jota. The performance was not 
very distinguished, though given with a hearty good will, but 
it broke tlie charm and I returned. Descending from the Por- 
tiUon, I encountered a custom-hou.sc officer, a French Basque, 
on the look out for Spanish segars, which form the principal 
object of contraband in this locality. "We returned together to 
his post, lie had little fancy for the Aragonesc and Catalo- 
nians, whom he represented as very much given to using the 
stick upon each other, and occasionall}' upon a Douanier, 
wherefore he ahvaj's carried a gun, unloaded for fear of acci- 
dents. He was quite fan»iliar with the adjoining provinces of 
Spain, and strongly recommended a friend of his as my guide, 
which recomniendation I followed, little to my subsequent 
satisfaction. On rejoining our party at dinner, I was loud in 
my praises of the Chapel of San Antonio, and we repeated the 
excursion next day Avith increased gratification, abstaining 
from a farther descent into the valley, as I sincerely counsel 
all tourists to do. With this precaution, they can scarcely fail 
to be satisfied with the Val d'Aran. 

There were many other excursions around Luchon worth an 
etfoi't, and the season still continued at its height, the number 
of visitors daily increasing. French and Belgians there were 
in abundance, and a few TJussians, with a scattering of Eng- 
lisii; one family lodging in my own house, with whom 1 struck 
up an acquaintance. Two good-looking young ladies, with 
long flaxen curls, questionable ornaments to my taste, and a 
mama, whose "bullion pour le petty (jcrson" afforded great 
amusement to the lively Jjucbonaise that waited upon me. 
There was also an American family in Tjuchon, at least I one 
day heard some persons at the spring talking in a nasal tone, 
and saying " nawthin'" for nothing, which is an unerring indi- 
cation of a certain locality. But wo were about to separate, 
with a rendezvous in Andalusia, and under such circumstances, 
a longer sojourn at Luchon would have been devoid of most of 
its iiitei-est. So that 1 sent for the friend of the Douanier, 
who agreed, at ten francs a day for himself and each horse, to 
escort me to Barbastro in Aragon. The rest of the party pro- 
ceeded to Marseilles, to take the steamer for the South. 



Chapter IY. 
LUCHON, BY BAEBASTEO, TO ZARAGOZA. 

The Port de Venasque — The Maladctta — Entrance into Spain — Scenery — Venas- 
que — Tiic Castillian — Change Guides — Le Pciia do Ventinella — Campo — The 
Beta — Sta. Liestra — The Young Student — Graus — Scenery of Aragon — Barbas- 
tro — Company to Iluesca — Sertorious — Arrive at Zaragoza. 

The sun shone brightly over the eastern mountains, one of 
the hitter daj's in Jul}-^, as we mounted our horses for the jour- 
ney, myself on one, the guide on another, and a third loose 
with the baggage. The rapid rising of the mist foreboded 
rain, but the guide stood security for good weather, and we 
sped up the valle}" at a brisk trot. The Castel Yiel Avas still 
in the shade as we halted a moment at the chalybeate sprin<rs, 
to take a last draught of its precious water. After an hour's 
ride, the road branched off to the left towards the hospitalet, 
and we pursued our way up the ascent through the most beau- 
tiful mountain wood imaginable. Covering the steep side above 
and below down to the foaming torrent, extended slender 
beech trees, whose height recalled our own forests. From 
time to time little streams bounded down over the road, add- 
ing their lefreshing murmurs to the shade, which Ave found 
agreeable enough after the scorching sun of the valley, for 
Jean was already in a profuse perspiration. These forests are 
under the protection of the Commune, which accounts for their 
preservation. Continuing our journey, we gradually ascended 
above the region of trees, then the bushes vanished. At last, 
about noon, we reached the hospitalet on the mountain bosom, 
where every species of vegetation disappeared, except the 
short, vigorous grass of the pasturjiges. We here called a halt 
of a half hour to refresh the animals and ourselves. The 
black-ej'cd damsel, who served the wine, informed me that 
upon the setting in of the Avinter season, they all migrated to 
5 



50 SPAIN ANU THK SPANIARDS. 

the village, leaving, as thoy were compelled by law to tlo, 
some jiruvision and n list of charges, and llml :i theft of the 
articles stt left was unknown. This sounded very much like :i 
canard, hut such was formerly tlie case in Switzerland to the 
extent of leaving the shops unprotected. The progress of 
civilization is rapidl}- doing away with these antiquated bar- 
I'arisms. A few years more, and such vestiges of primeval ff" 
ignorance will have disappeared even from the recesses of the ' 
Pyrenees. 

The view around the hos])italet commences to be interesting. 
Its situation is suflicicntly elevated to afford glimpses of the 
distant horizon, and is yet within the region of life. The 
tinkling of hells floating down the mountain side revealed the 
flocks that were peacefully browsing above. A long train of 
goats were slowly winding up the track to the Pic dc I'Anti- 
c«de, which seemed of immense height. On the lett ran the 
]ialh to the Port de la Picade, and in front towered tlie Port 
de Benas(jue, which we were to scale — a naked, forbidding 
aepect, relieved only by the tents of a few road-workers, who 
Were repairing the injuries of the last storm. AVe recom- 
menced the journey by a path which my un})racliced eyes 
could not detect Irom the hospitalet, though looking back from 
above, its windings could be easily- followed. The ascent was 
very steep. For a coujjle of hours we really toiled, mounting 
zig-zags .scarcely fifty feet in length. We finally entered one 
ol" the basins so common in the Pyrenees, once the bed of a 
lake. Then came the four pools, at different heights, filled 
with almost black water — lonely jewels in a setting of ada- 
mant. After that, was another basin surrounded by lofty 
perjKMidicular walls, from which J saw no outlet. It was the 
dwelling-place of desolation. Vast masses of distorted I'ock 
lay hcaijcd around, as tliough the ])lace had been blasted by 
the curse of an avenging Deity. In all the shady spots were 
collections of snow, slowly distilling the head-waters of the 
(.'aronne. Overhead hung the ink-blue sky of these altitudes. 
The view towards France over the plains of Laiiguedoc and 
(Jascony was boundless. Luchon had disa])peared ; its valley 
had become a thread, I'Anticade a mere mole-hill. No sound 
disturbed the death-like silence, nor was aught of life visible, 
except the white speck far, far below, representing the hospi- 
talet. We mounted on the left by a break-neck path, sus- 






SPAIN. — VIEW OF THE MALADllTTA. 51 

penoecl between heaven and earth, such as makes the traveller 
feel himself entirely at the mercy of his horse. Suddenly 
turning, I saw above me the Port de Benasque — a simple split 
in the rock}^ wall, just wide enough for a loaded mule to pass, 
and not more than ten feet in length. We ascended a stair- 
case of ziz-zags, some fifteen feet each, entered the pass, and 
beheld one of the grandest views in the world. It Avas Spain ! 
noble, romantic Spain! Adieu pretty landscapes! meandering 
brooks and verdant prairies! luxurious couches and artistic 
meals !^ Adieu to the circean enticements of Europe ! Adieu 
to a civilization which reduces men to machines, which sacri- 
fices half that is stalwart and indiridual in humanity to the 
false glitter of centralization, and to the luxurious enjoyments 
of a manufacturing, money age! Welcome, dura tellus Iberia;! 
Welcome to your sunny plains, your naked mountains, your 
hard}' sons and your beautiful daughters! your honored cities, 
sacred by the memorials of a dozen rival civilizations, and 
your fields watered by the chivalric blood of as many contejid- 
ing races! As an American, thrice welcome to the land of 
Isabella, of Columbus, of Las Casas! Yes, it was Spain. I 
reined in my horse, and gazed silently upon the scene. Di- 
rectly in front rose the savage, cragg}' mass of the Maladotta, 
the monarch of the Pyrenees, draped in robes of eternal white. 
No Eastern sovereign ever sat in more solitary grandeur. 
Unconnected even by a spur, it stands elone as though scorn- 
ing companionshiji with humble satellites. A deep valley lay 
between us, so that the view embraced its steep sides from the 
summit to the base. Unlike Mount Blanc, it does not rise to a 
well-defined peak, but is somcAvhat elongated, presenting sev- 
eral points of rival height. To the north it is covered by 
enormous glaciers, from which the disengaged rocks go thun- 
dering down. The pine forest had been prostrated by numer- 
ous avalanches, and the bleaching trees lay regularh- arranged 
as though the triumphing storm-giant had thus placed tiie 
trophies of his victor}'. The Maladotta is so called from its 
terrific aspect, and from its interposing a dangerous, and in 
certain seasons, insurmountable obstacle to the inter-communi- 
cation between the vallejs of Benasque, Aran and Viella. For 
a long time its ascent was deemed one of the irresolvable prob- 
lems, until successfully accomplished by a Russian engineer, 
whose experience in the Ural mountains gave him superior 



52 SPAIN AM) THE SPANIARDS. 

knowledge of the means of overcoming the difficulties pre- 
sented b}- its treacherous glaciers. The excursion is now safe, 
and of comparatively ea.sy performance, under the charge of 
guides expressly designated for the purpose. From its snows, 
spring the head-waters of the Esera. and, strange to say, of 
the (iaronne ahso, whicli disappear under ground, and rise 
again on the northern side of the dividing ridge in the Va] 
d'Aran. A party was up on the Maladetta to-da}^, and their 
horses aiid attendants were visible in the valley below, where 
they had bivouacked the previous night. 

The Port de Benasque being, as said, a narrow slit in the 
j)erpendicular mountain wall, is a famous place for the wind, 
which almost blew me otf my horse. Jeat> informed me that 
wiien the winter winds re!illy do blow, the common adage holds 
true, that the father docs not wait for the son; and I think 
myself, that whatever might be the strength of paternal affec- 
tion, it would be very difficult to withstand such a current. An 
advance of a few feet from the pass caused the view to open to 
the right and let\, the latter toward the Port de la Picade, the 
former down the Valley of Benasque. Tlie force of the sun 
now became very great ; it was the glorious sun of Spain, and 
its genial rays inspired us with renewed energ3^ 2^or was 
this the only ])roof that we were out of France; the pathway 
immediately offered such an appearance as would have thrown 
McAdam into an epileptic tit. No doubt the Gauls and Ibe- 
rians saw it just as we did. We found it more convenient to 
dismount and pick our way, leaving the road to the horses. A 
descent of a half hour brought us to the Spanish hospitalet at 
the head of the valley, a vile concern into which I did not 
enter, being quite content with the odor and the sight of the 
woman preparing tripe in a neighboring rivulet. I preferred 
strolling off to the Esera, and taking an icy bath in the shade 
of the Maladetta. A bath is certainly not romantic, but there 
are spots, the grandeur of whose impression cannot be impair- 
ed, and this is one of them. It is impossible to. avoid being 
pMiotrated by the poetry of the nature around. The last 
hour's journey liad utuuistakal)!}^ transported us into a differ- 
ent land, morally, physically and geologically. Nature wore a 
dilVorent aspect. The merely beautiful had given place to the 
serious, earnest, perhaps stern, but grand — fit emblem of the 
inhabitants. A dead silence, the silence of the eternal snow 






VALLEY OF VENASQUE. 53 

reigned undisturbed, save by the roaring of tlie water, or anon 
the discharge of some rock from tlie ghicier. On my return to 
the hospitalet, I found a collection of Aragonese arrieros, who 
had been carrying wine to Luchou, and were returning by my 
route. They were very anxious that I shouUl dismiss ni}" guide 
g,iid accompan}' them, which proposal I declined, as Jean had 
e recommendation of chattering continually about one thing 
not another, principally himself and the dangers he had not 
passed through, whereas the arrieros wore an air of medita- 
tion altogether too philosophic for companionship. The ani- 
mals having eaten their luncheon, (Luchon horses are always 
lunching,) Ave commenced descending the valley to Yenasquc. 
By this time the clouds had collected, and two or three times 
during the afternoon we were thoroughl}^ di-enched by passing 
showers, the only set-off being the pleasure of convincing Jean 
that I was a better weather-witch than he. The scenery of 
the Valley of Veuasque gains in grandeur what it loses in 
beauty, though not deficient in the latter. Numerous streams 
leap down the mountain, tossing and foaming over the rocks, 
but the vegetation, as is usual in Spain, extends only a short 
distance from the w^ater's edge. After an hour or so, we came in 
sight of the Baths of Venasque, perched far up the mountain 
on the left, ( El Ventuoso, ) whose steep slope is broken at the 
spot just enough to make space for the hotel. A less inviting 
prospect could scarcely be imagined. Not a tree or shrub 
above, or for hundreds of feet below it. The solemn stone 
building presented the appearance rather of a place of punish- 
ment, and the waters must indeed deserve their reputation to 
induce an invalid to spend the summer in so forbidding a local- 
ity. Farther on, we passed the ruined wall of defence which 
was extended across the vallc}" to guard against the inroads of 
the French. The country now became thoroughl}' Spanish — 
stone houses, narrow, high-arched Moorish bridges, stern moun- 
tains, and sky of deepest blue. The most interesting sight on 
the route is the Moraine, said to be the finest in the Pj-rences. 
The rocks arc enormous, and sj-mmetrically arrange'd as if by a 
geologist. They resemble lines of fortification, and their size 
is evidence of the gigantic force of the glacier, which centuries 
ago deposited them in their present position. We were several 
minutes in threading our way through. The valley gave marks 
of fertility, and as it was harvest time, the fields were tilled 



54 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

with peasants in a costume partaking both of the Aragonese 
and Catalonian. Various indications announced the proximity 
of a town of importance, and about an liour by sun wo descried 
the dismantled fort of Venasfpic. 

Avoiding tlie regular Posada, we went tlirough the dirtiest 
of streets (Venasquc is a great cattle town) to a private house, 
where we were received by the smiling hostess with rejoicing. 
As became an old traveller, my first ottorts were devoted to 
pre])arations for getting away on the morrow, which involved 
certain ceremonies: my passports were to be vised, the horses 
entered at the custom-house, and security given for their 
return. The message irom the mayoi''s house, in reply to a 
request for an interview, was to the eftect that his Honor was 
out in the fields gathering in his crop. Two or three visits, in 
person, had no better result, so 1 concluded to dispense with 
his Honor's services, and, under the guidance of the landlady's 
little daughter, started out to "do up" the town Consistently 
with the truth, it is difficult to praise the ancient town of Ven- 
asquc, though the antiquarian may find among the houses and 
walls numerous relics of the olden time, when the Moors gar- 
risoned it against the irruptions of Charlemagne and other less 
distinguished fiUibusters. The trade consists, for the most 
part, in the export of wine and the import of horses from 
France, which is quite an extensive business, but the few nar- 
row streets are thereby kept in an astonishing state of mud, in 
nowise aided by the rivulet flowing down the centre. We 
made directly for the parish cliurch, which was opened by 
an old woman, jingling a large bunch of keys, and I found 
myself, in the most approved style of tourist, surrounded by a 
group of respectfully-admiring children. Its great boast is a 
recumbent efligy of some saint, placed there by Don Fulano 
Tal, a rich citizen, and resplendent with gold and silver. My 
admiration was quite equal to the occasion for it. A well- 
dressed gentleman, a relative of the hostess, as he informed 
me, was here kind enough to introduce himself and take the 
place of my young conductress. Ho was a Castillano Viejo, 
an old Castillian, and had the characteristics of the race — a 
certain formality, coupled with the utmost courtesy of manner, 
and not only of manner, but of feeling j a reserved dignity, 
founded upon the possession of those advantages which he, at 
least, valued above all others — pure blood, elevated character, 



THE CASTTLLIAN. 55 

and a reasonable degree of education. After visiting the jail, 
a formidable dungeon-looking antiquit}', Avhich, to the credit of 
Venasquc, was empt}^, we took a stroll on the Pasco. The 
outside of Venasquc redeems the inside. An elevation of 
three thousand feet, (for the southern slope of the Pyrenees 
is much less abrupt than the northern,) gives to the atmos- 
phere an clastic purity, and the almost rainless plains of Ara- 
gon, below, prevent its being surcharged with mountain damp, 
while the neighboring peaks attract sufficient clouds for ita 
vegetation. The valley here widens out and is covered with 
luxuriant crops, through which course the waters of the Ksera, 
foaming over their rockj^ bed. As this is the age of material 
progress in Spain, somewhat resembling the fermentation 
which took place among us ten 3'ears ago. the universal talk 
is of railroads. Among the favorite ])rojects is one to pierce 
the Pyrenees. Venasquc thinks itself pointed out, by the 
peculiar advantages of its situation, as the proper place for a 
tunnel, connecting it with the valley of Luchon. Other val- 
leys indulge in the same fond expectations, and as no money 
has yet been voted, an amicable war of opinion rages. My 
companion felt great interest in the question, and was pos- 
sessed of considerable information. Like all Spaniards, he 
was jealous of his locality, and dwelt upon its peculiar beau- 
ties and excellencies — an amiable failing which is always 
agreeable to me, for I have never found one .worth knowing 
who did not think his native land, all things considered, the 
first in the world. Local attachments are pronounced, by the 
modern school of social philosophers, to bo relics of barbarism, 
ignorance and prejudice, forgetting that prejudices are given 
us by the all-wise Peity, as well as reasoning faculties, and 
equally for some beneficent purpose. The time may come 
when prejudices will disappear, when one's country will have 
no greater claim upon him than China or Hindostan, and the 
sutferings of the Bushmen will arouse as livcl}" a feeling of 
sjnnpath}^ as those of his fellow-citizens. But this millenium 
has not yet reached Spain. Patriotism, an attachment to, a 
preference for one's home, is still a virtue prolific of measure- 
less good, and for its foundation rests upon enlightened preju- 
dice. Of all nations, Spaniards have this sentiment most 
strongly developed. Everj'- Spaniard believes that Spain, with 
all her faults, is, or can be made, the centre of the earth, and 



66 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

his own province the centre of Spain. Xor is tliis Rinccro con- 
viction on their part distasteful to strangers, being founded 
upon a good opinion of their own country, not a depreciation 
of ollu'rs, the contrary of wliich rcnder.s Englishmen so odious 
througliout the world. I should have a poor estimation of one 
who was above this prejudice, for it is the main spring td.the 
exertions which they are making for the improvement and 
regeneration of their country. The varied necessities of life 
frequently cause them to seek their fortunes in far distant 
lands, but thej^ cherish in their hearts tlio same feeling of 
attachment to their romantic l)irtli-])lacc. And, surely, we 
Americans, whfl(> have such ungovernable national pride, will 
not blame them for the sentiment. 

Aftor a dinner in the regular style, Avith abundance of garlic, 
I hap]>enod, between the 2)uffs of mj' cigar on the balcony, to 
express a desire of hearing, once more, a genuine Spanish aii-. 
A decently-dressed person in the balcou}^ opposite, about ten 
feet off, immediately produced his guitar, and performed sev- 
eral pieces quite creditably, which gave rise to a fl3nng couver- 
Bation. J)o not suppose that my vanity was ai'oused, for I 
knew enough of Spanish manners to comijrehend that I was 
indebted for the pleasure to S])anish courtesy, rather than my 
own excellence, or, to use the favorite expression of the Ger- 
man Professors, that it was subjective, not objective. That 
over, Jean made his appearance, with the suggestion that, 
if I preferred it, he would return in the morning to Luchon, 
and the son of the hostess, a competent person, would accom- 
pany me as far as Barbastro. She, herself, followed with the 
assurance that her son was a most excellent individual, emi- 
ni-ntly a tnozo de confianzd. and, by way of further recommenda- 
tion, he could lodge me at private houses, where there were ^ 
neither fleas nor bugs, ni puhjas ni chinches, (fond delusion!) 
Jean expressed great doubt about his being able to proceed 
without the mayor's permit, but this, evidently, Avas not the 
sole reason. So, after hearing argument, I delivered judgment 
to the effect that little stress Avas to be laid upon the mayor's 
permission, as office-holders are the servants of the sovereign 
people, and it Avas his duty to ha\^e sought us out; and, sec- 
ondly, that I never changed any settled purpose without some 
sufficient reason, and none such had been giA^en : he must, con- 
sequently, continue. They retired, convinced against their 



TART WITH GUIDE. 57 

will, and left me to my meditations and slumbers, and anything 
else that might be prowling about. I had several battles dur- 
ing the night, but the repose induced by the gentle murmuring 
of the river quickly healed the wounds, and I was up and bad 
taken chocolate by the break of day, truly refreshed. Another 
visit from Jean : a small oration, with many gestures, giving a 
variety of reasons yv\\y the proposition of the preceding night 
should be accepted, the whole winding up with the alarming 
announcement that the baggage-liorse limped. I immediately 
descended to the stable, which, according to custom, was imme- 
diately under the parlor. The animal was brought out, and, 
sure enough, he did limp most decidedly. Quite a collection of 
the neighbors had assembled, with faces of exceeding length. 

^, The few who knew a little French re-echoed in sympathizing 

''f;tones, " «7 boite! il boite!" 

By this time I had perceived other reasons for changing the 
guide. Jean, though a fine fellow in some respects, had evi- 
dently miscalculated his familiarity with the road to Zaragoza, 
and his knowledge of the Spanish tongue, but (lascon-like, 
never confessed it, so that I in all probability would have acted 
the part of his interpreter, which " unluckee conthratong" had 
happened to me once before in going from Switzerland into 
Italy, and was an experience not to be repeated. So I en- 
quired as to the chances of a remount. All around assured 
me that they Avere magnificent; a superb horse for the bag- 
gage, a mule beyond reproach for m^'self. I objected to riding 

' a mule, and expressed a prefei-ence for the horse. They pro- 
tested, dwelling much upon the mule's long stride, his pas 
allonge, but I Avas allowed to indulge my fancy. The cattle 
were then paraded, the horse was scarcely worthy of the eulo- 
gium pronounced upon him, but the mule was magnificent. His 
color was of the most delicate mouse, black mane and tail, 
black cross on his withers and quarters, larger, too, than ordi- 
nary horses, and with a benign expression of countenance. I 
acknowledged myself wrong, and decided for the mule. He 
was then saddled, and a halter put on him. XJp.on this point, 
however-, I was inexorable. In vain did the}' assure me that 
he had never had a bridle in his mouth, and that mules went 
much better with halters. I replied that I had consented to 
waive my dignity in mounting him at all, solely because I re- 
flected that bishops, and even the patriarch of the Indies, rode 



58 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

such aniiual8, and that an liinnblc believer niiglit safely follow 
their good example, hut that it was utterly out of the question 
for an Aineriean jjrandee and colonel in the militia to use a 
lialtor. With infinite reluctanee a bridle was produced, and I 
mounted. By the united eflforts of Jean and the neighi>ors 
o])erating before and behind, el macho who, like his master, evi- 
«K'ntly had stning local attachments, was persuaded to leave 
the village, at the outskii'^s of which Marcial presented himself 
in all tlie glories of a clean shirt and a collar of excrueiating 
dimensions. Marcial was a sturdy young Aragonese, girded for 
the walk. .\ jiair of alpartjafas or hempen sandals, wliich are 
preferred to leather during the drj' season, protected his feet. 
Out of them rose long, blue stockings; then came breeches of 
a dai-ker hue ; an immense sk3'-bluc saeh encircled his waist, 
and his whole man was surmounted by a gay handkerchief 
wound in liandcaux around his head. Upon the whole, the 
exchange of guides was fortunate. Everj' traveller will learn, 
sooner or later, by experience, never to take a French or an 
P^nglish guide, if a reasonably competent Spanish one can be 
procured. Their jierformance invariably beggars their prom- 
ises. Occasionally they may be necessar^^ but rarely, as no 
intelligent traveller should be dependent on his guide for any/ 
thing beyond the functions of a conductor. "With them, too, 
the connection is measured by money alone ; whereas your 
S})anish servant is insensibly drawn towards you by a sort of 
sympathy, proceeding parti}- from the fact that he docs not 
recognize any inferiority in his position, and discharges his 
duty to^-ou rather because he is 3'our guide, and you are under 
his guidance, than because he expects to be paid for his ser- 
vices. I have never parted from one without receiving a 
hearty shake of the hand, indicative of real good feeling, very 
dillVrent from the way of the world leave-taking of your cos- 
moj>olite, who. with heartfelt sincerit}'', cries out, '^ Le Roi est 
Viort ! five le Jioi !" 

After a half hour's vehement exertion, it became painftilly 
apparent that el macho, indeed, knew not the mysteries of the 
bridle, which I despairingly threw over his neck, suppl3ang its 
place with a good stick, that answered the purpose of a tiller 
admirably. We pursued our way to the south down this 
lovel}' valle}', amid harvest fields and meadows, Avhere the 
whole population was engaged in gathering .in the grain. 



DESCENT OF THE VALLEY.— INHABITANTS. 



59 



After an hour's ride the road ascended from the river bank 
and passed behind an Eremita, (as a country church apart 
from a village is called,) between it and the mountain on the 
right. A few hundred yards farther on it turned at right 
anc^les to the east, and otfered fo our eyes a most beautiful land- 
sca^'pe. On our left extended the valley in an almost straight 
line to the Puerto de Venasque, down which glittered the river, 
both sides bordered by verdant fields, like a thread of silver 
JU^ino- upon a velvet carpet. Behind us was the Ercmita, situate 
npon a craggy bluff some hundred feet perpendicular from the 
water's edge, the whole face of the rock covered with ivy and 
climbing vines up to the terrace. The valley was walled in on 
both sides by naked mountain chains extending to the foot of 
the Maladctta, and the view was closed by the Pyrenees them- 
selves. How grandly they appeared through that clear at- 
mosphere ! The heavens, indeed, seemed to repose on their 
summits. The prospect to the right was not so grand, but 
quite as beautiful, for the valley here widens out, and the moun- 
tain slope, from the bank of the stream half way up to the 
summit, was covered with fields of golden corn, among which 
sparkled numerous villages in the morning light. After pur- 
suing its new direction for a mile or so, the river turns again to 
the "south, but we cut off this detour by crossing the spur. 
From the dividing crest the view embraced a wider range, 
thouo-h its snug beauty was proportionably diminished. 1 he 
path was superlatively execrable. We frequently met regular 
bandits, so far as appearance went, dressed in the approved 
style of picture-book-robbers, but they were harmless and 
polite, and to your -buenos dins" never failed to return -que los 
tenqa vm. muy buenos," literally " may your worship have them 
(davs) very -ood." Highway robbery during the nineteenth 
century has, for the most part, been confined to uncentralized 
countries, such as Italy and Spain, and as a natural con- 
sequence, the majority of robbers are of a southern cast of 
features, with dark hair, bright eyes, and an olive tmge of 
complexion, all of which are faithfully reproduced in illustrated 
works By a natural confusion, a certain very usual style ot 
Spanish dress and countenance has come to be considered evi- 
dence of cut-throat propensities, and sensation travellers return 
heartfelt thanks at safely passing some harmless individual, 
wh..se worst emotion, probably, was amusement at their out- 



/''■ 



60 SPAIN AXn THE SPANIARDS. 

landish costume. Such is tlic origin of half the tlirilling narra- 
tives of robbers which have almost past, so far as actual 
experience is concerned, into the same gulf as the long, l^w, 
Mack schooners with raking masts, that formerly playecf-so 
con-spicuous a part in our sea-talcs. At least it has never been 
my good fortune to be robbed, though 1 have been in many 
strange and wild places, and among wild-hjuking men. De- 
scending tlirough the wheat fields, we halted at Chia, a hamlet, 
where we breakfasted in>on wliat lia])peued to turn uj) — not 
very luxurious fare — seasoned by a little conversation with the 
natives, the principal item of which, according to my recol- 
lectiou, was a desperate complaint on the part of the grand- 
dame about the diminutive size of the chickens in her country. 
By wa}' of increasing her dissatisfaction, I gave her a glowing 
description of our Shanghais, their enormous legs and sonorous 
voices, which filled her with amazement not unmixed Avith 
incredulity. The male population of the hamlet was basil}' 
engaged in threshing. Machines there were none. The method 
consisted in striking the sheaf against a smooth, flat stone, 
which succeeded wonderfully well. The operator regretted 
the necessity of using maquinas de saiujrc, " machines of blood," 
as he styled himself, but he was no capitalist, and the land 
owner resided in some city, and thus the country remained 
without improvement. 

Beyond Chia the road got Avorse than ever, until toward noon 
we descended again to the rivei-, which was about to enter the 
magnificent gorge called, I believe, La pena de Veutimilla. 
The jtarallel chains between which we had been travelling 
close in liero to about two hundred yards. It was, perhaps, the 
most striking scencr}' on the route. The road ran along an 
elevated ledge or step some fifty feet above the level of water. 
Above that, on the right, rose the western ridge of crumbling 
rock, entirely devoid of vegetation except a few struggling 
pines. The eastern slope was densely w^ooded. Toward the 
south the view was closed by the ridge's making a sharp turn 
athwart the valley, while behind it was visible an immense 
horizontal mountain of bare rock, with sides ai:)parently per- 
pendicular, which seem to be a great distance off, and fairly 
quivered in the merciless heat of midsummer. Behind me, far, 
far up the valley, reposed the sleeping Pyrenees. After pro- 
ceeding half a mile or so along the shady bank, the path led 



DELIGHTFUL BATH. — CAMPO. 61 

over a true devil's bridge to the opposite side. vSooii it turned 
sliai'p to the east, and the gorge became so narrow tliat there 
%vaa barely room for the stream and the road, which frequently 
mounted midway in the air erQ a sufficient variation from the 
perpendicular could be found to yield it space. The river, now 
a mountain torrent, chafed and roared below like an impris- 
oned demon. For an hour the scenery continiied of the grand- 
est and wildest description, as though the foot of man had 
never before wandered thither. In the midst of all, I could 
not resist the temptation of scrambling down the bank with no* 
littl-e difficulty and plunging in. What a delicious bath ! The 
pale green Avater, of almost icj' temperature, flew by with the 
velocity of the Avind and required all my strength to keep from 
being swept toward the cascade, which was thundering a few 
score yards below. But the trouble was well repaid, for I 
emerged the color of a rosebud, and with the strength and ac- 
tivity of a professed gymnast. The desolation of the gorge 
now became greater still, for a crumbling stone appeared 
which offered no hold for the trees and shrubs, and rendered 
the path itself insecure. At a very narrow place we unex- 
pectedly encountered an exceedingly corpulent padre. Neither 
of us could turn round, and his reverence could not even dis- 
mount. It looked as though we should have to enact captain 
Riley over again. As the padre was down-hill, Marcial took 
his animal hy the. tail and I by the head, and we thus succeeded 
in backing him to a more convenient spot, where he gave us 
his benediction. His face was anything but tranquil during 
the operation, and with reason, for any restiveness might have 
sent us all over the precipice. At length, mounting a lofty 
height that overhung the valley into which that of the Esera 
was about to merge, and turning a corner, we beheld the plain 
of Campo. It Avas very pretty, but I fear more by comparison 
with what we had just passed through than from any intrinsic 
beauty of its own. The mountains retire, leaving a semi-cir- 
cular valley of a couple of miles in diameter, well-cultivated 
with cereals; and the river, repenting the boisterous days of 
its youth, Avidens into a gentle pastoral stream, coavs standing 
in its water and sheep Avandcring on its banks. The tOAvn, 
miserable indeed, yet of some pretension, having no neighbor 
better than itself, formed a central point in the vicAV, and that 
was enough for a passing traveller. At the edge of the plain, 



62 PPArN AND THK SPANIARDS. 



<)T\ all sides, rise bare, forbiddiiit:; liills. This was the last of th 
Pvrciu'es : lienoefortli it Avas Ara<fon. a roasting sun, barren 
mountains, and a dr^Mioss of atmosphere most grateful to |By 
owii feelings, but sadly deleterious to agriculture and to the 
beauty of the landscape. After passing Campo, the hills closed 
in again up(»n the river, and the heat became intense. Fortu- 
nately, Mareial met among the arrieros a friend, and that friend 
had a hota. Bywa}' of parenthesis, a bota is a skin, generally 
a pig's or goat's dressed with the hair on and pitched. It is 
then turned wrong side out, sewed up all except one foot, and* 
filled with wine. The open foot is tied with a leather string, 
and thus arranged, the bota is the ordinary means of transport- 
ing that article on horse or donkc^'-back. It may scorn strange 
that this custom should bo retained; but in some parts of Spain 
skins are almost cheaper than wood, and are frequently used 
in its stead, even for military bridges. After the customary 
salutations on the present occasion, the bota Avas produced. 
First J took a draught, a deep one, out of the open log; then 
Mareial, then the friend. Ik'ing ])ressod, I wiped the edge of 
the leg and repeated, Mareial ditto, friend ditto. The odor of 
the skin was too strong for my disaccustomed olfactories, so I 
"passed" on the third round. The rest j)luycd their hands out, 
and we separated rejoicing. The crumbling stone continued to 
present all manner of fantastic appearances, misleading me as, 
to castles, for which I was as hungry as the renowned knight 
of La Mancha. One rock, some two hundred feet perpendicu- 
lar and five hundred in length, with a round tower at its right 
angle, presented the exact appearance of an immense feutlal 
fortress. As following the river, we Avound around its base, it 
required little l)lay of the imagination to fancy one's self ti-ans- 
portcd liack to the days of Charlemagne and Bernardo del Car- 
pio. and to people the valley with helmeted knights thronging 
to avenge the dolorous rout of Roncesvalles. Later in the 
aftei-noon, vines and olives appeared, and at sunset we drew 
\i\> in the village of Sta. Ijiestra, our halting-place for the night. 
lj<j:iving the horses below I walked up, and after the usual 
ablutions took my seat in the balcony to view the world. On 
the wall was sculptured a huge coat of arms, some eight feet in 
length, with a knight's crest; the house opposite was similarly 
ornumented. 1 c'n(|uired after the families to whom the}' had 
belonged ; no one could ansM'cr me. Their very memories had 



J 



^ 



STA. LIESTRA. — ANTONIO. 63 

died out, yet centuries ago these devices had been borne aloft 
by gallant warriors, who had, doubtless, struck many a blow 
for Aragon and our mother church, and caused man}- a tur- 
bancd infidel to bite the bitter dust. The very hall in which I 
sat had perhaps been the theatre of knightly fcastings, the 
scene of gaiety and luxury. Then, the gentleman resided on 
his estate, and led his neighbors both in peafce and war, setting 
before them for imitation his own light, feeble though it were. 
Now, he has abandoned the manly simplicity of this life for the 
Wxury of cities, and his virtues and influence wilt beneath the 
baneful shade of idleness. The parish priest alone remains to 
sustain the cause of religion and education. It seems to me 
that this is the growing evil of our civilization. Not only in 
Europe, but in America, all who look beneath the surface detect 
the progress of this continually spreading cancer — the substitu- 
tion of a few overgrown capitals, with a fermenting mass of 
discontented paupers, for the healthy, vigorous, honest popula- 
tion of the country. The facility of railroad communication 
will do much to relieve the ennui and monotony of a country 
life, and secure to its inhabitants the advantages of the city, 
without imposing upon them its burthens. Tliis, however, 
would be only a partial remedy. The welfare of the agricultural 
laborer imperatively demands the substitution of steam machin- 
ery on the plantation as well as in the manufactory. Yet this 
might end in establishing there, also, the regime of the capital- 
ist, sympathizing with tlie proletariat only through wages 
grudgingl}' paid and thanklessly received. Sta. Liestra had 
Buffered much from the cause 1 have specified, but there was 
some good left. While I was at supper in a cool place by my- 
self, a handsome young gentleman of engaging phisiognomy 
presented himself with the usual compliments. 1 found out 
that he was of some sixteen summers, just returned from school 
at Barcelona, a relative and the pride of the family, and al.'^o of 
the whole village; modest without being bashful, which, in- 
deed, is not a Spanish failing or virtue, even the children hav- 
ini- an ease of manner, an absence of mauvaise hoitte, remarkable, 
to say the least. The conversation was very pleasant by con- 
trast with the world outside of Spain, where the education is of 
the cramming order, and boys are so dreadfully wide awake. 
My young friend had no inconsiderable stock of Spanish p^'cjii- 
dices and knew little of things beyond the borders of his own 



9t SPAIN AM) THE SPAMAnns. 

country, but than hi^ thoughts were fresh and buoyant, and ho 
possessed a really poetic- imagination, lie disliked both Enjr- 
lieh and Fivnch, knew that Auica-iou was a republic, but did not 
exactly comprehend the practical working of a republic, nor 
how there could be a country without a king. The feast of his 
village saint was to be celebrated shortly, and he and the 
curate were going to Graufj to-morrow to make some arrange- 
ments o)nnccted therewith. I suggested that he should write 
a poem {(H' the occasion. With a slight confusion of mannov he 
coufesaod that he had written something — una cosita — a saynete 
(a dramatic composition ranking between a comedy and a 
farcej. lie was anxious to kuow if we had any picture gal- 
lories in America. I replied in the negative, but that the}' 
would come in time, as we Avere a young people, having only 
a population of thirty millions. At this the hostess, who had 
come to call him to supper with the family, uttered an excla- 
niation of amazement, crossed herself devoutly, calling for help 
upon San P'rancisco de Asis, and took him off, not however 
before he had given me a lesson in the art of making cigarettes 
and presented me with a paper book. Antonio romiuded nie 
forciblj' of the student in Don Quixo-te. While I was preparing 
to retire, he returned to get his guitar and some papers, for it 
seems 1 had been installed in his room. Seeing a package 
neatly folded, 1 suggested that it might be the saynete. He 
informc<l me that it was, and openetl it. A mortal terror seized 
my soul ; my knees quaked beneath me, for I thought he was 
about to rcail it, and thirteen hours in the saddle, followed by a 
refreshing supper, had dis])osed n;c for the " balmy," so that I 
would not have relished the best " Capa y Espada" of Lope. 
(Little did I then think that I would shortly become a torturer 
of the public, a hostis' humani generis, an author.) The cloud 
passed by, however, and I turned in, anticipating rosy dreams 
in which I was to be wafted upon the waters of Paradise, under 
a canopy of mantillas^ and lulled into obliviousness by .the sweef" 
music of faus. But oh ! horrible recollections ! Oh ! night, 
Itlacker than the depths of Kthiopial I had been attacked at 
Venasqne, but that was only ^lagenta ; this was Solferino. All 
branches of the service were engaged; " toiite Varince a donne." 
Their rifled cannon battered my reserves, and their Zouaves 
gave me no mercy at close quarters. It was always a la 
baionette and tctc baissee. For two hours did I sustain the un- 



GRAUS. — JOURNEY TO BARBASTRO. 66 

equal contest with direful deeds and oaths infernal. In vain 
did I fall back to a strono-er position on the brick floor, enveloped 
in a sheet — my winding-sheet it might have been. Defeat was 
inevitable, and before one o'clock I had left the fleld and taken 
my seat b}- the window, waiting for day. At the first peep 1 
summoned Marcial, and reproachfully imparted my misfortunes, 
the relation of which brought a look of innocent astonishment 
into his face as he assured me that he had not been "grazed." 

We took chocolate, saddled in hot haste, mounted, and were 
about to be off, Avhen hearing myself addressed as "Caballero," 
I looked up and saw Antonio and the cura on the balcony, 
taking their breakfast previous to departure. The}' overtook 
us shortly afterwards, while watering our animals in the stream, 
Antonio on a gail3'-caparisoned mule, the cura on a demure 
pony, preceded b}' an active, good-humored peasant, bearing 
the sayncte aloft in his hand as though it Avere a banner. The 
sun rose magnificently, causing the lofty hill-range on our left 
to resemble a fire-tipped wall, and the little church on its crest 
to sparkle as a diamond. The cura was a coarse young per- 
son, with a sensual look, and poor company; but Antonio and 
myself kc])t up a l»risk talk during the three hours that we 
passed, threading villages and olive groves, iintil we reached 
Graus. The view from the bridge over the Esera in the morn- 
ing light, extending far up the valley, amid plantations and 
luxuriant gardens, was very pretty. At the town gate I bade 
forewell to Antonio, and, I hope, at some future da}', to hear 
that the young student of Sta. Liestra, has become one of the 
ornaments of his country. 

Mine host of the Posada de la Cruz, at (Jraus, gave me a 
capital breakfast, though I disgusted him greatly by mixing 
water with his good wine, which Spaniards never do, though 
models of temperance. We then discoursed the relative advan- 
tages and disadvantages of beards in Avarm weather, one of 
which manly ornaments grew upon my face; then the ancient 
glory and present prosperity of Graus; then the heat, which was 
terrific. He counseled night traveling, but as it was, at least, a 
seven hours' journey to liarl)astro, I concluded to go through 
in the day. Indeed, powerful though the sun be in Spain, 1 
find that its effect is counteracted by the universal dryness of 
the atmosphere and the breezes which sweep over its plains, 
80 that there is no perspiration, and after the longest day's ride 
G 



r»0 SI'AIN AM» THE SPANIARDS. 

a glass of cool water restores ine completely. The w liole po]!- 
nlation of Graus were seated at work on the shady side of the 
street, or under awnint^s, as we ])assed out the southern gate. 
I cannot say that they impressed me much one way or another. 
After a few hundred yards, we bade farewell to the Esera. I 
really felt a sort of regret as we turned away to mount the 
talile-land on our right. It had been our only companion on 
the journey. We had seen it sj^ring from the glaciers of the 
Maladetta, i)laylully disporting as it ^vere in the nurse's arms. 
Hour In- hour had we witnessed its growth and perilous voyage 
amid the rocks and shoals of infancy, the jo}- of neighbors and 
the admiration of strangers. We now letl it a 2)lacid, stately 
stream, hurrying on to unite its waters with the Cinca and 
the El»ro, then to be merged in the boundless ocean, and we 
were never to see it more. Such is too often the traveller's 
fate with aiiiniate and inanimate creation alike. Yet beneti- 
cent provision of Nature! that as wo advance in age, the wide- 
spreading landscapes, and the dear faces we gazed upon so 
fondly in our j-outh, rise the more vividly to memory, while 
the fainter outline of subsequent events serves but as a fore- 
ground to the i)icture. For a coujile of hours we continued to 
ascend the elevation which separates the two rivers, until about 
half an hour beyonil Puebla we reached a little chapel on the 
highest point, whence we enjoyed an immense prospect over 
the broad valley of the Cinca, and the arid, endless mountains 
and table-lands of Aragon. It was one of those striking views 
that the horseback traveller in central Spain so often finds, 
cheerless but magnificently iiiipi-essive, and though oifering no 
one ])oint of beaut^', yet enchaining you by an admiration of 
its grandeur. A long descent among oak and olive plantations, 
brought us to the rocky bed of the river, of which in summer 
the water occujiies l)ut an insignificant portion. We crossed 
on a flying bridge, and I had out my towels ready to oficr the 
customary sacrifice to the nymphs who presided over the pellu- 
cid waters, when I found, to my surprise, that it was postivel}' 
hot, even at a depth of three feet, such is the enormous body 
of heat that becomes accumulated in the whole body of Spain 
during the long summer droughts. 

We mounted the hills again, pursuing the general course of 
the river, the bed of which becomes very broad — a couple of 
mllee or so, and is covered with large white stones, so that at a 



OAKS. P,ARBA8TR0. 67 

distance in the i;-litterini;- sun li<;-lit it rosonil)lc(l a vast lake. 
Xumerous hamlets, surmounted by towers, were streAved alon<i; 
the eminences that overhung its banks. It at length broke 
awa}" to the left, straight lor a long distance, finallj' disappearing 
between two lofty bluffs, while beyond in the wavy blue haze 
seemed the great ocean itself Just at this point I met my 
first Spanish beauty, a young girl i-idiiig on a donkey. Her 
face was closely veiled from the glare, but female curiosity, 
perhaps coquetry, exposed regular features, a transparent, rosy, 
brunette complexion, raven hair and dark dreamy eyes ; a del- 
icate foot peeped out from the stirrup. Judging by the appear- 
ance of the father, the}' doubtless belonged to the class of 
substantial yeomen. After this 1 felt myself reall}' in Spain, 
and my spirits rose in proportion. The road hitherto, though 
much thronged, had been a mere path; it here widened into a 
carriage-way. "We were evidently approaching a place of some 
trade. iSTumbers of donkeys and mules, Avith their owners, 
were returning empty, and the road was bordered with well- 
tended groves of olive and oak. The oak was called carrasca. 
I asked Marcial for the difference between this and the oak 
called encina. He replied that -tliey were the same, oidy the 
latter term was used in Castile, the former in Aragon. 1 sub- 
sequenth' put the question to half a dozen others in different 
parts of Spain, receiving different answers, so that I hardly 
know to this day whether they be the same or no. Such is the 
difficulty of extracting the truth in Spain by mere interroga- 
tion. The reason for my curiosity was this : I had read that 
the word encina is derived from one of the few Berber roots 
which have passed over into the Spanish language, viz. : '• zen," 
meaning "an oak," Avhence the French word chene with the 
same signification. Now, the Moorish kingdom of Zaragoza 
was principally settled b}' the Berber tribes, and it seemed to 
me strange that this term of Berber origin should have been 
rejected here, yet adopted in the Castiles. The generic term 
encina, is generally applied to all evergreen oaks, except the 
cork, which arc called alcornoques. The name for the decidu- 
ous is roble. Meditating upon oaks and Berbers, we crossed a 
lofty ridge, and descended over exhausted streams into the 
ancient city of Barbastro, where I was very nicely lodged in a 
large high-pitched room, with a balcony and two alcoves, in 
whifh this time there were ncillier fleas nor chinches. Marcial 



68 SPAIN AND THK .SPANIARDS. 

lia<l made the whole journe}- on foot in tlie broiling sun and 
dust, and I would not have stood in his shoes for his stockings, 
though these were of the largest sort. lie, however, did not 
seem to mind it. and took his departure immediately on the 
road home. E\ mac-ho, too, perfornuMl his duty faithfully, oidy 
he was a little too scientitic in the matter of zig-zaging, which 
operation he persisted in going through when there was no 
manner of necessity for it, and when there were really zig-zags, 
he approachetl so near the ju-ecipice as to engender a suspicion 
that he intended slyly to commit suicide ; but having arrived 
Hufelv, 1 refrain iVom criticising the bridge that cai'ried me 
over. 

The jaunt I have described is one rarely made by pleasure 
travellers, nor could it be recommended to young gentlemen, 
wedded to ehampaigne frappi', and an evening stroll on the 
Boulevards. But for those who desire to see Spain and Span- 
iards as they are, this is the onl}' way to travel. In these two 
days I was brought into contact with more genuine natives than 
I would have met in a six months' sojourn in Madrid. 3Ioreovcr, 
the scenery on a part of the route is ver}- fine. The country, 
too, has yet the bloom of virgin freshness upon it, so different 
from the opposite slope of the Pyrenees. In consideration of 
these recommendations, I foi-give and almost forget the wounds 
inflicted \\\)o\\ my feelings by the inhospitable denizens of Sta. 
Liestra. 

The scene from ni}' Italeony was cliaracteristic. As the eve- 
ning came on. the young Barl>astriaus tlironged t)ut to enjoy 
tlie atmosphere. One party was engaged in a rampant game 
ol" miniature liuU-figlit. A/iother collection of six-year olds 
had a (juiet game of cards ; the wonder was how they man- 
aged to i-ecognize the figures under the accumulated grease of 
ages. Here came a boy with a tambourine, leading two blind 
old guitar-players; there a lady with inautilia and fan, gliding 
along from vespers. After su])ping on a delightful partridge, 
( j):ii-tridges are always good in Spain, though cooked too dry,) 
served up by the l)lack-eyed, soft-voiced Angelica, the land- 
lady's niece, 1 proceeded to the Alameda. The Alameda is 
eU'vated, and was swept by a delicious breeze from the moun- 
tains; but the population did not add to the beauty of the 
scene, so after cooling off, I retraced my stejis. Across the 
narrow sti'eet, some fifteen feet wide, was one of the principal 



69 

JOURNEY TO HUESCA. — THE COMPANY. 

houses in the place, whose occupants chatted away in the bal- 
cony till past midnight, varying their conversation with a little 
music, to the memory-awakening notes of which I was lulled 
into sleep. The next day Barbastro was soon seen. The 
Bishop's Palace, the Cathedral, tlie Barrack, complete the list. 
Nor is its history more interesting; the only event of any 
importance being the famou.s siege by the Christians, during 
which, some stones having fallen into and choked the aqueduct, 
the Moorish garrison was forced to sui-rendcr, and the histo- 
rians of both nations agree that unheard of atrocities were 
perpetrated. The Mohammedans narrate the common events 
of a sack as something unknown, and the Christians excuse 
them by rage at the death of one of their leaders. That such 
occurrences should require especial execration from the one, or 
an apology from the other, speaks well for the comparatively 
humane manner in which their warfare Avas conducted. 

There being no inducement for delay at Barliastro, T took 
passage in a nondescript sort of vehicle, which was to set out 
that afternoon across the country to Huesca. It was neither a 
diligence, nor a tartana, nor a galera, but united the disagree- 
ble peculiarities of all. My companions were an elderly gen- 
tleman, his wife and daughter, from Santander, good-hearted, 
but not handsome. 1 pardoned them, however, in consideration 
of the prett}' girl they embraced at parting, who had beauty 
enough to save a city. They had been spending the summer 
with a friend near Barbastro, and Avere returning home. A 
Basque servant-maid accom2:)anied them. The corner of the 
vehicle was occupied by a commei'cial traveller from Zaragoza, 
a jovial, impertinent, middle-aged man, who had an ej-e out to 
windward, and travelled with a cork ice-house, the contents of 
which we found very refreshing. After getting rid of the pro- 
prietor of the concern, who persisted in addressing me in such 
execrable French that 1 was compelled to summon a Spaniard 
to interpret it back into Spanish, we started, accompanied by 
the yells of the Mayoral, Zagal, Mozo de Mulas, and the by- 
standers in general. The magnificent highway Avhich is in 
process of construction, not being finished, we took the com- 
mon road. Clouds of dust, and such jolting I Once when we 
were compelled to dismount in descending a ravine, I found 
that the dust had accumulated to the depth of a foot. There 
was no danger of robbers, however, for the Guardia Civil, two 



i«.l SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

and two, were periu'tiially italrolliiig tlic road. Not far from 
Barl>astro. we passed on our riij^lit a lon«;, lofty liill or lonia, 
irradually increasini; in l)oiii"lit until it ended in a hu<;e I'oek. 
oxtendiiii; into the plain like a promontory. On the verge was 
a huilding, a fortress in the middle ages, now an Eremita, and 
from which it is said half the province of Huesca can be seen, 
as might well be. Except this, the route was uninteresting 
enough. The servant-maid and the Mozo de Mulas — a fellow 
Hasquc — tore the country to pieces with their tongues; the}' 
couhi not make up their minds which deserved deeper damna- 
tion. Barhastro or its inhabitants. I subsequently drew out the 
mayoral, who was a native, upon the same subject. He was 
loud in his praises; it M'as a very fine country-, the best in all 
Spain ; here you could grow everj'thing. Pais muy bueno ; el 
III ijor pais de Espana ; aqu't sc roge todo. They then argued the 
jtoint at length. At Sietamo, the birth-place of the great states- 
man, Aranda, Ave halted for a few minutes. The landlord gave 
us some mugs of his best wine, while his two daughters, beau- 
tiful as a pair of startled gazelles, stood at the gate. My fel- 
low-travellers mistook me foi" an artist, whether from my admi- 
ration of these beauties, my poverty or general outlandish 
appearance, I cannot saj', but it is always agreeable to be mis- 
taken for an artist. Your artist has no evil-wishers save his 
rivals, for his aspiration is not alter the things of this earth, 
Init some itleal, abstract conception Avhich never has existed 
and never can. The very character of his occupation, brings 
him into sym])athy with the whole race, and his only enemy is 
the im])ertection of his nature, Avhich is perpetually striving to 
gras]j the ideal, and as perpetually failing in the attempt. The 
error, howevei-, did not save me from banging about in the 
machine, and we all exchanged most unartistic congratulations 
A\ hen, alioiit eleven, ]>. m., we reached the venerable city of 
Iluesca, and I'eposed our battered and bruised limbs in the very 
respectable Parador de las Diligencias. 

The principle personage in the inn was the French maitre de 
oiisliir, who welcomed me Avith unfeigned pleasure. He had 
lived there many years Avith little satisfaction, but it Avas now 
too late to return to his former home — the old tree Avould not 
hear a second transplanting. He had married a wife, also — in 
short, the landlady — yd could not help feeling that he Avas a 
stranger in a sli-ange land, and his soul Avas glad at the rare 



IIUESCA. SEUTORIUS. . Tl 

opportuuit}' of speaking his native tongue. I think he exerted 
his utmost skill to delight my palate, and succeeded, so that we 
became bosom friends during the few hours of my sojourn. 

Iluesca is a fine specimen of an old Aragonese city, though 
the hand of decay seems to be upon it. The country around is 
exceedingly fertile, and the water furnished by the Isuela raises 
its productive capacity to the highest point; but this of itself 
is not enough to maintain its former position. Being the capi- 
tal of a province, the Courts and Government give it some 
little appearance of life and elegance, which is wanting to its 
rival. Barbastro. The principal street is a fine one, clean, and 
lined with regular buildings, and the cathedral is a beautiful 
gothic edifice. The view from it over the Vega, and the numer- 
ous villages in sight — twenty they say — is very pretty. Yet, 
notwithstanding, it is painful to compare the present with the 
past of this venerable place. One of its noblest distinctions is 
still perpetuated, at least in name.. Sertoi-ius, whose fertility of 
genius, grand talents, and marvellous deeds in resisting so long 
the various Generals of Rome, recall the Italian campaigns of 
Napoleon, or the cqualh" celebrated one of 1814, made Iluesca, 
together with Evora, in Portugal, the joint capitals of his Gov- 
ernment. Few conquerors have evinced a desire to benefit the 
human race apart from the advancement of their own- renown. 
Sertorius was a grand exception. In the midst of the most 
intoxicating successes, the half-subdued melauchol}', even ro- 
mance, of his disposition, caused him to recognise and to seek 
some higher gratification than that arising from worldlv fame. 
Among other noble deeds was the founding here of a school or 
universit}", to which Spaniards of distinction were encouraged 
to send their children. After years of warfare, the Romans, 
despairing of victory in the open field, were saved by the faith- 
less Perpenna, who caused the hero to be assassinated at a feast. 
On opening his will, the vile traitor was found to be the chief 
object of his bounty. With him perished the institutions he 
had planted, but many centuries after, the university- was re- 
established, and in memory of its first founder, received the 
appropriate name of La Scrtoriana. Its glories, however, have 
decayed with the decaj'ing fortunes of the city. It is a high- 
school rather than a university, and of its former grandeur 
retains only the name. 

I made a desperate efi'ort to enjoy Huesca, but one morning 



72 SPAIN AM) TIIK SPAXIARDS. 

exhausted its wonders, and for a stranger, its agreoabilities. 
The diligence to Zaragoza, in which I had secured a phice, 
passed over a fine road, but through a parcliod, wind-blown 
country, until it reached the valley of the Ebro, and then 
nature put on her fairest robes. The water of the river, drawn 
off through a hundred canals, converted its Vega into a gartlen 
groaning beneath crops of every description, both tropical and 
temperate. Threading these evidences of exuberant fertility, 
we crttssed a magnificent bridge, and entered the world-rc- 
nowncd cajdtal of Aragon. 



Chapter V. 
ZAEAGOZA— JOURNEY TO MADRID. 

Maid of Zarago/.a — Siege — The Seo — El Pilar — The Miracle — Casa de Diputa- 
cion — Aragdiiesc Liberty — Panorama — Aljafcria — Life — Journey — Spanish Dili- 
gence — Accident — Calatayud — Alcolea del Pinar — A Spanish Beauty — Guadala- 
jara — The Mendozas — Alcala. 

"Roughing it'' is very pleasant, but I confess it was refresh- 
ing once more to see an iron bedstead, a footbatli, and the 
other appliances of a first-rate hotel. Drawing the bed out of 
the alcove, which, though ornamental, is an abominable place 
to spend the night in, 1 slept soundly, being disturbed only by 
dreaming that the French were bombarding the city, and 
awakening to find the Barcelona diligence rushing at half- 
speed beneath the window, through the Coso, as the principal 
street is called. Sunrise found me pacing around the walls — 
not so diflicult a task as one would suppose, and at that hour 
of the day, under the shady avenues, rather a ])leasant prom- 
enade. This accomplished, and a general notion of the city 
obtained, I at once proceeded in search of el PortUlo, the gate 
where Agostina, the famous Maid of Zaragoza, snatched the 
torch from the d^-ing artilleryman and sent fiery death into the 
ranks of her country's foes. A cicerone had been procured for 
me at the hotel, and, it seems, had been on the steps waiting as 
I i^assed, but, in truth, he had such a Jose Maria air that no 
one would have thought him engaged in so peaceful an occupa- 
tion, and he turned out, in fact, to know less of the place than 
I did myself. Wiiile I was, therefore, engaged in making 
enquiries among the loiterers around the Portillo, a person 
passed, who, fortunately^ could point out the very spot where 
the heroine stood, about a hundred yai'ds inside of the present 
gate. His father was a prisoner at the time, but his mother 
had witnessed the occurrence, and often described it to him. I 



74 SPAIN AMI THE SPANIARDS. 

stood reverently upon the lialloweil ground, for if there is an}'- 
thing in history worthy of admiration, it is tlie conduct of the 
women of Zaragoza, both peasant and noble, in their resist- 
ance to the most unjust of aggressions, and against a mighty 
con<pieror, at the sound of whose footsteps all Europe trem- 
bled. The heroine of this incident is most conspicuously known 
to fame, but there were hundreds of others who, like the 
Countess of Bureta, amid the roar of artillery and the crash of 
their liomes. faithfully and fearlessly discliarged their duty to 
the living and the dying — objects of sacred imitation. The 
resistance offered is surprising, wlu>n we reflect that Zaragoza 
is without walls capable of withstanding artillery, and that up 
to this period the f^rench had scared}' found an}' in Europe 
who dared to oppose them longer than a few montlis. and then 
only after great preparation. But the physical and material is 
a small part of the siege of Zaragoza: it is the moral that 
redounds so much to the credit of its defenders, and sbows in 
such striking and peculiar colors the character of the inhabit- 
ants of Aragon, A comparative handful of troops, with no 
hope of aid from without, and no definite end in view, actuated 
simply by a hatred of submission to the invader, braved the 
hitherto unconquered terror of the world, and with such suc- 
cess that it seemed as though the personal attention of the 
great war god himself would be necessary for its reduction. 
After the breach of the outer wall had been effected, the contest 
was continued from house to house with bayonet and knife. 
The passage of the streets was as dangerous as crossing the 
ditch of a fortress. Even when the French reached the Coso, 
every eti'ort to seize the houses on the opposite side was for a 
long time baffled. The defence of Zaragoza ma}- have been 
an isolated effort leading to no tangible result, and an error in 
a mere strategical ])oint of view, but its moral effect is not 
thus to be measured, as it furnished a model for the resistance 
of the S]janiar(ls during the whole war. The siege of Gerona, 
during the same mighty contest, that of Barcelona in 1828, and 
of Saguntum and Numantia in ancient history, ai'e j^arallel 
instances of the same spirit. From time immemorial, the Ara- 
gonese have been noted for obstinacy of character and fixed- 
ness of purpose. Less fortunate in external polish than perhaps 
other portions of their countrj^nen, they amply compensate for 
its absence by the more solid virtues. Industrious, energetic, 



CHARACTER OF THE ARA(iONESE. / 

possessing in an eminent degree what the French call droiture, 
they have always enjoj^ed more of practical liberty than was 
the usual lot of the Peninsula, though their province produced 
few of the exalted geniuses which bore so ])roudly alolt the 
flag of old Spain. Even down to the time of JMiiliji H, during 
the age of Charles V, of Henry VIII, and Elizabeth, they main- 
tained their independence of (he royal authority. It is true, 
this attachment to liberty sonietiiurs runs into extremes, and 
the common people are much given to be camorrista, or head- 
breaking; but when there is occasion for it, they are never 
backward in giving a fair share to the enemies of their coun-' 
try, which makes amends for little faults at home. 

Zaragoza boasts two cathedrals, which appear conspicuousl}'" 
on approaching the city. The most ancient is styled the Seo, 
the old Tiimousin word for cathedral, a grand, venerable struc- 
ture, though blocked up, as such edifices too frequently arc, by 
all sorts of inferior buildings. It would be scarcely possible to 
enter into a minute description of its treasures, without copy- 
ing confidingly from Ponz and other books, as the faint light 
scarcely affords the traveller an opportunity of seeing, much 
less of criticising them. The general elfect in the morning Avas 
exceedingly impressive. Badly lighted at best, the interior, at 
that early hour, was shrouded in gloom — a few rays only 
struggled down from the dome; the whole producing the soft 
influence which such edifices should. The chapels contain 
man}^ magnificent funeral monuments, the grandest of which, 
according to the usual fate, honors the least worthy — the inqui- 
sitor, Pedro Arbuez, whose cruelties and oppressions drove the 
])opulation to madness. One of the gi'cat patrons of the Seo 
Avas tlie Cardinal Pedro de Luna, a schismatic Pope, under the 
title of Benedict XIII, who is here commemorated. With 
true Aragoncse obstinacy, he resisted all attempts to procure 
his resignation. It is narrated that on the introduction of a 
delegation of black friars from the Council of Constance upon 
some such errand, he exclaimed: "here come the crows." 
" Where the carcase is, thither come the crows," wittily replied 
one of the brethren. But wit was as ineflfectual as violence; 
he died at the age of ninety, defying his enemies to the last, 
like a true Iberian. 

From the Seo I ])roceeded immediately to the Cathedral of 
Nuestra Senora del Pilar. Near the steps a beggar held out 



76 SPAIN AND THK SPANIARDS. 

his hand, in wliich I placed a copper. Another, who appeared 
equally meritorious, came forward ; it would seem partiality to 
refuse him. Two women now advanced with like recommend- 
ations. I'nfortunately. this last act of licneficencc took place 
at the entrance, and half a dozen rushed forward to the Sama- 
ritan, so unexpectedly dropped from Heaven, ci-ying "Seiiorito! 
una limosiia para el amor de Dios I" This was too much, and I 
took refui^e incoiitinentl}' hchind the fount of holy water, 
which they could not pass. They were the onl}' ones I encoun- 
tered from Venasque to Madrid, and that, too, in a country 
where, if you believe travellers, beggars compose half of the 
pojuilation. 

The Cathedral of our Lady of the Pillar, an enormous struc- 
ture some five hundred feet in length, Avas as full of light as 
the Seo had been of darkness, and for this reason the first 
impression was an unpleasant one. It was impossible to avoid 
seeing what was going on, and everybody and evcr^'thing 
within the walls, so that the congregation must have continu- 
allj' felt that the}' were in the world and of it. The verj' mag- 
nificence of the choir and the high altar was disagreeable, as 
the mind was filled with what you saw, and existence was an 
existence of the eyes. Kor during n\y 6ti\y in Zaragoza was I 
able to overcome the first impression; whereas, a visit to the 
Seo was always productive of pleasure. The original cathedral 
was erected to coinniemorale the descent of the A''irgin u])on a 
certain ])illar, since held in great veneration, and enclosed in a 
chapel especialh" dedicated to the purpose, which, by wa}' of 
exception, is built in the bod}' of the church. It is an oval, 
of the Corinthian order, and of a i-iclmess of decoration un- 
bounded. According to the tradition, St. James had been 
instructed by her to erect a temple upon the spot where the 
new religion should be most favorably received. In compliance 
with her request, ho had Avandered through many lands, and 
was finally engaged in baptising the faithful in the waters of 
the Ebro, when a bright effulgence displayed the Queen of 
Heaven upon this pillar, pointing out the chosen spot. A mass 
was celebrating as I entered. It Avas, of course, numerously 
attended, and, apparently, by persons deeply imbued Avith feel- 
ings of devotion. My attention Avas particular!}' attracted to a 
beggar in the depths of poverty and misery, if his outAvard 
man corresponded Avith his real circumstances. Dirty, shriA'- 



THE PILLAR. — BKLIEF IN THE MIRACLE. 77 

elled, and vesting upon two crutches, he limped up to the grat- 
ing in front of the altar and threw in, one by one, coppers to an 
amount that, by a reasonable calculation, might have supported 
him a whole week. It would be useless to question the sincer- 
ity of his belief The rest of the worshippers, though not so 
demonstrative, were, doubtless, equally in earnest, as their 
countenance, plainly evinced. 

I took my place among them on bended knees. True, I did 
not believe that the Virgin had descended upon the pillar, any 
more than a great manj- good Catholics. Yet, there was a cer- 
tain pleasure in participating in the worship. Was it religion? 
was it poetry? was it sjnnpathy with the bj^-standcrs ? . or was 
it a mere revery ? I cannot answer satisfactorily even to my- 
self; but it was a pure, placid emotion, that I have often felt 
upon such occasions, and which, if not religion, is very nearl}' 
allied to it. Some Protestants regard such ceremonies and 
those who participate in them with a species of aggressive con- 
tempt. I cannot sympathise with them. Ever^^ revealed .sys- 
tem must rest for its foundation upon either reason or faith. 
The former decides upon evidence, scrutinised by the light of a 
critical intellect; the latter seeks its "evidence of things un- 
seen" only in the heart. How many of us have intelligence, 
learning, or leisure to investigate the grounds of our belief in 
even the simplest article of faith? What immense erudition is 
requisite to decide whether the gospels containing a narrative 
of the Saviour's life be forgeries, revelations or mere histories ? 
How often do sects split upon the mere literal rendering of a 
Greek sentence? And if the learned, who have devoted their 
whole lives to this alone, be so feeble, how shall we expect 
strength of wisdom from the mass of mankind, who have 
not the first element of critical science? We believe in the 
existence of a Saviour, and denounce as infidels and horrible 
monsters all who refuse assent to our faith. And wh}- do we 
thus believe? Because we have been told so in our youth by 
persons of learning and probilv, in whom we have confidence, 
and whose better judgment in this matter we substitute for our 
own. The Aragonese believes in the Madonna del Pilar for 
identically the same reasons. The Protestant points to St. 
Bomenic, Torquemada and Alexander VI ; the Aragonese to 
Calvin, Luther and Henry VIII. The only satisfactory argu- 
ments, after all, to the common mind, being those drawn a pos- 



78 SPAIN AMI TIIK SPANIARDS. 

teriori from the effects produced by each religion. And oven 
here the danger of confusion is great, by mixing up mere 
church polity with religion itself, for the temporal power of 
Spanisli bishops is no more an essential part of the Catholic 
religion, than that of the English bishops is of the Protestant. 
The character of the jjriests, too, varies with locality and sur- 
rounding influences. Many in the humbler ranks of the vSpanish 
clergy are unfit for their place, and have followed the profession 
for a living. Can more be said for the English? Read Thack- 
eray and Charlotte Bronte, and if they fail to convince, consult 
the living exemplars. At all events, the higher walks of the 
Spanish dergj' are filled witli the noblest and purest of men, 
and no one of them in our day has enriched his family with 
£100,00(1, hoarded from a salary which was granted to him for 
the support of the poor and necessitous. Nor does morality 
seem to be merely a question of religion. The lower order of 
Scotch are moral, industrious and Protestant; the lower order 
of Irish are moral, indolent (in li'cland) and Catholic; the 
lower order of English are immoral in the last degree, imlustri- 
ous and Protestant. The Protestant idea is, perhaps, better 
fitted for the affairs of this world, as it dwells more upon the 
fulfilment of our duties towards our feUow-man. In a word, it 
is a line support for those who, in the consciousness of strength, 
need no assistance. But for the l>roken in spirit, for those who, 
disappointed in their hopes, and cruslicd beneath an unrelent- 
ing fate, would fain turn from the world and forget its jilea- 
sures and sorrows alike, I fear it offers little consolation. 
Even for the earth we need something more than morality, 
something apart from and higher than humanity or its virtues, 
as is, proven by the small number of Protestant cliurches in 
which the Protestant idea is carried out to its legitimate 
deductions. It is, therefore, the height of an absurd vanity for 
us, with upcast eyes, to thaidc the Creator for not having made 
us like those publicans. Be all this as it ma}', I feel a profound 
respect for sincere devotion, wherever and however manifested. 
Not only so, but I have ever considered it consistent both with 
courtesy and ]irinciple to honor religious ceremonies even when 
tliey might not nu'et with my ]>ersonal approbation. I have 
knelt before the Elevation of the Host and bowed my head on 
the Pasco at the solemn peal of the Angelus, without feeling 
myself the worse therefor, and some of the pleasantcst recol- 



CASA DE LA DIPUTACION. — OLD ARAGONESE LIBERTY. 79 

lections of my life are these Spanish cathedrals, where the 
sombre grandeur of the architecture and the devotion of the 
congregation harmonized in elevating me above the mere 
materiality of existence. 

Between the cathedrals, and near the Seo, are the remains 
of the Casa de la Diputacion, where the old Parliament held 
its sittings. The Aragonese are justly proud of the liberty 
which their ancestors enjoyed. Of coui-se, it was not a demo- 
cratic liberty, sucli as we now tliiiil': indispensable, for in the 
middle ages no such idea was recognized, except, perha])s, in 
a few commercial cities, and even there in a very modified 
form. But in Aragon, Government was. acknowledged to he a 
contract, which required obedience from .sovereign and subject 
alike — a sort of Constitution, Avhich was carefully impressed 
upon each succeeding monarch by the formula of coronation, 
" We, Avho as good as 3'ou, and together more than you, make 
you our King and Lord, upon condition that you respect our 
privileges and liberties; and if not, not." Nor could the sov- 
ereign enter upon the exercise of his powers, until mutual 
oaths had been taken in Zaragoza, Barcelona and Valencia. 
The rights of the subject were not considered franchises ex- 
torted from the monarch's hands by successful rebellion, but 
were regarded as inalienable, even though in abeyance. Not 
'content with this, they established a grand Court, composed of 
the Justicia, who held by life tenure, and who was especially 
charged with the preservation of the constitutional guarantees. 
He could draw to his jurisdiction all complaints of illegality, 
even against the king; could discharge, by a species of habeas 
corpus^ all persons unjustly confined, and protect them for a 
day afterwards. He was thus enabled to save the monarchy 
against the danger of popular revolutions by restraining its 
head from the commission of those acts of tyranny which gen- 
erally give rise to such commotions. A sort of Council of 
Associates was nominated by the king out of a list presented 
by the Cortes as a check upon his power, and a Committee of 
four Inquisitors drawn by lot — one from each branch of the 
Cortes — met on the 1st of April and sat for eight days, to hear 
all complaints that might be made against him or his associates 
by any except the king. If presented by them, he was tried 
by seventeen Judges, taken likewise by lot from the whole 
Cortes, and i)unislu'd at discretion. This was really our sy.s- 



80 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

tern of Government in its essentials — a fundamental law, above 
the riovernment, and an independent .Tufliciary, to ])revent 
infractions of tliat fundamental law, the differcnec being that 
our Constitution embraces and protects all; their's, as a gen- 
eral rule, only the privileged classes. Aragon and the United 
.States are the onl}' countries in the world that have ever em- 
l)odifd the true conception of a free Government, viz : a machine 
which shall jireserve order and protect the nation, while guar- 
antying the rights of the minority against the power of the 
mere majority. The English, to this day, though compara- 
tively a IVee peoj)le, live, so far as their Constitution is con- 
cerned, under the absolute control of a majorit}-. One vote in 
the House of Commons (itself representing a twentieth of the 
nation; may change the ministry, fill the House of Lords with 
its creatures, and pass any laws, however pi*eposterous, which 
the Courts have frequently declared that they have no power 
to arrest. The nineteenth century furnishes exam[)les of the 
way ill which this may be accomplished. The House of Aus- 
tria found the Constitution of Aragon very inconvenient. 
I'hilip II swept away the last trace of its liberties, and the 
French battered down the Parliament House. 

Among the sights of Zaragoza is the princely mansion of 
the great merchant, Zaporta, and one or two others of like rep- 
utation. Their glories are departed. Half the columns of the* 
arcades are destroyed, and the courts lumbered up with every 
unsuitable thing. Zaragoza is no longer the c:ii)ital of a great 
kingdom, with monarch and nobles and the attendant luxuries 
of a court; Madrid has alis()rl)e(l all that class of the ]>opula- 
tion, and, until revived liy the railroads now in progress, she 
must l>e content to see her ancient palaces crumble. I confess, 
too. that, fresh from the ])alaces of (Jenoa, I was not filled with 
the orthodox degree of admiration in visiting these. 

The panorama from the Torre Nueva is fine. Of course, you 
are exi)ected to admire the clock, and to read the numerous 
sentences on the wall, in a very old handwriting, wai-ning the 
visitor to jireparc for death: not altogether inaj)|)ropriate, as 
the tower leans consideraldy from the pei-pendicular. On every 
side are visible the ravages of the French artiller}-. The 
facade of the Sta. Engracia still remains upright, a lonely wit- 
ness to its horrors, the monastery and the body of the church 
having been utterly destroyed. This monastery was founded 



WALKS. ALJAFERIA. 81 

by Ferdinand and Isabella, and was famous foi- its relies and 
for the tombs of the o-reat historians, Blaneas and Zui-ita, who 
have so nobl^^ ])reserved the records of departed libert}-. The 
main attack of the French, at the second siege, was in this 
quartei-, and the breach was effected, if I mistake not, by a 
mine under this very church. Many of the half-ruined and 
deserted convents ai-e turned into i;-ranaries and sometimes 
stables. Monks and nuns have been swept ixwiiy by the pro- 
gress of events, and throughout Si)ain their habitations are 
desolate. The C'asa de Misericordia, for the agi'd jxku-, u fine 
building, and a most ]M'aiseworthy institution, makes a grand 
show from this tower. The view extends be3'ond the city over 
the valley, for a long distance up the hills on cither side. The 
position of the French batteries is easily recognized. Modern 
im|)rovements in artillery have nOAV rendered such a defence as 
tiiat of Zaragoza more difficult, and it is easy for us to see how 
feeble the guns of that day must have been; but their effect is 
painfully apparent in the Faubourg, beyond the Ebro, which 
has never recovered from the devastation. 

The principal and only fine street in Zaragoza is El Coso, 
which cannot rival the Calle de Alcala, hut the walks outside 
tlie city walls may challenge comparison witb the best. An 
Alameda, not yet finished, and which will be very handsome 
some day, leads out ot the gate of Sta. Engracia, by the statue 
of Piginitelli, lately erected, to a beautiful avenue, wliere you 
may stroll the hottest da}" with jjleasure, to the Casa Blanca 
on the grand canal- — a shady spot dedicated to dancing the 
jota, and other Aragonese amusements. To the north-west, 
likewise, M'ithout the walls, is one of the few remains of the 
Moorish dominion in Aragon — the Aljaforia — a castle-palace of 
the Beni llud, who do not appear generally to have emulated 
the taste of their Andalusian rivals for the fine arts. The 
Aljaferia is a fine old pile, and, after passing through the hands 
of the Inquisition, has been appropriated to the use of the gar- 
rison, Avho, though by profession men of blood, are by practice 
gentle lambs, compared with their 2)redeccssors. It was here 
that occurred the first abortive attempt at revolution against 
the Scrtorius Government. Its gallant leader paid the penalty 
of his life, but his memory was avenged by the Vicalvarists. 
Mr. Ford mentions the Aljaferia as the birth-])lace of Sta. Isabel 

7 



S2 SPAIN AM) THE SrAMARDS. 

of Ilun;;ary. I think he is iiiislaki'ii ; this was a diflVroiit per- 
son, and died in Portugal, of whiclj eomitry she was queen. 

Anion^jj my casual aecjuaintances ut Zaragoza was a Freneh 
exile, a lawyer, whom I met at the tertulia of my banker's 
wifr. lit- was hcartil}' tired oi" it ; complained dreadfully of 
the hatred which the inhahitants bore to the French and Eng- 
lish ; that they called his countrymen (/((hachos, (a word whose 
precise signitication is uncertain ;) that he kept on good tei-ms 
with ever}' one, because he never entered into an argument; 
assassinations were frequent ; the women, though handsome, 
took no exercise J the people of property entertained very lit- 
tle ; the j)riests were all Carlists at heart, praying a restoration 
of the feudal Government and the Inquisition. The only 
thing he ])raised was the climate, and he had lived here seven 
yi-ars without knowing what it was to have a jiain or an ache. 
All this must be taken with many gi-aius of allowance, and 1 
was far from adopting his conclusions. The fate of an exile is 
a hard one, and few can bear it with equanimity. The expres- 
sion of his countenance was sad, indeed, and J dould not that 
he embraced the opjtortunity, shortly atterwards afforded, of 
returning to his native land. Kext me at the table d'hote of 
the hotel sat a navy oilicer an<l his wii'c, who were equall}^ 
decitletl in their praises. The golden mean j^roliaM}' lies 
between the two. 

Having spent as much time as was desiralde in Zaragoza, I 
took my scat one night, at eleven, r. yi., in the Ociiina of the 
diligence lor Madrid. We had just been favored with a mag- 
nificent tropical storm, '^fl.e rain had descended in torrents, 
and the thunder echoed around the city as though Ihe last 
trump had sounded. A subdued muttering anu^ng tlu' iiills, 
and piles of black clouds, seemed to threaten a renewal of its 
terroi-s, though the air had become so cool as to make us but- 
ton our coats and raise the windows of the coach. P>ut ])ublic 
conveyances in Spain wait for neither time nor tide. The 
Spanish diligence is doomed shortl}' to go the way of all flesh. 
For a progressive li-uveller. who •• docs u]i " western Euroj)e in 
six months, (as a fellow-countr3-maii, on his way to the East, 
once told me of his owii exjdoits.) the railroad is a great con- 
venience j but such as wish to see not only the configuration of 
the country, but the i)eople, and those of all ranks, will regret 
.this means of meeting agreeable, at least interesting, company, 



SPANISH DILIGENCE. — ENDURANCE OF roSTILIONS. 83 

and sometimes of making lastiiiji; acquaintances, which seldom 
happens in a railroad train. The machine, itself, is constructed 
upon the same plan as the French, but more commodious. The 
first copartmcnt, the berlina, next the team, has places for 
three, with windows in front and on the side, giving a view of 
the wliole country. Next comes the interior, for six, sitting face 
to ftice ; and last of all, the roionda, the inmates of which can 
scarcely be recognized after a dusty ride. On the top is the 
coupe. This vehicle, cumbrous as it seems, must not be con- 
founded in its rate of speed with the German lucxis-a-non-lucendo , 
Eilwagens and Sclinellposts. The rapidity with Avhich they 
are whirled along is startling; for the Spaniards are Jehus in 
their driving, and a ]ierson ignorant of the seven-fold hide that 
covers a Spanish mule's body, wouhl think it high time for tlie 
anti-cruelty-to-animal society to interfere, but one cut with the 
lash inflicts more pain u]>on one of our thin-skinned beasts 
than half an hour's beating u])on them. The geiieral director 
is styled the mayoral, an appellation common to most su])erin-. 
tcndents in Spain. Second in command under him is the zagal, 
who is changed at every relay, and sits in his seat on top, or 
anywhere else he can. Jlis principal occupation oi- amusement 
is, to descend at unexpected moments, and, running around the 
team, to administer a sound beating with rigid impartiality. 
Sometimes he fills his pockets with pebbles, and, with unerring 
accuracy of aim, communicates his wishes to the various ani- 
mals. His legs are of the most approved pattern and unques- 
tioned excellence. The last functionary is the postilion, the 
delantero, who generally rides the whole way through, if not 
more than forty hours, or so, though against the regulationw. 
Nothing has aroused my admiration more than the endurance 
displayed by these boys. They seem absolutely made of steel, 
and freed from the necessity of sleep. Formerly, no diligence 
was considered complete without an escopetero, armed with a 
formidable-^o/im^/ carbine; but the improvement of the (juardia 
civil, or country police, has rendered such a precaution unne- 
cessary, though he is still, occasionally, retained, from artistic 
considerations. The team consists of seven, or more, mules, 
and one postilion horse. The leinale muK's are gallantly jiro- 
vidcd with names, ('apitana, (ienerala, Xegra, which thev 
recognize perfectly; the males generally receive the generic 
designation of viaeho. One or another of these words is etcr- 



S4 SPAIN AM) TIIK SI'ANIAUDS. 

nally in the mouth of tho zaii:al, and a free passenger is 
expected t<i work his passage In" aiding in the vociferation. 
One such, the next day, seated just in front of berlifia, con- 
tinued, for three hours, without intermission, to cry out, andd ! 
Jtuhi .' andd! andd I dnda .' dnda! dnda ! dnda! until we were 
driven to desperation. 

Our ])ostilion was named ^lanuelito, a well-made, litlie, little 
fellow, of altout fifteen, lie wore a pair of blue pants, a gaily 
ornamented velveteen jacket, with a segar case stuck into one 
pocket, and a yellow handkerchief fluttering from the other. 
Around his waist was wound a bright red sash. The trumpet 
swung over his left shoulder, and one of his fingers boasted a 
silver ring. A leopard-skin cap, jauntily worn on one side, 
completed his costume. Manuelito was evidently proud of his 
post. As the weather looked threalcning, he donned his little 
<'.loak, mounted, and, amid frantic yells, w^e flew through the 
gate, over the fortress ditch, and commenced our journey. 

There was nothing to see, and no light to see it with, so 1 
composed myself to sleep, and slept soundly imtil the vehicle 
suddenly stopj^ed, and it seemed as if Babel had l)een destroyed 
again. We were descending a mountain side, a precij)icc on 
our left, the diligence slewed nearly at right-angles across the 
road, and the nine mules kicking for life. The three extra 
passengers, friends of the mayoral, were ihirting off from the 
ledge in front of the heiilna, like frightened birds. But far, far 
above all rose the multitudinous sound of oaths, every man 
swearing ior three and crying out ^^ Para el coche! que va a. 
tnatarse el macho!"' The tongue had broken, and as the for- 
wartl animals are attached, not to the tongue, but to the body 
of the vehicle itself, it had continued to proceed, the broken 
(uid lacerating the side of one of the wheelers considerably 
before the motion could be arrested. With some difficulty the 
animals wei'c unhitched. Then, again, rose the sound of many 
voices: who had first perceived the trouble; Avho had not; who 
first cried out; the mule was mucli hurt;, the mule was not 
much hurt, i.*i:c., &c. Then every one took out his tobacco 
pouch and coolly made a cigarette. I began to think we were 
in for the night, but after ten minutes the cigarettes were 
smoked out, and the mayoral commenced mending the tongue 
in a really workmanlike manner, so that it lasted till we 
reached Madrid. When I next awoke it was daylight, and we 



ALMUNIA. — CALATAYUD. 85 

were threading the mountain country that leads into the prov 
ince of Ahiuinia. The bk^xk slopes were covered with flocks 
of sheep and herds of donke^^s, who gleaned a meagre support 
under the charge of dogs and wild-looking men, clothed in 
sheep-skins. One little girl, tending a single sheep, had quiti' 
a romantic appearance in this savage wilderness. Descending 
out of the gorge, Ave entered the valle3- which leads to the town 
of Almunia, with its loop-iioled wall and ditch, suited to the 
warfare of the olden time. 

While we were waiting for chocolate, I took a stroll down 
the long straight street that runs through the centre, saw nolii- 
ing remarkable except some fine shoats, and was quite willing 
to proceed on the journey. The fertile vega of Almunia, with 
its vines, and olives, and fruit trees, is very pleasant to the 
sight after so much aridity, but the scenery soon, rehipsed into 
its former condition, and the road continued to ascend and 
descend the liills until we entered the enchanting vega ol 
Calatayud, b}' whose walls flow the Jalon and the Giloca. Here 
sun and water have done their utmost, and have produced a 
fertility without bounds. The temperate and south ten)])erate 
zones unite in emptying the horn of plenty into its lap. 
Among other productions it is famous for its hemp, which is 
considered much superior to tliat of Northern climates, and is 
preferred in Spanisii dock Awards. Calatayud, as its nainf 
(Kalat Ayub, the Castle of Job) indicates, was founded by the 
Moors. The materials were taken from the ruins of the Konian 
city Bilbilis, renowned as the birth-place of Martial, who, after 
leading the life of a brilliant rake in Rome, returned to pass 
the remainder of his days in contented seclusion at home. 
Bilbilis is another of the many ancient and important cities in 
Spain which have utterly disappeared. The diligence stopped 
at a posada without the walls, fronting the promenade which 
skirts the river. I embraced the opportunity aftorded b}- the 
delay of breakfast, to stroll through the jirincipnl street, as it 
was probably the only occasion I should ever have. The out- 
side of things was prepossessing; streets scrujtulously neat, 
and a general air of well-being characterizing the population. 
Churches are numerous, to judge b}' the spires. I entered one, 
that of the Holy 8ei)ulchre, which was quite handsome and in 
ffood taste, (-alatayud is the second citv in the old iirovincc 
of Aragon, and is said to be the seat of much wealth. The 



86 SPAIN AM) TIIK SI'ANIARt>S. 

situation and the fertility of the surrouiuliriii; country yield to 
none in the north of Spain, and the climate is pleasant, except 
when the north-west wind blows over the Sierra of Moncayo, 
which elicits i)itter e<nnplaints on the part of the natives. In 
ancient times its waters weiv supposed to possess the same 
virtue in temperini^ steel, wliicli has since rendered Toledo so 
famous. I am not aware, however, of any manufactory at 
present existing. Calatayud has a unique peculiarity in Spain 
that no adjective has been formed to designate its inhabitants. 
Those of Madrid are styled mddrilcnos, of Malaga, malagucnos, 
of Cadiz, (jaditnhos, but some years ago a member of the Cortes 
having occasion to speak of tlu' iiili;il)itaiits of Calatayutl, found 
himself at a loss. Calatayudcnos was too harsh, so the extinct 
IJiibilis furnished the classical epithet of Bilbilitano, or some 
such woi-d. At least I was so told. 

A delightful breeze blcAv down the valley as Ave lost sight of 
Calatayud and continued our journey toward the mountain 
chains, separating Aragon from the plains of New Castile. 
Ateca offered its modest beauties. On the left, beyond the 
valley, were several fine ruins and one massive monastery or 
convent of apparently ancient <lato. My two companions in 
the berlina were returning from the baths of Panticosa, in the 
Pyrenees, a celebrated resort, though somewhat difficult of 
access. One was a Madrileno, the other an Estremeno, (Esti'c- 
mcduran,) both gentlemen, and agreeable people. They had 
taken me for a soldier, but our intercourse was peaceful, and, 
to me, instructive, as the society of intelligent Spaniards gen- 
erally is, because they preserve the freshness of their thoughts, 
and have some opinions beyond those contained in the news- 
papers. Of incidents the journey' was barren, except a famous 
stall in the team. The side of the road bad been covered with 
stones, lately placcil there foi- the pur]iose of inaeadamising. 
Manuelito conceived the idea ol' passing a string of wagons 
In' galloping over these stones, but tlio ascent was steep and 
wo stuck hopelessly fast, without being able to return to the 
beaten track. The animals wei-e beaten singly and collectively 
until I felt called ow to protest against such cruelty, and re- 
membering my boyish experience, when passengers were 
expected to carry rails to make corduroy for the stage coach, 
proposed that we should (lismounl and put our shoulders to the 
wheel, as that appeared to be tlie only chance. This seemingly 



ASCENT IN CASTILK. TlIK PEAUL OF ALCOLKA DKL PlNAll. 87 

novel expedient was adoj^ted. Tlie stones were scra])ed away 
in front of the wheels; we took our position l)eliind. At the 
given signal a general yell was raised. The zagal whipped tlio 
inules in front : we pushed in the rear, until our etforts were 
crowned with success, but Manuelito, who used to look around 
so smilingly, was now quite erest-thlleii and did not recover his 
spirits during the whole stage. 

As evening approached, we commenced the ascent of the 
mountain range which bounds the great central plateau of 
Spain. The road followed a bounding stream, that leaped from 
ledge to ledge of rock, and covered the vallc}^ with herbage of 
softest texture, receiving frequent rills, that coursed down the 
mountain side. Venerable nogales and other deciduous trees, 
extended their foliage over us. The scene was diversified by 
scattering farm-houses and occasional castle ruins which de- 
monstrated the importance of the pass in the wars before the 
union of the two Crowns. Kalf way up was a noble monas- 
tery, grandl}^ situate upon an immense mass of rock. As night 
closed in, we reached the summit of the ridge, where \\q took 
our mounted guard, and proceeded along the table-land called 
Llanura de las Scrranias, which separates the province of Soria 
from that of Guadalajara, and i- almost above the limit of cul- 
tivation. About ten o'clock, a halt was called for supper at 
Alcolea del Pinar, which lies upon the brow of the. ridge, where 
it begins to sink to the south-west. 

It was a short meal with me, and I descended from the 
Posada to enjo}' the bracing atmosphere. The little town is 
on one of the most elevated situations in the peninsula, and 
exposed to the winds which swept over the plains of New Cas- 
tile, and whistled gently around the streets. The temperature 
was delicious — elasticity itself — with the freshness of our No- 
vember, just cool enough to render desirable a light cloak 
thrown over the shoulders. All around was bathed in the mel 
low light of the moon. On a])i»roa(hing the diligence, I beheld 
one of those visions which oftentimes make the stranger in 
Spain regret that h*e was born. It was a young lady, cast in 
the fairest mould of her sex ; a transparent, rich, blonde com- 
plexion (not the ])each and ap])le of Northern climes), exquis- 
itely chiselled mouth and chin, mild but expressive blue 03-08, 
glos.sy raven locks, and a grace of person betrayed in ever}- 
attitude — truly an apple of gold in a net-work of silver. She 



88 SP.XIN AM> TIIK SPANIARDil. 

8ecmod an Ionic oolninn. (Irapi'd for an artist's pencil. I em- 
liracc«l tlie first opportunity of olforin!^ some courtesy, and of 
evincing a respectful admiration. Her voice was a fit accom- 
paniment to the expression of such beaut}'. She had only come 
to see a friend olT. and as the signal for dejjarture sounded, I 
entered the diligence, sorrowful to think that this brilliant, 
])ure as the Itreeze that floated b}*, would probably be thrown 
b}' fate to some creature incapable of appreciating its excel- 
lence. Her name is unknown to mo, as her friends dismounted 
during the nigiit, and I had no informant save my dreams, yet 
I am sure it was Inez. 

I awoke as the first streak of dawn l)egau to pur])le the East. 
Ahead and behind, and on both hands, extended the plains of 
Castile, covered with tlie stul)l»le of tlie wheat — the best in 
Kurope, which had just been harvested. Donkeys and slieep 
were gleaning the remains. AVc reached Torrijo, with its an- 
cient walls and towers, and fine old ruined castle commanding 
the valley, down which avc whirled along the bank of the river, 
enveloped in a choking dust, apparently six inches deep. The 
Aragonese costume had disappeared; tlie hat and sombre brown 
cloak of jxtfio jxirdo of Castile were now universal. In the 
due course of events, we arrived at the City of Guadalajara 
(Wady al Ilajar — the lliver of liocks), where we had to wait 
some time for the departure of the train, wliich 1 spent in 
reviving my recollection ol' the place. In the niidtUo ages, it 
was renowned tor the deeds of the Cid and his family, and was 
one of the outposts of Christendom against the kingdoms of 
Valencia and Murcia. It was subsequently made the residence 
of the great family of the ^Mendozas, one of the noblest names 
in JMirope. fulfilling for centuries every requisite of nobility. 
Like most other of its compeers, its origin is lost in the l>and of 
sturdy warriors who. in the eighth century, rallied around Pe- 
laijo and his successors in the mountain fastnesses of x\.sturia. 
In the lifleeiilh century, the Manpiisate of Santillana, the 
second created in Spain, was conferred upon Don Inigo Lopez 
de M<'nd()za, so famous for his statesmanslfip and his literary 
acc<»mplishments. Jlis little ballad, commencing 

Moza tan fermosa, 
Noll vi en la IVoiitera, 

continues to l>e atlmircd in our day. Of his sons, the elder, 



tup: mendozas. 89 

Don Diego Hurtado, was created Duke del Infantado. The 
territory composed of the cities of Alcocer, Salmeron, Valde 
Olivas, and others depending upon them, was called the Infan- 
tazgo or Infantado, because it had been possessed by various 
Infantas. Henry tlie IV bestowed it upon Don Diego Hur- 
tado, and, in 1475, it was erected into a Dutchy in reward of 
his services. Proud of the literary reputation of liis father, 
tlie great Martinis, he had entaiU^d the library, and directed 
that it should be preserved in the palace at Cluadalajara. 
AVhether it has escaped the ravages of war, I do not know. 
The younger son was made Count of Tendilla, who was suc- 
ceeded in his honors and titles by Tnigo Lopez, second Count 
of Tendilla, and first Marquis of Mondejar, one of the most 
celebrated of the Generals who aided in the conquest of Gran- 
ada. He was the father of five sons, all of them attaining 
great distinction in their several occupations, particularly Don 
Diego Hurtado, the authoi- of thv- classic Guerra de Granada, 
who, in war, statesmanship and literature, worthily sustained 
the reputation of his fiimily. The famous Cardinal Mendoza, 
Avho raised the standard of the cross upon the Torre de la 
V'ela, in the Alhanihra, and was styled the third King of Spain, 
is familiarly known to all Americans. One of the last of the 
race unhesitatingly placed his immense fortune at risk in the 
War of Independence against the French, who, in revenge, 
sacked the palace at (iuadalajara. and even desecrated the 
tombs of his ancestors, while ]Sapoleon excepted him from the 
general amnesty. This is an aristocracy indeed. Within the 
few past years the title has liecome e.xtinct, or rather has lost 
its separate existence, by merging in the ducal iamily of 
Ossuna. 

The Mendoza palace is still the great attraction of Guadala- 
jara, though sadly fallen from its historic grandeur. Its size is 
immense, and its first court magnificent. Some of the vast 
suites of rooms 3'et retain remnants of former l)eauty,and here 
and there is a rust}' relic of ancient days The church of the 
Franciscans is more interesting, for here arc the tombs of 
those proud Avarriors and statesmen whose fame once filled the 
earth. Bcsi<le8 this, there is little of interest at Gua<lalajara, 
though the town i.; clean, and comparatively well Imilt, and it 
is the seat of the excellent engineer school of the army. 

At length the diligence was placed on a car, and we started. 



90 SPAIN AND THK SPANIARDS. 

Manuelito oollcoted his pcsrta, from the company, which I paid 
willingly. With the exception of one stage, wiien tlie leader 
was a little unwell, he h;i<l lieeu in the saddle for thirty-one 
hours, and had made a distance of forty-five lea<:jues, all the 
time at a hard trot or i^allop. Instead of going to sleep, as I 
should have done, he made up a scgar which I gave him, into a 
dozen cigarettes, and commenced enjoying himself. The coun- 
try to >ra«lrid was, as usual in the Castiles, a table-land or 
mountain plain. Innumerable threshing-floors were in opera- 
tion. Machines of the rudest description, such as described in 
the Old Testament. As the summer is generalh' a continuance 
of fair weather, the sheaves are not housed, but placed on a 
level spot — the era — and threshed by means of a sort of sled — 
a trillo — driven over them, the trillador standing upon the trillo. 
In winnowing, instead of using fans, the operatives throw the 
grain with shovels to windward, which causes the chaff to be 
blown back upon themselves, so that I wonder there should be 
any eves left in Castile after the harvest. The ancient city of 
Alcalii de Ilenares, so renowned for the University of Cardinal 
Ximenes, since removed to .Madrid, and for the C()in])lutensian 
Bible, looked as it did formerl}'. One of the villaa:es on the 
road has attained a celebrit}'' since my first visit — Vicalvaro, 
the scene of the battle between the troops of the Sartorius 
Government and O'Donnel and Dulce — who have consequently 
been called the Vicalvarists, or, as they call themselves, the 
" heroes of Vicalvaro." Winding around the observator}- hill, 
we entered the station of Madi-id, and, hitching on five grays, 
drove up the Prado and down the magnificent street of Alcahi 
to the hotel. 



Chapter VI. 
M A D R T T) . 

Lodgings— Domestic Life— Situation and Climate— Office Seeking— Puerta del Sol— 
The Subject of Talk— Its Attractions— Gallegos—Manolas— Society— Opera and 
Theatre— The Madrilenos— Christmas— La Nochc Buena— Habits of Life— The 
Prado— El Dos de Mayo— Palace— The Mauzauares— Academy of San Fernando 
— The Museo — The Armeria— Street Scenes. 

As m}- sta,y in Madrid depended upon circumstances beyond 
my control, I went ini mediately into lodgings, where I found 
myself very comfortable. My hostess being an Andaluza from 
Seville, was, of course, graceful and talkative, and retained con- 
siderable traces of a blonde beauty, that must have increased 
her attractions -a great many years ago. The rooms were as 
elegant, in a dit^erent style, as could have been furnished in 
Paris. The parlor to the front was provided with two balcon- 
ied windows, which afforded a view of "over the way," and 
also up and down the well-thronged street. The sleeping 
apartment was of modest dimensions, but sufficiently large, and 
provided' with mirrors and tables of modern make; a fine 
Valencia matting, made of the esparto, which grows in that 
province, covered the floor. In ftict, I was somewhat surprised 
at the progress which had been made since my last visit, for 
lodgers then had to content themselves with pieces of furni- 
ture, that in aspect and position resembled a broken down 
quadrille. Everything was scrupulously neat. Of the two 
female domestics, one was a Valencian, the other a Castillian, 
and each duly impressed with the superior merits of her pro- 
vince. During mv sojourn, they took frequent occasions of 
discoursing to^ne \r>on the subject, all of which I heard with 
interest and a certain profit. Nothing gratifies any .Spaniard 
more than a patient listener to such dissertations. The hos- 
tess was particularly glowing in her eulogies upon Seville, fair 



02 SPAIN AM> THK SPAMARnS. 

Seville, and insisted on my layiiii; the batlielor crown of mar- 
tyrdom at the feet of some Andaluza. In the spirit of contra- 
diction, I su^ge8t<>d a Valenciana. She scouted the idea, 
protesting tliat las Valmcianfrs son muy guapus. pero ;io t'wncn 
gracia ! no tienin qmcm! Whereas, tlie Anchihisians united 
beauty, grace, wit and sinc-n-ity. In my inmost luart I coukl 
not gainsay its truth. The only other ()ccii])ant was a young 
hiwyer from VaKncia, of an exceedingly mercurial tentpera- 
mmt. At times ver}- lively and entertaining; then again don- 
ning a face for a grievance In these latter moods he supjdied 
me witli enough scandal and complaints to have kept the whole 
profession occupied for a month. 

Tlie plan of living in Madrid is almost exclusively that of 
floors, very few families occupying an entire house. To this 
there are naturally- some objections, the principal of which is 
that the occupants h.ave no settled home; but as none exce])t 
tlie wealthiest can afibrd to purchase a large mansion, and of 
such is the city at present comi)osed, the great majority are 
compelled to choose between this, which at all events secures 
the ]>rivacy of a portion, or the aliominable system <il" hotel 
boarding, so prevalent in certain })arts of America, and which 
is, perhajis. the most ruinous plan ever contrived for break- 
ing down the sentiment of iamily — thai cm-ner-stone of a 
rei)ublic. For single gentlemen there are boarding houses, 
(casa de huespedes,} which are agreeable to strangers without 
acquaintance, as they frequently contain wvy pleasant cora- 
]iany, and are good schools for learning the language. Some 
(»f the nobility have enormous jialaccs, far more remarkable for 
theii- size than elegance. Tlu' I'l'sidcucf of the banker — Sala- 
manca, beyond the Pi'arlo, fornni'ly iielonging to the Queen 
mothei", is a l'(:mtiliil building. But the proprietors of ordi- 
nary wealth fre(piejitly content themselves with the first floor, 
leasing the others out in the usual manner. The house may 
thus be filled with all classes of society. On the ground floor 
will be a shop; in the entre-audo a family, or )»erhaps a barber 
or a modista; on the first floor the j>ro])i'ii'tor, and so on gradu- 
ally descending in woridl_\- means, though not necessarily in 
resjiectability, until the exi)lorer attains the poets and painters 
in the attic. As most Spaniards have very little ambition to 
nniki- a display in society, thcii- haliilalions are sufficient!}' 
large, and they wouhl have good reason to rejoice witli Soci'atcs 



SITUATION AND CLIMATE. 93 

if they could fill even tlie sinallost closet iu Madrid with true 
friends. 

However much a travellei- may read, he still, iu spite of hiui- 
self, expects to find Madrid embowered in orange groves and 
harmonious with the soui)- of niy-htingales. Such is far from 
being the realit3^ It has always been a puzzle to antiquaries 
to conjecture what possible reason could have induced the 
Spanish sovereigns to select Madrid as the site of their capitoh 
Except its lofty elevation above the Manzanarcs and its central 
position, it possesses not a single recommendation. They de- 
sei'ted the ancient cities which had occupied that pre-eminence 
— Seville. Cordova, Toledo, ^'alladoli(l, Burgos, Lisbon, for a 
miserable village, devoid alike of external beauty and historical 
reminiscences. It has grown to be a grand and magnificent 
city, but at a fearful cost both of money and life. The country 
for miles around is little better than a desert, producing scarce- 
ly any of the comforts which its society demands. Not a tree 
or shrul) enlivens its dreaiy plains, and even wood, (a few olive 
roots,} in a place where winter rages with unwonted severity, 
has to be transported from the truadari-ania. At its great 
elevation of twenty-five hundred feet, the summer's heat is 
intense, and iu winter, when the wind blows from the Guadar- 
rama, I have known the sentinels to freeze in their boxes at 
the Palace. Individuall}', I have no fault to find Avith the 
climate. The air is exceedingly dry, and I found both beat 
and cold invigorating. But the almost universal opinion is that 
there is no more detestable climate in the world, and the majo- 
rity is probably right. In the summer, the thermometer was 
generally quoted at two, p. m., as varying in cool spots from 
twetity-eight to thirty degrees Reaumur, and at daylight from 
fifteen to seventeen, and about ninety-five to one hundred, and 
sixty to sixty-five of Fahrenheit, so great is the radiation from 
this bare hill during the night. Crossing the Prado at noon to 
the j\luseo, does give one a premonitory idea of the lower re- 
gions, for the glare is so intense, that you scarcely dare open 
your eyes. In the winter, the temperature depends entirely 
upon the locality. On the sunny side of tbe street it is quite 
pleasant; cross to the shade, and you are transported to Ice- 
land. Notwithstanding the bitter cold, certain semi-tropical 
plants survive, owing, 1 suppose, to the excessive dryness of the 
atmosphere, which renders a frost very rare, simply benumbing 



04 SPAIN ANI> TlIK SPAMAUnS. 

tlK-in without inflicting furllicr injury. In addition to the mere 
discomforts of the climate, tlierc is the little mountain hreeze, 
which steals gently over the plain, freighted with death, and as 
they repeat, 

Mata ii un hninbrc, 
Y nil npii^a iinii Iu7.. 

The principal effect of an incautious exposure to this air is 
ihv puhnonia, which attacks man and beast alike, and is as sud- 
den and violent in its course as yellow fever. It is the great 
terror of the Madrileilos, and, probabl}-, a third of the deaths 
among the robust part of the population during the winter 
can be traced to this source. The best evidence of the un fa- 
vorable climate is to be found in the appearance of the families 
that have resided there continuously two or three generations. 
Very few exist after a hundred years, and the stranger is sur- 
prised to find how few among the inhabitants are city-born. 
They are hardly considered tit to nurse children, all who can 
afford it, employing for that purpose Pasiegas, natives of the 
Valley of the Pas in the north-west, who bring a stock of exu- 
berant health from their country. So far as jjliysical health is 
concerned, it would l)o better for the noliility to adopt the old 
Fi'ench plan of sending the children awa}' until they have 
attained size and strength. 

In spite of all these disadvantages, added \n the high ]ii-ice 
of the commonest necessaries of life, Matlrid is tlie great ^lecca 
in the eyes of most Spaniards. It is the Court— it alone is the 
Court. Fin- a hun(lre<l dillerent reasons they flock hither, some 
because the}' have received a little ofiice, some because thc}'' 
have received a promise of one, some because they hope to 
receive a promise of one; and, once hei-e, notliing but the 
direst necessity can drive them away. A change of ministry 
may cost the emplcado his place, but \\c. does not, therefore, 
return to the rank of citizen. He becomes a cesante, or, as it is 
more politely ex])resscd, sin einpleo, and lives on the Iio|)c of 
regaining his position. Ho enters tlie over-tilled I'anks of tlie 
" diseontented," and is ready for treasons, stratagems and s[)oils. 
The cmplco-numia, or rage for office, has been characteristic of 
Spain ever since the commencement of its decline. To attain 
this end they will go any lengths, suffer any })rivations, adopt 
any expedients. Strange that the}' never thought of the very 
simple one of organizing a party to proscribe the "wild hunt 



EMPLEO-MANIA. — PUERTA DEL SOL. 95 

aftei* office." Thc}- might even yet loam something from our 
Bide of the Avatcr. This state of things in vSpain can easil}* be 
accounted for. Under the reign of Charles V and Philij) II, 
the class oi' pretendientes was scarcely known, because of the 
continued external activity of the monarch}-, which oifered 
to every energetic person an avenue to wealth and distinction. 
Under their successors, the whole policy of the Government 
was changed. The nation, wearied with a world-sovereignty 
of a hundred years' duration, determined to be content with its 
present condition. From that moment, industry declined and 
finally died out, and there was no honest means left of gaining 
a livelihood. The poor gentlemen who had been accustomed 
to live by the sword, first pressed their claim upon the Govern- 
ment for a support. The example once set was universally 
followed, and thousands, who without being gentkMiien, were 
poor as any poor gentleman ever was, rushed forward. Crowds 
of gaunt figures beset the doors of the ministers, demanding, 
frequently, in no very humble tone, that their wishes should 
I>c complied with. Bad as things are, still they have changed 
much for the better; and, as industry revives, there is every 
reason to suppose that this ulcer of Madrid will disappear. At 
present, Madrid has all of the vices and few of the virtues of a 
great capital. Its bankers are speculators, or more money- 
changers, and its merchants shop-keepers. No one can point 
out the office it performs in the body politic, for it cannot even 
aspire to the position of the luxurious stomach, which, at all 
events, serves some good j^urpose. The spleen would suit it 
better, as the functions of that organ have not yet been satis- 
factorily ascertained. \Ye do ample justice to Madrid, if Ave 
rank it as the fly-wheel of the monarchy. 

The famous Puerta del Sol, or Gate of the Sun, is the great 
square of Madrid. No longer a gate, it is in the very centre of 
the city. In the last seven years, the mania for imiirovement 
has reached even this hallowed precinct, and a semi-circular 
space of buildings at the north has been demolished, in order to 
enlarge and to give it some regularity of shajie. One of the 
first buildings destroyed was the little church ot JVucstra 
Senoi'ci del Buen Suceso, with its illuminated clock, that stood 
to the east between the Calle de Alcald and the Callc de San 
Jeronymo. This is one of the few churches I ever entered in 
Madrid, as, for the most part, the}- possessed no attractions. 



96 SPAIN AMI TIIK Sl'ANIAUnS. 

Not so with the HiU'ii Sticcso, which w:is iho resort of the 
fashioiial<Ie worhl, owin<^ partly to its situation and partly to 
its privileges. As Madrid hours are very late, many a fair 
dunic used, on her way home in the mornin<j;, to rejient here 
tlie indiscretions of the evening's entertainment, and its ])riv- 
ilege of celebrating mass as late as two, p. m., drew the slothful 
to its altars. It was, moreover, an exceedingly convenient 
place for the loungers on the Plaza, and its clock is poorly 
replaced hy the one over the Cdsa de Correos. Readers of the 
old comedies will particularly regret its loss. Strangers from 
a distance, judging by the world-wide renown of the Puerta del 
Sol, expect to tind a park of many acres, laid out in grass-plats 
and fDUiilains. On tlie contrar}'', it is scarcely wider than some 
ol" our great avenues, and is paved with glaring stones, liut it 
is the heart of the Spanish monarchy. All the principal streets 
of the city empty into it. Everybody going from one quarter 
to another, and all the diligences cross it; every one who has 
no tiro at home, and nothing to do, (about ninety-nine per 
cent..) goes to the Puerta del Sol, to enjoy its sunshine ; every 
one who has a picayune's worth to buy or sell, passes by the 
Puerta del Sol; every one who desires to tell, or to hear a 
I'alsehood, goes to the J'uerta del Sol, so that about guard- 
mounting, the place is crowded with a motley assemblage of 
all ages ami costumes. Lq Sage certainly knew nothing about 
.Madrid, or he never would have taken the trouble to call up 
the JJevil-upon-two-sticks, Kl Diablo Cojuclo, to retail scandal. 
Los Diablos {'((juelos. that saunter aliout this s(juare, without 
the external cloven hoof, would willingly have saved his real 
majesty tiie trouble of aj)})caring. The middle-class of the 
population are, for the most ])art, idlers, whether cmplftKlos or 
eesantcs; the lower is coinj)osed of tiie xery dregs of the popu- 
lace from every city in Spain; the former always ready to 
excite, the latter always ready to carry out a revolution. 
Imagine them collected together, and solely occupied with each 
other's defects, and form an idea if you can of the conversa- 
tion. It' 1 believed one fortieth part of what I heard there, I 
would have thought there was not one honest man, woman or 
child above ten years of age, in the city ; that the judges were 
corrui)t, the ministers traitors, the priests atheists, the lawyers 
rogues, the doctors murderers, and the editors and telegraph 
agents a fraternity of liars. There is some truth in what they 



THE O DONNKL MINISTRY. Vi 

Avliispcr about, but the superstructure of senuflal is so enor- 
mous as to make one despair of finding the little layer of 
veracit}" below. In this place no reputation is sacred, and no 
slander too surprising- not to find some believers. I was told 
the most abominable things about the president of the minis- 
try, with a circumstantiality of narrative calculated to carry 
conviction. My inf>rmant Avas a ccsanfe. All the rest were 
handled in the same manner, and neither sex spared. The 
demolition of the church del Buen Suceso Avill be severely felt 
in the next world, for instant confession and absolution would 
be necessary to save some of these offenders. 

The alFair of the one hundred and thirty thousand loads of 
stone was ;i( this time making a great commotion. "Without 
entering into the matter minutel}-, it is sufficient to state that 
a member of the ministr}- of Sartorius was charged with being 
privy to a corrujit contract with the Government for the deliv- 
ery of stone. Jle had been impeached, but the Senate had 
failed to convict. Since then, a person behind the scenes had 
come out with an expose of an exceedingly damaging nature 
to the offender, who had replied from London. This brought 
forth a renewed attack. The Puerta del Sol was in its glory, 
the defenders of the Sartorius ministry carrying the war into 
yVfrica, by attacking 0'J)onnel, whose character could ill afford 
to lose anything. Unfortunately, the sun left but a small strip 
of shade in front of the Casa de Correos, so that the crowd was 
rather compact. Peace was maintained, however, lor no one 
objected to the abuse of his friends, provided his own liberty of 
speech were not restricted. The correspondents of the foreign 
newspapers wrote that the O'Donnel ministi-y would scarcely 
survive the shock caused by the failure to convict, or, perhaps, 
the attempt to shield the peccant minister, and that a revolu- 
tion was not improbable. Of this I saw no signs whatever, 
.and Spaniards make no secret of such things, so that the rumor 
is apt to reach your ear long before the event, and is half for- 
gotten ere the result is actually accomplished ; but the ferment 
might have assumed larger proportions had not the Morocco 
difficulty intervened. The Puerta has naturally been a focus 
of insurrections, as it commands the circulation of the citj*. and 
a few barricades thrown up at each street would be inconveni- 
ent. For the same reason, a strong guard is ])laced there to 
suppress tiic first outbreak. A regiment of determined men, 



98 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS, 

with nrtillorv. could easily put down any insurrection; but, 
unfortunately, Spanish insurrections generally commence with 
the military itself, and. as I once heard an old legitimist say, 
after the coup d'etat <»f the (Jarde Nationale: "Ma foi. il taut 
hien une armee pour la garder." 

Notwithstanding all these defects, the Pucrta del Sol has 
great attractions for a native, and also for a traveller. A cer- 
tain phase of life is seen to perfection, and, in a social ]K)int of 
view, it is one of the liveliest spots in the world. The ever- 
moving crowd and gay shops of the Boulevards, are wanting; 
nor is their any resemblance to the crush of Fleet street and 
the iStrand; hut, b}' way ot cumj)ensation, it oft'crs the costumes 
of every province in S[taiii. The gay majo oi" Andalusia, the 
soberer colors of Aragon. the working dress of the (Jallican 
brush against the last foppery from Paris. Thousands cross it 
in a thousand directions, and for a thousand purposes. Now 
the crowd makes way for a battalion of infantry with tlying 
colors, not large, but tine-looking lellows, well formed, and of 
active march ; or an escort of cavalry, with trumpets sounding 
the marcha real, announces the approach of royalty. The 
tiidcling of little bells, ibllowed by a priest with the eucharist, 
on its way to cheer some departing soul, hushes the confusion 
into respectful silence, and causes the more devout to fall njion 
their knees before the mystical elements. These arc temporary 
interruptions; the great business of slandering is iiuinnliately 
renewed. 

Among the circulating j)opulalioii of .Madi-id, none oftener 
cross the stranger's path tlian the Gallegos, or inhabitants of 
Gallieia, the n(n-th-west province, situate upon the ocean and 
the Ba}' of Biscay, considered the Bootia of Spain. Leaving 
their rainy mountains, these hardy sons of toil are found 
wherever an honest penny is to be turned, and in Madrid enjoy 
u mono})oly of the carr\iiig of water, wiiicli. in an elevated 
city and almost rainless climate, is an extensive business. The 
place ol' Poi'tador de Aqua is regularly bought and sold as that 
of an agent at the Pai'is Bourse, involving the obligation of 
attending fires. Tliey scorn the aid of donkeys, and with 
cask upcjn shoulder, stagger along, not parlicidarly mindful of 
whose head runs against it. They are as honest as the day is 
long, and as proud, for the Gallicians and the Asturians claim 
nobility as their birthright, and yield to none of the artificial 



MANOLAS. son FTY. 99 

(listinctions of rank wliicli have J>oon created since tlic time of 
Pelayo. If one of them by chance receives an accession of 
fortune, or a title, instead of being elated, he merely considers 
that his original position is at last acknowledged. This little 
conceit, far from rendering them idle, has the effect of jireserv- 
ing them from the commission of many petty meannesses. 

The lower classes of Madrid furnish the Manolos and Mano- 
las, whose favorite haunt is the quarter toward the Manzanares, 
between the palace and the gate of Atocha, particularly around 
the Plaza de Cebada, or IJarley S(piare, Avhere public executions 
take place. They are the male and female counterparts of that 
portion of the American population which is called, in slang 
language, " B'hoys," not that there is, after all, any very close 
resemblance between them. Notwithstanding their reputation, 
they have little of the wit which redeems the similar classes in 
other S])anish cities. They have, or rather had, for the race is 
ftist (lisapi)earing, a ])eculiar costume, and the women were dis- 
tinguished for carr3-ing a dagger in the right garter, which was 
not unfrequently appealed to, so that the act of stooping by a 
Manola was generall}- followed by a rapid widening of the circle 
around, as n stroke from her experienced hand was a])t to be 
])ainful in its consequences. This class furnishes sweethearts 
lor bull-fighters, and wives for the barricade heroes. JBeyond 
that, there is no useful purpose to society whicli they are 
known to subserve. The men are always ready for an}- deed 
of violence which may enure to their advantage. Yet they 
have a sort of celebrity, and figure largely on jiublic occasions, 
while the costume is frequently seen at fancy balls to grace the 
delicate figures of the aristocracy. 

Owing to the variet}' of strangers collected from the difterent 
provinces and from abroad, society in ]\IadiMd is nuich more 
gay than in most other portions of Spain. In the winter, 
if there be no cause of mourning at the palace, there is a 
round of balls and parties from the first ol January until Ash 
Wednesday. There are numerous TertuUas besides. The pres- 
ence of a diplomatic corps from the dining countries of Europe, 
has introduced this habit also, and with it the driidiing of 
wine, for the j)leasure of drinking, which is quite unknown 
to Spaniards. The last two cnjoj-ments arc still confined to 
foreigners, and even they soon get out of the habit. After 
spending some time among these sober people, it is really a 



100 SI'AIN AM» THK SPANIARDS. 

relief to see a ^(MHleinaii lollim; alioul w ith i)nrpk' lace and 
Htaggerin" le^s, pronounciiiijj the scenery too-ral loo-ral, or 
avowing a readiness " to wliip his weight in wild-cats," accord- 
ing to idi(»synerasy. It looks so cheerful and home-like, as 
thongh the good old Anglo-Saxon civilization had not entirely 
disa]ij)eared from the face of the earth. 

The opera in Madrid is very tini'. and the taste of the Madri- 
IcHos for scientific music is hotter than usual, though they have 
never jiroduced a grea'. composer. Theatres there are in 
abundance, the iii-inci])al of which are the L'rinci])e and I^a 
C'ruz, where it is possible occasionally to hear a piece from the 
classic drama. The French vaudevilles have routed the na- 
tional eomed}' in Spain, Germany and Jtaly. and if there is 
any useless occupation in the woi'ld. it is listening to a Parisian 
vaudeville; well enough, when it is a secondary means of 
accomplishing some other end, but its attractions, in a foreign 
country, translated into a foreign idiom, and performed b}' pco- 
])le whose national peculiarities prevent their entering into its 
sjiirit, would scarcely overcome that otfered by the Pasco and 
a segar. The saynetc is really Spanish, and performed admi- 
rably by Spanish actors. Here they are at home, rehearsing 
their daily life. If an actor forgets the words of his part, it is 
very easy i'or him to supply- them e.v tempore. When they pass 
from the vaudeville to the sayncte, it is as when an Andalusian 
in Paris (piits his tight-fitting Boulevard dress-coat, and slips on 
his majo costume, to go to a fancy ball. Where everyone el.'^e 
is constrained, he is at ease. Quite the i-everse happens with 
the vaudeville, the easy frivolity and gay emptiness of which 
the tragic Spaniards nevei- really a])[)reciate. 

Spanish theatres ai-e pleasantly arranged for paying visits, 
as the boxes are frequently owned, or hired for the season, and 
the occupants expect to receive company between the acts. 
The entrance tickets arc sold at the dooi-, wiiieh give admit- 
tance to an}' part of the house, but no right to a seat, so that 
one may enjoy the societ}' of his friends without being bored 
by the play. There is one curious arrangement about Spanish 
theatres W(»rili\- of remark. A little gallery is set apart, where 
none but women are admitted, and such a chattering is kept 
up! Such a waving of fans, and arranging of mantillas I 
The place is called by various names. Tertulla de his niu- 
jcres is proper; but by the irreverent it is not unfrcquently 



MADRILKNOS. — rilRISTMAS. 101 

styled el gallinero, or " hen-house," from the eternal fluttering 
and cackling. A sentinel has especial guard over the fair pul- 
lets that enter therein, hut should, perchance, an}' adventurous 
rooster evade the watchfulness of this Argus, the ancient, hut 
still formidable hens, would speedily eject him. 

The hours at Madrid, in winter, are ridiculously late. In 
summer, it is well enough to turn night into day, because night 
is the pleasantest part ot the twenty-four hours, but such a 
course in the winter is sheer lolly. Eleven to one, generally 
the latter, is the time for going to an evening entertainment, 
and da^dight the time for leaving. So that some of the popu- 
lation seldom see the sun in the months of December and 
January. This has, doubtless, much to do with the unhealthy 
pallor that characterizes the ladies, in contrast with the robust 
health so universal elsewhere in the Peninsula. Even State 
business is frequently transacted at night. In truth, fashions 
here are a strong Paris graft upon a Spanish stock, in some 
respects xhyj pleasant, in others involving puzzling contradic- 
tions. Unfortunately, the gravity of the Castillian does not 
cloak here his proverbial sincerity or probity, and complaints 
are lone: and loud about the faithlessness of the Madrileiios. 
Part of this is true; ]>art of it, however, is due simply to its 
misfortune of being a capital, where forms and ceremonies fre- 
(juently usurp the place of real emotions. Nor would it be 
just to enter this sweeping denunciation against the whole of 
Madrid, for it should rather be contined to the Court and Gov- 
ernment circles. An apparently insignificant evidence of the 
domestic feeling, in a certain class of the population, is the 
manner in which Christmas is celebrated. For days l)cfore, 
droves of turkeys can, or could, be seen wending their way to 
tlie city — for ever}- family must have its turkey. The streets, 
on the Christmas Mhen I was there, were, after an early liour, 
deserted, except b}- ourselves, i. e., myself and another Ameri- 
can, and one beggar, on horseback, who jjursued us with 
unconquerable pertinacitj'. The old maxim of '' a beggar on 
horseback," was fomiliar to us, and I supposed that this was 
not an unusual custom, but it struck us as absurd to give char- 
ity to horsemen, so we obstinateh' refused, though the ground 
was covered with snow. I afterwards learned that it Avas the 
universal custom to give to beggars at Christmas, so much so, 
that the}' regard it a right, and those who cannot walk borrow 



102 M'AIN AMt TIIK SPANIARDS. 

horses for (Ik- purpose. So tliat, after all. tlio poor follow was 
not to Maine, and we had failed in (lie -greatest of Christian 
duties uj»oli the anniversary of the da}' that broujrht our 
Saviour into the world. This little eircunistance has remained 
in my memory ever since, accompanied by no few regrets. 

Chrislnnis Eve, or noclie buciui, (the good night,) as it is 
called in Spanish, we went to a pujipct show, a nacimiento, one 
of the few relies that have come down from the ages when it 
was not considered disrespectful to i-i'in-esent sacred person- 
ages upon the stage. The first-class seats were at tlie mod- 
erate j)rice of a peseta, or twenty cents. The room was not 
large, ami was filled with childi'cn, generally under the guar- 
dianshi]) of their fathers. It was delightful to see the relation 
of confidence and friendship existing between them. The 
curtain i-ose ujxjii a church scene, an (jld sacristan and an 
altar-b;y lighting the long candles. The latter did not give 
satisfaction to the foi-mor. for the olil fellow dealt him a tre- 
mendous whack U])on the lu'ad. Avhich was retuiMied in good 
earnest, amid the roars of the autlieuce, and the two went skir- 
mishing olf. The subject of the re|trcsentation was suitable to 
the occasion — the Flight into Kgypl — and the ]»rinci|)al char- 
acters, naturally, Josejth and Maiy. Their adventures Avcre 
numerous, as may be supposed. Once they experien(;ed grout 
difiiculty in finding lodging. It was already late at night; 
vari(ms peojile were knocked i\\) and m;'.de their appearance at 
the windows, but refused to admit the wayfarers, some of them 
hinting strongly that they were no better than tiii'v should be, 
strolling alxtut in (his manner, and that the ass had boon 
stolen. On another occasion ihe\ wire assaulted, but Joseph 
made such good use of his staff that the robbers were soon put 
to flight. This jiart elicited great a])plause from the children, 
and brought down the house. ]5ut. do not suppose that they 
left the hall with the slightest iri'everent feeling. It is one of 
those strange conti'adict i(Mis. handed down from a remote date, 
that no one would lu'liivc if not instructed by histoiy or expe- 
rience. The small children were certainly none the worse for 
the exhibition, and the lai'ge ones slept ([uite as soundly. 

Ktireigiiers complain that the .Ma(lrilen(js are t'oud ol' eating 
at tiie exitense of otiiei-s, but are not given to reciprocity, and 
various reasons arc otfered in justification, all of which have 
their infiuence. It is partly haliit, partly jjovert}', for vei-y 



CUSTOMS. TIIK PUADO. 103 

many families of high descent and respectability are greatly 
restricted in mone}'^ matters, and are compelled to resort to 
man}' shifts in order to keep u]) ap])earances of decenc}'. In- 
(.leed, it is a wonder how man}' of them live through. Many 
persons upon receiving an office remove hither wilh tlu'ir fam- 
ilies. They die or lose their office, but the family never returns ; 
and as there is no means of gaining a livelihood, they remain, 
if they marry, for generations, in straitened circumstances, steal- 
ing forth at dawn or dusk to church, in order to avoid a display 
of their misery. Natives and foreigners agree that Madrid is 
the least Spanish city in Spain. Its inhabitants take a pride 
in adopting the customs of other countries and rejecting their 
own, without discrimination between what is Avorthy of preser- 
vation and what not. Madrid, thei'efore, is essentially imita- 
tive, and, as a natural consequence, it produces nothing great. 
SjKinish ideas, Sj^anish manners, Spanish men, Spanish women, 
must be sought in the provinces, at Seville, Valencia, Saragoza, 
or Burgos. Yet the Madrileiios are excessivel}^ proud of their 
home, and think that a residence here compensates for a multi- 
tude of mistortuncs. 

The Puerta del Sol is by no means the only gathering ]ilace 
for the Madrileiios. The city has an unusual nuint)er. Most 
distinguished among them is the famous Prado, a magnificent 
promenade, with numerous avenues, extending a couple ot 
miles toward the gate of the Atocha. From the Puerta del 
Sol two tine streets lead thither, the Carrera de San Geronymo 
and the Calle de Alcala, the latter one of the noblest in p]urope. 
Of ordinary width at the beginning, it widens ra])idly, ciii'ving 
gently to the west. As the Prado is in a sort of valley, the 
C'alle de Alcala offers a noble prospect, and when filled with the 
gay throng of fantasticall}' decorated vehicles and mules, on 
their way to the bull-fight, it is, perhaps, the most striking 
scene in S[)ain. About sunset in the summer, one endless pro- 
cession covers its walks to enjoy the moonlight and evening 
air upon their favorite promenade. The Prado itself has under- 
gone many changes, and in its present shape would scarcely be 
recognized by the old travellers, who a century ago described 
its wonders. At first it was, doubtless, a meadow, as its name 
indicates, but there must have been much more water then 
than now. During the residence of the Austrian sovereigns in 
the Palace of the Buen Retiro, on the opposite side, it became 



104 SPAIN AM) THK SPANIARDS. 

the <;rt'ator llioatro for assas;sinutioiis. and a i^oneral roiulezvous 
lor all who had reasons for eoncealini^ their deeds from the 
li<;ht. Charles III — to wIkjiu, with his enlightened minis- 
ters, the Counts of Aranda and of Florida Blanca. Spain is 
indehted for so many bi-iielits — transformed it into an elegant 
pj-omcnado, upon whieh Castillian grandeur displayed its vir- 
tues and viees. lie even attempted, in imitation of the Czar's 
attack uj)on the Kussian beards, to abolish the cloaks and 
broad hats so admirably calculated for intrigue, but without 
the same success. Time and the convulsions of the War of 
Independence have silently accomplished these changes, and 
hats, i)oignards, antedcluvian coaches, and even cloaks have 
disappeared Irom the more fashionable portions. Certain por- 
tions have become gradually dedicated to certain purposes and 
certain classes of society. The favorite walk for the gay world 
in summer is the salon between the Calle dc Alcahi and of 
San Geronymo. an open space of some two or three hundred 
feet in width, with rows of stone benches and neat ir()n chairs 
on each side, and a place for carriages and equestrians separat- 
ing it from another walk under the trees. Here from eight to 
eleven in summer, and from three to five in winter, are assem- 
bled the rank and fashion of the metropolis, and a beautil'ul 
sight it is. Two tiles of elegant equipages jiass continually in 
stately review, resplendent with the " /?or y nata dc hi Aristo- 
cracia." Representatives fron) every province in Spain, and 
Irom various nations of Europe, meet to form or renew ac- 
quaintances. Languishing ej^es flash beneath dark mantillas ; 
a gentle wave of the fan is responded to by the removal of 
polishecl beavers; flirtations are commenced, and courtships 
concluded; politeness, cordiality', nay friendship, seem to unite 
the whole |)(Ji)ulation in one elastic band of a common brother- 
hood, ll is whisijered tluit t liese ai)pearanccs are not always 
boriif oii( l>y the reality, uwd that when the minister of yester- 
day liows with winning grace to the minister of to-day, he 
does not the less ibr all that wish his excellency at the bottom 
of the Manzanares. But let us leave those investigations to 
the travelling Ileraelitus, or the evil genius of the Puerta del 
Sol, and enjoy the world not as it is, but as it seems to be. The 
Prad(j in summer does not offer the same throng, nor as gi-eat 
variety as in winter, but the pure moonlight of an August 
evening throwvs an indescribable charm ' of romance over the 



ENVIRONS OF PRADO. 105 

scene, and it is worth the trouble of roastiiii;^ through the day, 
fur the sake of enjoying the niglit. Notwithstanding tlie inva- 
sion of French milliners, the costume of the ladies who prom- 
enade on foot is generally Spanish, but of the men, what shall 
I say ? In place of the grand old style of former days, they 
have substituted dress coats, narrow brim felt hats and sticks; 
so that with all due respect it must be said, that the l)ucks of 
Madrid recalled in personal attire, the gentrj' known in Amer- 
ica as <' Bowery swells." What strange infatuation could have 
induced them to select such a dress is inconceivable, more par- 
ticularly since, when suitabl}^ clad, the majority of Spaniards 
are remarkably well shaped and elegant. On horseback they 
appear much better, and galloping on prancing Andalusiau 
coursers, beside the carriage door of some fair beauty, recall 
the gallant cavalici's of a past age. 

lieyond the Prado lie the beautiful gai-dens of El Buen 
Eetiro, a delightful resort at all seasons of the year. Below 
them is the Botanical Garden, which, in the beginning of the 
century, bid lair to be the most extensive in Europe. It was 
intended to collect specimens from the whole of the Spanish 
dominions, comprising, at tbat time, a respectable part of 
Europe and Asia, and half the continent of America. But the 
wars of Napoleon involved the destruction of this as of many 
other munificent projects. There used to be here a great man- 
ufactory of porcelain, called La China, which the English, on 
their retreat from Madrid, blew u]i ; the Spanish say fi'om com- 
mercial jealousy ; the English say to prevent the French from 
converting it into a fortification. Between the two, Spain 
fared like the cats who called on the monkey to divide their 
clieese. The one nibbles oft" Toledo, the other Granada, then 
again Madrid, and so justice proceeds. Passing outside the 
city walls by the gate of Recolctos, the promenade is continued 
still a considerable distance. Crossing the Prado by the Calle 
de Alcala, the street ascends to the gate of the same name on 
the road to Valencia, one of the finest structures in the king- 
dom. Just outside is the P(a::a de Toros, or Bull ring. During 
the extreme heat of the summer the funciones are suspended, 
and its only attraction at this time was an animal whose per- 
formances had been remarkable. Kight liorses had already 
fallen when the progress of the drama was interrupted by a 
storm, if I do not forget, and the hero was reserved for the 



106 fil'.VIX AND THK SPAMAnnS. 

breed. He looked sufticienth- miserable, quite thin.baving lost 
twf>-tliirdK f»f liis weif^bt, bis neck covered witb wounds, and 
tbe sole companion <»1" bis sorrows being a brindled ox, witb a 
bell around bis neck. To tbe west, again, beyond tbe Buen 
Keliro, is tbe Musco, and still fartber on, tbe Calle dc Atocba, 
anotber fine street, wbicb, after crossing tbe Prado, leads to tbo 
C'btircb of Atocba and tbe observatory, (^n tbo si<le towards 
tbe city tbere arc no buildings fronting upon tbe Prado itself, 
wbicb lias alwaj's struck mc as sometbing strange. But tbe 
trees sbut out the view from all that is insignificant. As tbo 
sun ileclincs, tbo scene is enlivened by the play of fountains, 
some of wliicb, as tbose of Neptune, of Apollo, and of C3'bcle, 
produce a fine effect, tbougb tbey may be criticised, if one be 
so dispctised. But tbe most striking monument is that of HI 
Dos de Mayo, or tbe second of May, crectod in bonor of tboso 
wbo, on tbe 2d of May, 180S, refused to surrender tbeir cannon 
to tbe Frencb troops, and thus c(Mnmcnccd tbe War of Inde- 
pendence, wbicb undermined tbe power of Napoleon, and was 
tbe original, tbougb not tlic immediate cause of tbo downfall 
of that arcli-tyi'ant. Well may Sjiaiiiartls bo proud when re- 
memliering tbat three oUiccrs, with a half battery of cannon, 
in downright disobedience of orders, braved tbe despot of tbo 
age and certain death in defence of the honor of their country. 
The anniversary of this event is celebrated with almost as n)uch 
enthusiasm as the Fourth of .Inly with us. All true patriots 
must wish tliMt it may long continue to rciiiind them of 
tbe danger to which tliey are exposed from their ainl)itious 
neighbor. 

Following the Cdltc Magor, which K-ads from the Piicrta del 
Sol, in the oj)posite direction, we reach tiie Plazii del Oricntc, in 
front of tbe Palace, forming a semi-circle, wltii a beautiful 
garilen in the centi'e. which is ornamented by an eques- 
trian statue of Philip I\'. It I'cjirosents him on a pi-aiicing 
charger, mane and tail streaming in the bi'ooze. By moon- 
light, it is one of tbo most elegant productions of art in the 
world, and seems really to live. The Plaza del Oricnto is fre- 
quented rather by nurses and the bourgeoisie tlian those who 
aspire to he reckoned among the l)eau mondc of nobles and 
Manolos. All the children in .Madrid seem to have given one 
another rendezvous, and your toes arc continually crushed by 
trundling hoojjs or the wheels of g(Kit carts and similar iiifan- 



THE PALACE. — MANZANARES. 107 

tile abominations. The amount of talk was astonishinc::. The 
Palace itself may compare favorably with any in Europe. By 
day its whiteness is dazzling, but in an August night it aj)- 
peared a mass of virgin snow, recalling tlie Ice Palace of 
Eussia. The site was formerly occupied b}' the l^Ioorish Alca- 
zar, subsequentlj^ by a ro,yal residence, which was destroyed 
by fire. The present edifice was built by Philip V, of a 
stone from Colmenar, whicli, in the pure air of Madrid, pre- 
serves its pristine aiipearaneo. as though cpiarried yestcrdaj*. 
Vast as it is, it is b}' no means equal to the plan first proposed, 
which startled the sovereign by its immensity. The inside 
contains many grand saloons, with gorgeous furniture and 
beautiful frescoes, but they are tiresome things to describe, and 
are, after all, mucii like similar arrangements in other capitals. 
The stables, however, are well worth a visit for all who delight 
in fine horses, from the graceful Cordovese barb to the tiior- 
ough-bred English courser. Owing to the absence of the 
Court, they were at present comparatively empty, but on the 
previous visit they contained, in mj' opinion, the liandsomest, 
I will not say the best, stud in Europe. I have remarked that 
Spanish horses belonging to the better classes, frequently pre- 
sent ratlier a pot-bellied appearance ; some persons have told 
me that it is caused b}- the habit of stuffing them with quanti- 
ties of unnutritious food, and the little violent exercise they 
take. Those that are engaged in constant occupation certainly 
have no such defect. Quicn sabc. The great ambition seems to 
be to get them fat. Tiie adjoining coach house contains a 
most curious collection of those ancient-looking vehicles which 
bruised the bones of deceased grandees, and have been happily- 
replaced by coupes and landaus. 

The view from the terrace of the Palace over the A'alloy of 
the Manzanares, and the country intervening to the Guadara- 
ma, is sternly grand ; and some winter morning when the 
wind blows from the snow-capped peaks, those who wish to 
know the sensation of cold in its greatest degree, can have 
their curiosity fully gratified. It is in these sentr}- boxes that 
soldiers are so frequently found dead. No wonder that former 
sovereigns preferred the sunny exjiosure of El Ruon Retiro. 
The palace gardens extend to the little river, far below, from 
who.se banks the white palace, towering on the hill above, 
presents a magnificent appearance. The Manzanaus has some- 



lOS SPAIN AM» THK SI'ANIAUDS. 

how manajTcd to attain celebrity, thouffh none can exactly tell 
why. Victor nn<jr(», and other poets who never saw it, speak 
of Seville and its (Jiiadalquivir. Madrid and its Munzanares. 
Could they only see this ]>iiiiy hrook. this 

Duque dc arroyos 
Y vizconde do lo8 rios 

of Gon^ora, stnii;gling to escape the attacks of the direful 
washerwomen that line its hanks, how disappointed tluy 
would he ! The feast of San Isidro or the Iilntierro de la Sar- 
dina, makes its banks re-echo with the clicking of castagnettes 
and the sound of merriment, luit its muddy waters add little 
to the entertainment. Farther on, there is a very pleasant 
walk in winter, Las Delicias. I strolled down one August 
afternoon and found t!ie effluvia, difference of size considered, 
equal to that of the Thames at IjOikIoii In'idge, which, towards 
the end of June last, was the most ahoniinahle stench that ever 
saluted my nostrils. Fortniiately, llie Mauzanares is too far 
removed from the city to extend its iutluence thither. Though 
so insigniticant a thing, it has the honor of being spanned by 
bridges of wiiich the Mississip]>i might ])e proud. The mag- 
nificence of these structures is in amusing contrast with the 
general scarcity of water, and has greatly provoked the satire 
of poets and travellers. 

Madrid possesses two galleries of paintings, MJiich are unri- 
valled exce])t by the V^atican. The first of ihesc is llu- Acade- 
my of San l'\'niando, small in niiniliers, but priceless in value. 
The gems ol" ibe collection ai-c llirei- paintings by Murillo, 
which were taUi'ii to J'ai-is from Seville b}' Soult, whoso net 
caught everything from church plate to works of art. One 
represents St. Isabel dressing a sore upon a beggar boy's headj 
an incongruous subject for a fine picture, you exclaim, and it 
does seem so in its ])rcsent position; but had it been restored 
to the hospital for which it was originall}' painted, the selec- 
tion of the subject would have struck one as exceedingly ha])py. 
All the excellencies of tlie art are here united. The invention 
is good, as nothing could have more forcibly impressed the idea 
of charity in a public hospital, than a beautiful woman of 
the higiiest rank performing so loathsome a part as the heal- 
ing of a beggar's sores. The composition is still better. The 
little beggar himself is bent over a basin, his hands resting 



ACADEMY OF SAN FERNANDO. — THE MUSEO. 1C9 

upon his knees. A barc-legt^ed man seated upon the floor, a 
hard-skinned old woman, and another boy occupy' the fore- 
ground to the right. In the centre of the picture, beside the 
beggar, is the Saint, "while the background is filled with her 
noble assistants, in the finest style of Andalusian beauty. The 
contrast between these groups is visible even in their hair and 
the niinutest portion of their dross, and reminds one of Titian's 
" Tribute Money " at Dresden. The efloet ])roduced l)y this 
contrast of the highest style of beauty with unkeinpt beggary 
is most agreeable, for the beggars are by no means portrayed 
in a revolting manner. The drawing and coloring leave noth- 
ing to bo desired. The other room contains two large pictures 
representing the Dream of the Koman Patrician, about Sta. 
JIaria Maggiorc and its Fulfilment. In the former, the Patri- 
cian is discovered dozing at the table, while the Virgin floating 
in the clouds, points out the site of the future church. Perhaps 
it would not be venturing too far to say that this is the finest 
portraiture of womanl}' beauty I have ever seen. Goddess she 
is not, but a woman, a lovely, pure, angelic woman, such as the 
artist himself might become enamored of Both figures are 
true tSpaniards. The Patrician is a real Castilliau Cavalier, 
and the Virgin, no one but an Andalusian could have painted. 
The Fulfilment is not so striking. The Patrician and his wife 
kneel to the Pope, explaining the revelation that had been 
made. The artist could not refi-ain from taking a sly cut at 
the clergy, by representing an old Priest or Cardinal anxiously 
fitting liis glasses to take a look at the lady. 'I'hoso three Mu- 
rillos are worth most of the galleries in Jujrope, and the Direc- 
tors have done well to separate them from the Museo. 

The two rooms contain half a dozen other paintings of merit. 
An "Ascencion," by Murillo ; a fine "Crucifixion," by Alonzo 
Cano, and a "San Antonio," byPibera; but they have been 
overshadowed b}' the others, and do not receive the notice to 
which they are entitled. 

The other gallery is at the Museo, a collection as remarkable 
for the excellence as for the number of its paintings. It con- 
tains more good pictures than can be found in any capital in 
Europe, except Jijways Pome. At the time of tlic greatest 
glory of modern art in Italy and (jlcrmany, and the Low Coun- 
tries, the Spanish dominion extended over those countries, and 
its throne was filled by monarchs who were imbued with a 



110 SPAIN AND TnF. .SPANIARPS. 

genuine taste for the beautiful in |)aintin«;s. Tljo relations of 
Charles V with Titian, of Philip IV with IJubons ami Velas- 
quez, were rather those of frit-ndshij) than command. The 
execution of Cimrles I of England, almost tlu* only jtorson in 
that countrv who seems to have had a taste for art, aftbrded an 
oj»|iortiinity, eagerly rnihraced. of j)roeuring some tine works 
tlmt iiad wandered thither. The natural relations of empire 
cauM'd a h'gitinnite flow of the master pieces of artists tctward 
the centre of influence, and thus were collected in the vai'ious 
Spanish palaces the choicest treasures of Europe. The greater 
portion have found their way to the Museo. The number, ac- 
cording to the oilicial catalogue, was two thousand and (me, 
including, of the Italian schools — ten Uafaelles, one Buonarottis, 
lliree Leonardo da Vincis, forty-three Tizians, ten Annibal 
Caraccis, sixteen Guidos, seven Andreas del Sartos, four Correg- 
gios. two Domenichinos, thirt\'-four Tintonettos, twenty-Hve 
Paolo N'eroneses, nineteen I'oussins, ten Claude Lorraincs. Of 
the (icrman, two Cranachs, nine All>i-eclit Diu-ers, two Jlol- 
heins. Of the Low Countries, sixty-two liuliens, twenty-two 
Van l)yckes, a IJembrandt, tifty-three 'i''eniers,til'tyfour .loliann 
lirughels, live N'aii Eycks, twenty-three Snyders. ())" the 
Spanish. f(»rty-six Murillos, sixty-four \'elas(pie/., eight Alonso 
Canos. eighteen Juanes, six Morales, tifly-eight J^iberas, four- 
teen Zurbarans, &e., itc, numbers which will serve to show the 
vast range emiiraced b}- the galleiT. Many of them are aniong 
the best works t)f ilie authors. The Kafaelles are not surpassed 
out of iionie, except by the Dresden Madonna, and tlie same 
with regard to Venice may be atlirmed of the Ti/Jans. • Lo 
S])asimo di Sicilia" has been awarded a ])la(e, perhaps ^/n place 
of honor. Of course, the verdict of the artistic world must l)e 
right, but I have never been able to reconcile myself to it. 1 
have failed to perceive a trace of divinit}- in the Saviour; lie 
presents to me rather the ajijiearance of a person, crushed by 
physical sutlering, falling uikKm- the grievous weight of a heavy 
biP'then. The attention is w illidraw n iri-esislibly, as from some- 
thing disagreeable, to the Ityslanders, the wce})ing women and 
the soldiers. No accui'acy of drawing, no excellence of ])or- 
traiture of the subordinate cliaraclcrs can conipeiisale tor such 
a deliciency. How dill'erent the Ti-aiisligui-ation I There the 
divinity in the Saviour's face, enchaining the attention, causes 
ail defect of detail, all incongruity of comi)t)sition to be forgot- 



THE ITALIAN SCHOOL. Ill 

ten. The history of this painting, (" Lo Spasiino," ) and of its 
haii'-breadtli escapes by flood and field, is like a tale of adven- 
ture. But Avhatevcr may be said of " Lo Spasimo," the five 
Eafacllesin a row — the ''Agnus Dei," "La Perla," "La Madon- 
na del Pcsee," "LaRosa," and "The Visitation," arc unequalled 
this side the Alps. " La Perla " and the " Madonna del Pesce," 
in particular, may justly claim a place after the " Madonna di 
San Sisto," for the beauty and purity of the Virgin, as Rafaellc 
chose to delineate them, and the artlessness of childhood, the 
sentiment of affectionate respect have never been more exquis- 
itely portrayed. 

By far the finest among the numerous Titians is the eques- 
trian painting of the Emperor Charles at the battle of Miihl- 
berg. i«i which the Protestant cause was so nearly mined. The 
execution, as to drawing and coloring, is Avhat one inight 
expect from the great master in those departments, but the 
attitude of the Emperor is stifle, uneasy, constrained, positively 
awkward, compared with tlie boundary freedom of the Velas- 
quez opposite, and I turned away in disappointment. But in 
the appendix to the catalogue are given extracts from the con- 
temporary historians, which show that during the whole cam- 
paign he had been martyrized by the gout, and, in the battle 
itself, resembled an embalmed corpse or a spectre rather than 
a man. If sucli were the model of Titian, his success has been 
perfect. Every movement, ever}' position, every feature be- 
traj'S the warrior Emperor struggling against j^hj-sical disease 
and exhaustion — the triumph of unconquerable will over the 
weakness of the body. It would not only l)e the best portrait, 
but the best painting of the artist, and, in its sphere, inimita- 
ble. Amid the number of others by Titian, two are worthy of 
especial remark: "La Gloria," representing the apotheosis of 
Charles and Phiiii», and " La Bacanal," in the Salon. This lat- 
ter is exquisite. Ariadne, exhausted with grief, lies sleeping 
upon the grass. The vessel of the faithless Theseus is seen 
ploughing the waves in the distance. J'ut the dawn of joy is 
breaking; innumerable bacchantes and nymphs are celebrating 
with dance and merriment the approach of Bacchus, who is to 
console the weeping fair one, and to inaugurate the reign of 
pleasure upon the earth. All this with the richness peculiar to 
Titian and Correggio. 

The Guidos are numerous and much ]»rais<'d. but all of that 



112 SPAIN AM) TIIK SrAMAUnS. 

sentimental, lack-lustre, lifeless aspect, which characterizes his 
paintinjjjs, with a few rare exce})tions The spociinons of the 
vigorous, healthy hrushes of the Caracci and Donioiiiguino, 
arc far superior, particularly the sacrifice of Isaac hy the lat- 
ter, which is worthy of all commendation. But of the foreign 
schools, there is nothing more heautiful than four landscafjcs 
by Claude, all of the same size, which arc placed in the circular 
room at the end of the gallery. At each succeeding visit, 
I remained more lirmly convinced that no artist had ever 
equalle<l, and none would ever surpass, these divine produc- 
tions. 

The Dutch and Flemisli schools have contributed more than 
their quota, and are pronounced to include many chc/.^i iVcvuvrc, 
but it is almost impossible for a Sonlherner. unless a f)rofes- 
sional artist, to appreciate at their pi-oper value the coarseness 
of their o'er true copies of nature in all her corpulency, when 
contrasted with the ideal of the Italian and Spanish schools, 
and as my admiration was not aroused by them, I shall leave 
them to others who have been more fortunate. Indeed, rich as 
the gallery is in works of foreign artists, its ])eculiar e.Kcellenco 
is in the home department, in which it is unique, not only out 
of but in Sj)ain. The best works of Murillo are at Seville, but 
Velas(piez can l)e seen in ^ladrid alone. The few that have 
wandered beyond the Pyrenees are very inferior specimens. 
Each of these sons of Seville has claims to stand at the head 
of Spaidsh ai-t. The latter is more manly, vigorous, a better 
master of men, possessing in an unequalled degree the j)ower 
of transferring to canvass the life of his subjects, but entirely 
devoid of imagination, invention, and the higher style of ideal- 
ity. To the latter was granted a transcendent perception of 
the beautiful in humanity, of that loveliness of the soul which 
borders upon divinity, of :i purity soaring above the earth, and 
a felicity of embodying his conceptions, that has rarely been 
approached. It is ver}- ditlicult to judge between two such 
opposite characters, each being perfect in his sphere, and eveiy 
critic will probably decide according to his preferences for the 
school at the head of which they respectively stand. 

The .Miirillos ;il .Madrid dilVci- iiiucli lii merit. Some arc in 
the Very best style, others appear to me far less successful, if 
the subject be ])roj)erly indicatetl. (-ertainly the Holy Family 
resembles a home eveniuir in a cottaire i-ather than an assein- 



THE MUUIT,LOS. VELASQUEZ. 1 1 8 

blage of saints, though in otl>or respects it be ever so fine. But 
there are o'.hers worthy a trip across the ocean. Can there be 
a gr.mder tigurc than the .St. Francis de Pauhi'/ Was ever 
holy meditation more nobly portrayed ? And did ever human 
revery imagine a more exquisite idea tlian the ('oncejicion in 
the Salon? The Magdalen is very dilfcrent from what one 
would expect; it has none of the beauty which seems unavoid- 
able, when Murillo paints woman, but represents a real sinner 
doing real penance. Indeed, the one which is marked as be- 
longing to the school of .Murillo. is much more like what one 
might have antieipaf '.'d. All tlie cliildren are exquisite: the 
St. John, the Virgin taught by St. Anna, the Infant Saviour 
and St. John are among the most satisfactor}- ])ictiireH in the 
gallery. I like the Crucitixion, too. It is a gloomy subject, 
and should be so treated, with a dai'k back ground, and no 
other figures to distract the attention. The Crucifixions of 
most artists, introducing a large collection of persons with all 
the accessories, generally shock one. They sink the moral 
in the physical, and convert this tremendous event — which 
rent the vail of the temple in twain, and shook the earth to 
its centre — into a mere worldly scene of suffering and i)unish- 
ment. By the same reasoning I think it, therefore, a radical 
error ever to paint the Descent from the Cross. Our (Jod is 
a living God, not a dead body. Such representations arouse 
nothing but adniiration, whereas thoso of the Spanish school 
give rise to very dilTorent rafloclions and emotions. 

Velasquez is the true hero of the Museo. He cannot be seen 
elsewhere at all. Here he is in his glory. His want of ideality 
and sublimity has been too frequently pointed out to need repe- 
tition, but he unites all the other requisites of a great artist. If 
fiiultless drawing, strong coloring, a vigorous hand, and an 
unequalled power of making his creations live and move are 
sufficient to entitle an artist to the first rank, his claim to the 
position must be assured. But Velasquez is a painter of life, 
of positive existence and action. Contemplation, meditation, 
passive, negative being, were eithcl' above his capacity or 
beneath his attention. Compare Titian's Charles V with 
his equestrian paintings of the Count Duke of Olivarez, of 
riiilip III and IMiilip IV. Tlie latter arc real, existing men 
and horses. Don Balthasar, galloping over the plain, is fault- 
less, inimitable. I attempted to di.scover sonic particular 
9 



114 SPAIN ANU THK SPANIARDS. 

in which the reality would have appeared diflTcror.tl}- (and 
nothing is eafier lor those who arc not painters, than to point 
out the errors of those who are), hut in vain ; bo}*, horse, sk}', 
the arid Castiilian earth, were rtfleeted from nature as in a mir- 
ror. Jlis jjortraits have the same charaeteristics. The h)fly 
intelleet« of Kafaelle's Pope Julius, and the brilliant coloring 
of Titian are wanting; hut who t-lsc ever paintoil such a trucu- 
lent, determined <tld Turk as his liarbarossa, or such a liovern. 
ment applicant as his Pretendiente, or such soldiers as his 
Surrender of Breda ? His portrait of Don Balthazar leanin:^ 
upon an arm-chair, is equal to his counteri)art of the same per- 
son on horseback. Few young princes have been so favorably 
transmitted to posteril}'. I confess to a particular weakness 
fur this j)icture. It is one of those that eternally Ioo1< down 
from the recesses of memory. The imaginative pieces are not 
so hajipy. If the Forge of Vulcan was rcalh* so intended, it is 
a great lailure^ notwithstanding the felicity of execution. 
They are good looking, strongl3'-characterized blacksnnths, 
but neither gods, demi-gods, nor devils. And the Coronation 
(»f the Virgin is positively woful. Nor are his landscapes 
more to my taste, although they rank high. In Sj)aiii, where 
the sun is seldom (tbseured, and an ocean of light rolls ovei* the 
face of Nature, it is dithcult to conceive why Wlasquez should 
have made her so sombre. In these alone has he failed to 
truth. 

The Prometheus, by Hil>era, is a grand jiicture, not beautiful; 
(liHgiisting. perhaps, in the lidelity of its details, and eminently 
practical; but. for all that, it is not the less the woi'k of a 
master hand, as much dislinguislu-d loi* strength as that of 
Titian is for elegance. In representing saints such as San 
Pablo, he is naturally in his element. They are fine, deter- 
mined, venerable old men, but mortals; anti, in thus j)ortraying 
them, he has )>robably come nearer to historic Iriilli than such 
as present them to us in the garb of scmi-angels. Passing over 
manv paintings by artists of greater renown, I would mention 
two which certainly nuide upon me a decided imj)ressi()n. The 
one is La Divina Pastora, by Alonzo Miguel do Tobai-, a ]nij»il 
and imitator of Murillo; the other is Saint Agueda dying in 
priK«)n. This latter is by no means a ])leasant subject, yet I 
invariably found myself glancing toward it on entei-i ng the 
principal gallery. 



TIIK ARMEUIA. 115 

Mr. Ford Bccms to liavc had a personal cause of quarrel with 
Madrazzo, the director, for three or four jiages of the ^uidc 
book are devoted to ahuse- of hiiu and his management; and, 
as English and Americans generally derive their opinions from 
this source, the dii-eetors deemed it necessar}' to re})ly, which 
they have done in a stinging note to the preface. Ilis whole- 
sale accusation of repainting, his complaint that the catalogue 
gives only the subjects and size of the pictures, (as if a cata- 
logue was intended to do more!) his bad Spanish, and worse 
criticism, they handle easily-. But one paragraph puzzled 
them. The^- could not decide whether the author were jesting 
or in earnest, when he coolly asserts that the varied coloring of 
the diffei-ent Spanish schools was derived from and varied 
aceordiirg to their respective food. Thus, the Andalusian olla 
is the richest in Spain ; hence Murillo and Velasquez, Sevil- 
lians, used brown. Estreniadura is famous for its red-peppered 
sausages; hence Morales adopted brighter colors. The Valcn- 
cians like mulberries ; hence the}- use ])urple. " Localism is the 
essence of the Spaniards." Such a criticism would ])uzzle wiser 
doctors than the Academicians. By wa}- of rejily, they pursue 
the strain : The English are great eaters of roast-beef; hence 
the partiality of the English ai'tists for red. The Flemin<rs and 
Dutch, of butter; hence the predominant 3^ellow. The Bo- 
lognese, of sausage; hence the coloring of Carracci and Guide, 
&c., &c. Thus, Brillat Savarin would seem to have touched 
bottom in philosophy when he exclaimed: ^^ DIs-moi ce que tu 
manges, et je te dirai ce que tu es." The subsequent editions of 
Murray have corrected the Spanish and the personal accusation 
of repainting; but this obnoxious paragraph, and the other 
criticisms, arc retained as choice tit-bits, giving the aiitiiorvery 
much the appearance of a bull in a china-shop. 

The Armeria Real is as eminent among armories as the 
Musco is among galleries; that of Dresden being the only col- 
lection in Europe to boast a comparison in the beauty of work- 
manshi]), while in historic interest, it is much inferior. There 
are relics from the remotest ages of modern Spain, when the 
nation was contined to a small corner of the present kingdo;n. 
and every subsequent period is likewise fitly represented by 
swords and shields in more or less abundance. Tlicir former 
owners were, for the most part, personages of world-wide 
renown; whereas, the collections of Dresden and the Tower at 



IIG SPAIN AND Till. M'AMAIIDS. 

Londf>n arc of mere local importance, few English warriors 
excejit Marlli<>roii^l), Wellini^ton. and Xolsoii, beinij known out 
of the Islands, or the United States. The arran<j^ement is 
hajtpy. The smaller articles are enclosed in cases a<j;ainst the 
wall, while the centre is occupied h}- a <louhle row, faced by 
the flank of knights on horseback, with a few pieces of beauti- 
fully ornamenteil artillery interspersed amoni; them, and 
numerous bannei-s hanginif from the ceiling above, so that the 
appearance of reality is well sustained. The full suits of armor 
date mostl}' from the period when Spain controlled the artists 
of Italy and Germany, for few of them bear the impress of 
native workmen; but the colleetioii of swords is thoroughly 
Spanish, and of course unrivalled in the world. Most of the 
great artists are represented, particularly Julian del Roy, the 
armorer of Boabdil, and a converted Moor, the most famous of 
them all, whose brand of the Perillo, or I;ittlc Dog, is well 
known, though few have ever seen it except here. There are 
also specimens of Miguel Cantcro, of Sahagun, Ruiz, Martinez, 
many of wliom belonged to families that transmitted their skill 
from father to son, and others of almost equal celebrity. When 
the War of Independence commenced in 1808, the patriots 
broke into the armory for weapons to use against the French, 
antl many a Toledo of the first temper did renewed service in 
defending the soil of the Peninsula against invasion; but the 
collection was thereby despoiled of a considerable portion of 
its treasures. What remains has been placed in excellent 
order, and is well preserved. It is one of the best places in 
Spain to study or refresh one's biographical history. 

The oldest piece is a rusty short sword, covered with venera- 
ble petrifaction, which was found in the Tagus. It was sup- 
j)0sed to have been dropped thci-e in a battle between Hannibal 
and the Carpentarii — rather a far-fetched conclusion, when the 
slight foundation for this opinion is considered. Then comes a 
l)ridle-bit picked up on an old field of battle in Andalusia, and 
said to have belonged to Wamba, the Gothic king. Perhaps, it 
v/ould be better to remain content with the assurance that it is 
o.'' the (Jothic age, which is confidently asserted by thos(i in 
authority. About the next thei-e is more certainty — the sword 
of Don Pelayo, whose authenticity is proven as well as such 
ancient relies can be proven. It is simple and Gothic in form, 
and was pi^served down to the middle of the last cciitui'}- in 



TTIi". ARMF.RIA. 117 

the sanctuary of Cavadonga, as bis sword. In antiquit}' and 
historic interest, it surpasses anything of the kind in Europe, 
for with the strokes of this bhido were hud the foundations of 
the great Spanish nionarchy, whicli, for good or evil, has exer- 
cised such an immense inf1ucnc;e upon tlie workh Next in chro- 
nological order are the Dui-indana of Orlando, the Paladin of 
Charlemagne, and the sword of his conqueror at the battle of 
Eoncesvallcs — Bernardo del Carpio — who occupies so large a 
space in the old ballads. As tlie existence of the two heroes 
themselves has been doubted, the aiithenticity of their swords 
will scarcely be admitted. Tlie former is supposed to be as old 
as the twelth centur}-. Of the latter it is affirmed that tb.c 
Emperor Charles took it away from the convent of Sta. Maria 
de Aguilar, where it had been }u-eserved as a relic of its master. 
Then come the war saddle and the famous sword — La Colada — 
of the Cid, which tbei-e is no good reasoning for questioning, 
except the general one ol' a want of belief Like the sword of 
Pclayo, they w-ei-e cai-efully preserved at a time when the rage 
for mere antiquities had not commenced, and when nothing 
was deemed worthy of such care, unless there was connected 
therewith an idea of revci-ence. In those times, therefore, the 
fact of such preservation with and on account of the accompa- 
nying tradition, is reasoujibly good proof of the authenticity of 
the object. 

Leaving the heroic age. there are the weapons of St. Ferdi- 
nand and Jaime el Conquistador, both as true heroes as ever 
drew a sw^ord. Then the armor of Don Alonzo V; the partisan 
of Don Pedro, the cruel ; the swords of Suero de Quiilones, tl.c 
hero of the Paso Ilenroso, so famous in the histor}- of chivalry; 
of the Ilaros; of the Marquis of Santillana ; the armor of Inigo 
Fernandez de Velasco, the constable of ('aslile; and numerous 
others down to the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, at tlie 
commencement of modern history. The swords of the Catho- 
lic sovereigns are preserved, the latter beai-ing quite a bellig- 
erent motto, " Dcsco sirmprc (/era." With them are the swords 
and armor of their great chieftains, of Luis llurtado de Mcn- 
doza, second Marquis of Mondejar, and third Count of Tendilla, 
who was made Governor and Ca])tain Ceneral of Granada, one 
of their most distinguished Generals; of the Count of Alta- 
mira; of the proud Benaventc; of Garcilaso de la Vega, " he 
who slew the Moor;" and. lastly, of the great captain, Gonsalvo 



lis SPAIN AM) TllK SrA MAUDS. 

(le Cordova. Tiie last, fi-oin the in.scri])tioii upon it, was a 
Bword of honor, and is used still on occasions of state — such as 
iaUin<; the oath at the conimcnconiont of a new roigii. when it 
is hurnc l)y the head of the Vclasto family, as inhoritoi-s of the 
Countship of Oropesa. It is also worthily used in the cere- 
mony of conferrinii; knii^hthood. 

The succecdin<f ai^c of Charles and l^liilij) includes a much 
greater number, and the woi-kniansliip o!" the suits of arnioi" is 
more ck\i,Mnt, as they proceeded from the rii-st artists of Ital3% 
German}- and tiie Low Countries. Of Cliarles, himself, they 
ari' numeiMUs; two of them l)eing- particularly fine. There are 
two other relics which give us an insight into his camjiaigning 
life — tlie one his iron camj)aigning service, the other his litter 
for being transported about when alHicted with the gout, which 
did not justify him in neglecting the aflPairs of war and politics. 
They were evidently intended for practical use, and are of the 
Kiinplest description. The armor of Philip, if anything, sur- 
jiasses that of Charles in elegance of finish. Most of the great 
men wJio illustrated their reigns are also represented. Juan 
Arias de Avila, Count of Puilon-rostro, and .luan de Padilla, 
the two opposing leaders on opposite sides of the war of the 
Communeros; Pedro Arias de Avila, brother of the Count of 
l^inon-rostro, and himself a great warrior; the Constable of 
Bourbon; the Duke of Escalona, whose noble refusal to receive 
the traitor int(j his house, has made him the historical repre- 
sentative of Castillian loyalty; Garcilaso de la Vega, the poet; 
the learned and accomplished Andres Rev de Artieda, who was 
wounded at the I)attle of Le])anto, a worthy companion of Cer- 
vantes in letters and in arms; Alonzo de Cespedes, a w'arrior 
distinguishetl for his strength as well as skill. lie, with Eey 
de Artieda and eight othei's. swam the l^^lbe witli theii- swoi-ds 
in their mouths, to capture son^e boats belonging to the enemy. 
iris feat of taking the gate of Toledo off its hinges, when re- 
fused admittance, recalls Sampson of old, while his gallantry, 
in handing the Cathedral fount of holy water to a iiidy, who, 
owing to the press, was not able to approach, surpassed, as 
well in strength as courtes}-, the conduct of Augustus, the 
strong, of Saxony. Diego Garcia de Paredes, the Sampson of 
Kstremadura, was renowned for a similar feat. The full weight 
of their arms fell repeatedly upon the enemies of Spain. The 
famous Marquis of Pescara and his nephew, Alfonso de Avalos, 



THE ARMERIA. 119 

arc liore ; Pedro Fernandez de Cordova, Marquis of Pricgo ; 
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, the historian; Juan de Urbina; 
Alvaro de Sande; the figliting Bishop of Acuiia ; Sanclio Da- 
vila, the thunderbolt of war, one of those who swam the Elbe, 
sword in mouth ; Antonio de Le'va, the hero of tlie battle of 
Pavia, who, from humble origin, rose to be the first General of 
his age, and to count on his muster roll the name of Charles 
of Ghent; Juan de Aldana, who received the sword of Francis I 
at Pavia; the incorrujitible Hernando de Alarcon, wlio led the 
vanguard in the battle of Pavia, who saved Charles at Tunis, 
and to whom were successively confided the custody of Francis 
and Pope Clement; Alejandro Farnese, Duke of Parma; the 
l)uke of Alva, the Elector of Saxony, whose defeat at Mlihl- 
berg, seemed to seal the fate of the Reformation ; Don Juan de 
Austria, the hero of Lepanto ; the great Admiral Alvaro de 
Bazau, Marquis of Sta. Cruz, who projected and was preparing 
the invincible Armada at the time of his death; and Pedro 
Mendez de Aviles, the conqueror of Florida. It seemed as 
though Philip had been truly contending against the heavens. 
The best Admirals of Sjiain, the Marquis of Santa Cruz, Men- 
dez de Aviles, the Duke of Poliano, Davila, who had all enjoyed 
a long experience upon the ocean, died in succession, and the 
command fell into the incompetent hands of the Duke of Me- 
dina Sidouia. Had Sta. Cruz survived, the result of the expe- 
dition might have been different, and Elizabeth, reeking Avith 
the blood of Mary of Scots, and hosts of innocent sufferers of 
every faith, martyrs to her vanity or fear, might have fallen, 
with but little regret, so far as she was individualh" concerned. 
The armor of Columbus, and the swords of Cortes and Pizarro 
carry ns back to the early days of our own continent. The 
latter was lent to Downie, during the War of Inde]iendence, by 
the Marques de la Conquista, the representative of the Con- 
queror, in whose hands it was not disgraced, though, during his 
lifetime, he eluded every attempt of the owner to recover pos- 
session of it. 

The Armeria contains likewise trophies of the conquered. 
The original sword of Francis I was removed b}' the French, 
but an exact cop}' supplies its place. Boabdil, Ali Pacha, the 
Turkish commander at Lepanto, his son. and various others 
have contributed. There arc also many most elegant shields 
unconnected with historical events, and worthy of the skill of 



IJO SPAIN AM) THE .Sl'AMAIlDS. 

Cellini, particularly one represent iii:^ llerciilos in tlic act ol" 
reniovini^ his Pillars to a boat in which is the Emperor Charles, 
standanl in hand, ami crowned bv Victory. At the j)row 
stands Fame, with the motto, "Plus Ultra." Another shield 
rejiresents the Rape ol' the Sabincs. Another. Petrarch's Tri- 
umph (»r liove. Another, the Shield of Minerva. Another, a 
Battle Scene near C'arthaj^e — all of exquisite workMianslii|». 
The collection of implements of war of modern times, and 
from the middle a/jjes, is very line — as Spain produced eminent 
gunsmiths, and her iron was peculiarl}' suited for that purjjose. 
The display of Moorish weapons is unique. In addition, there 
is a capital index to these numerous treasures in the catalogue, 
so that the Armeria lical is one of the satisfactory exhibitions 
'-of Europe, and affords as much pleasure to the student as to 
the mere sight-seer. Spain was formerl}' as celebrated for its 
ai'tillcr}', particularl}' its brass pieces, as for its swords. The 
foundry at Seville stood deservedly among the tirst in tlie 
world. This is still the favorite branch of the service, and 
raid\S very high — but the guns themselves no longer enjoy 
their pre-eminence, nor is there any collection in ^[adrid to 
equal that of Paris. 

The galleries, the Armeria, the Prado, and the Puerta del 
Sol, are the principal attractions in Madrid for a stranger. 
But there is some jtlcasure to l>e dci-ivod from merely saunter- 
ing about and catching the living manners as they rise. 
For my own part, I took great interest in witnessing the 
dcjjarture ol' the diligences. One started from the hotel where 
I was in the habit of dining. Though the rage for locomotion 
has much increased in Spain, it has not 3'et become an otl'-liand 
business as with us. They no longer tliink it necessary to 
make their wills, and bid an eternal adieu to all relatives and 
friends when starting on a journey to Soria or Burgos; but an 
expedition of the kind continues to make a sensation, and it is 
a ]K)lnt in Spani.sh courtes}* to meet a friend some distance 
without the walls on his arrival, and to accorapan}' him a lew 
miles on parting. The leave-taking now occurs at the dili- 
gence ofiice. Such benedictions and recommendations! Such 
kissings on both cheeks ! And what a fine opportunity of 
investigating the nature of this electrifying operation, and 
arranging the various species and genera into a science ! 
There is the stage kiss, a mutual placing of the head of the 



TIIK i^TIUil'.T SCENES. 121 

one over the shouldci" of the othoi", as mehuicliol}' horses hang 
theirs over a fence. Tlien there is the foi-nial kiss of friend- 
ship, a verj- respcctahlo and well regulated performance. Then 
comes the edifying kiss of relationship to elderly aunts and 
cousins; then the kiss of affection, more to the j^oint; and, last 
of all, the dearest hoon vouchsafe(l hy Heaven to man, the kiss 
of love ! This alone escaped the wreck of primeval bliss, and, 
yo gods ! how exquisite must have heen the garden whose 
every tree produced such fruit! I have noticed one peculiarity 
about these scenes; that after the dejiarture of the diligence, 
the prettiest one of the circle of abandoned and desolate 
friends Avas always kissed over again by the rest. i;ntil an 
inflammable bystander would be disjjosed to cry out, " Xo 
more of that, an' thou lovest me !" What could have been 
the reason of so strange a proceeding? Arc they always the 
ones that stand most in need of consolation ? or does this 
belong to the class of gentle mei'cies doubl}' blessed, blessing 
the giver as much as the taker? The more experienced must 
answer the question. Then, too, the society of the strangers 
collected in Madrid is varied and agreeable. You get used 
to tiic eternal defamation that exudes through the pores of 
the body social. The clubs and reading-rooms have increased 
in number and res])ectability. There is some relief from the 
dreadful ennui which used to fall upon the visitor after ex- 
hausting the novelty of the scene, so that ujion the whole, I 
can imagine how a person, who had never seen Andalusia, or 
who could forget its proximity, might ])ass his time quite 
agreeably in lladrid, the pride of Spain and the joy of the 
human race. 



rn.M'TKR VIT. 

T O I. ]'] I) (). 

A]ipr<)ftcli to the City — Moorish Aspect — Sta. Cruz and the Alcaz.ar — The Cathedral 
— The .Aluzarahs — The Funda — Padilia. and the Comuncros — Esoalona — The 
Synairogm'S — Jews in Spain — San Juan de los Reyes — Don Julian and la Cava 
— Manufactory of Arms — Beautiful View of the Cit}' — (General. 

It woiilil never do to leave Madrid witliout revisitiiii:; the 
Fortress-city of Toledo. So, one liot luoriiing, an acquaintance 
and myself look our places in the cary, Avhich have now ren- 
dei'ed the journey of easy accomplishment. The oasis of Aran- 
juez. with its dense foliage and shady walks, tempted us sorely 
after the arid, seethinfij, roasting country through which we 
ha<l ])asscd. Hut we made no halt, and continued on our way 
down the river. The cars were ver}' commodious, and were 
furnished with a double roof that aided materially in keeping 
off the heat of the sun's rays. Nor were wo inconvenienced by 
dust or smoke. An indistinct mass, blocking up the valley of 
the Tagus, soon announced the proximity of the capital of the 
Goths. We coursed down tlu' jiretty Vega, closely hemmed in 
on either side by the naked lulls, for a half hour longer, and 
landed at the station outside of the walls. The appearance of 
Toledo is noble. The river, making a semi-circular curve to the 
left in order to pass the hill, or rather immense rock npon 
which it is situate, bursts through the Sici-ra with the fury of a 
fretted and impatient giant; while, upon the Madrid side, the 
summit is crowned l)y the huge Alcazar, frowning perpendicu- 
larly down upon the roaring Tagus, and presenting a grand 
])oint of view foi" miles distant. The gailj' dressed zagal, who, 
in response to our hints, vowed that he never had been and 
never expected to be in love, l)ut had arrayed himself so stun- 
ningly merely for general effect, di-ovc us at half speed along 
the Paseo, past the statue of Wamba, over the bridge of Alcan- 



THE STA. CRUZ. 12^ 

tara, one of those structuros which drive the artist wild, and 
up by zig-zags into the (--ity, making tlie most wonderrul iiim- 
ings of sharp corners in streets scarcely wider than the dili- 
gence, and deposited us safely at the Posada. 

Breakfast despatched, the guide was summoned — Cabeza (a 
head) by name. lie was a spare personage, fifty-one years of 
age, somewhat battered, and the worse for wear. Had been a 
Carlist soldier; on the downfiill of that part}'', an exile in 
France. Six Avounds in the head, two balls in the leg, and one 
arm shattered, were the sole rewards of his long service. — quite 
enough for one man. On our Avay to the Santa Cruz, under his 
guidance, we passed through the City S(piare, an irregular, open 
space, still called the Zocodover, as Moorish in appearance as in 
name. It was the time of the Fi'riri, and but for our own cos- 
tume, we might almost have fancied ourselves in the age of one 
of the Abd-er-Rahmans. To visit the Santa Cruz and the 
Alcazar, it was necessary to call upon the Colonel, as this Avas 
not the regular day, so we first proceeded to headquartei'S. lie 
Avas very courteous, but had one of those severe, unsjnupa- 
thizing military faces Avhich Avould cause any one indicted for 
treason to challenge him incontinentl3\ The staff in the ante- 
chamber Avere a much more jovial set. The hospital of Santa 
Cruz, built by one of the Mendozas, is, notwithstanding the 
neglect of centuries, still a remarkably beautiful structure. 
The entrance and the first Patio are in the finest style. One 
may travel far and near, and see little to surpass this court. I 
knoAv nothing north of Andalusia equal to it. It has been 
brushed up of late for the purposes of the Military School, and 
the process Avas still going on Avith manifest advantage. The 
second Patio, though large, is much more simple. Workmen 
Avere engaged in cutting up the church, one arm of the cross 
being quite sutficient for the necessities of this irreligious age. 
Situate upon the edge of the precipice, the prospect must be 
fine, and particularly the view iVom AvindoAVS of the comcdor 
or dining-room, down into the valley of the Tagus, and over 
the country bej'ond, Avhich is indeed superb. The chief cook 
insisted upon our visiting his department, also, and looking 
into the huge i)Ots in Avhich his dinner Avas boiling. Faithful to 
my duty as a traveller, I report that the pots Avere of good 
size, and the odor of the dinner agreeable at a distance. No 
extra c!i:u-go was made for this enjoyment. 



124 SPAIN AM) THE SPAMAUDS. 

The Alcazar is situate upon the very summit of the Toledo 
rock, overtopping the whole cit}'. It is an immense fortress 
pahice, or, rather, the remains of one, in the solid style of the 
old Spanish architecture, the greater ])art dating from the time 
pf Charles and Philip, though the foundations were laid figura- 
tively, and perhaps actually, in the reign of King Wamba. At 
present, little survives except the nako<l slicll. which frowns 
desolately over the walls of rock tlial hem in the loainiiig river. 
The interior was blown up by the iMiglish or Portuguese, 
or, perhaps, both, fired by the French, and desecrated by a 
thousand im])ious hands. From its parapet you see the 
situation of Toledo. The Sierra here crosses the valley of 
the Tagus, which winds around the city on your right hand as 
you look up the stream, making for itself a precipitous passage 
through the ridge. The rock on which the city stands seems 
to be an independent hill, being thus separated by the river on 
the right, and a depression neai'ly to the level of the plain on 
the left. But, in truth, it is a part of the Sierra itself, and, 
owing to its magnificent position — conmiauding the communica- 
tion between the centre and the west of Spain — was alw:iys a 
post of the first rank of importance. The Goths made Toledo 
their capital, and it is full of recollections of the age previous 
to the conquest b}- the Saracens. "With them, in turn, it was a 
place of influence; and its histor}' during this period is of the 
greater interest, because of the number of Christians who 
remained under the Mohammedan rule, enjoying a liberty of 
conscience that puts contemporaneous Phirope to the blush. 
Under Alfonso VI, it again became of imporUuicc; but, since 
the days of the Emperor Charles, Toledo has remained in 
a state of petrifaction, as if preserved for the benefit of travel- 
lers. You see a finished city precisely as it was three ceniui-ios 
ago, a mediicval Pomj^eii ; for I doubt much whether a single 
building has been pulled down or built up in all that time. The 
prospect to the south-west is quite equal to that toward the 
north. The immense Cathedral stands nobly in the ibrcground, 
its spire piercing the heavens, and all its ornaments glittering 
in the blaze of a Castile sun. Beyond and around lay the city, 
and through the fertile Vega flowed the golden Tagus, hasten- 
ing to the orange groves of Lisbon. After taking a glance at 
the extensive stables, which, as usual, are under ground, we 
descended into the town on our way to the Cathedral. The 



THE CATIIKDTIAL. THE GOTHS. 1_0 

streets were narrow and stecj), made for a horseback people ; 
the houses small, and without windows on the outside, — a regu- 
lar Morer'ia. In a great niau}^ were yet visible the wooden 
lintels, placed over the entrance In' the Moors, as the carved 
inscriptions testily, 't'li'v^y have survived the vicissitudes of 
perhnjis a thousand years; for the air of Spain is so ])ure that 
some kinds of Avood last almost forever. Everything- was 
ancient. A little cafe, a ti-apezoidal court with an awning 
di-awn over it, into Avliicb we stepped to refresh, seemed to have 
been just disinterred; though I doubt whether the Moors had 
so cooling a drink as agraz wherewith to lower the temperature 
of their parched bodies. 

We soon entered the Cathedral, which, in every point of 
view, is a magnificent editice. The richness of ornament is 
astonishing, and not inappropriate, with the exception of the 
immense, confused, involuted, and intricate marble work be- 
hind the rctablo or the tras-olfar. The general eifect even of 
this is good when seen in a certain light. It is needless to say 
that most of the valuables were seci"eted during the War of 
Independence, otherwise modern travellers would hav(> faint 
opportunity of admiring them. The chapels are full of curiosi- 
ties and interesting historical toml)s, but I pass them by, as 
once commencing one could scarcely know where to stop. 
One of them, however, the ]\ruzarabic, deserves more particular 
mention. 

The history of the Spanish Church, if impartially written, 
would be the most interesting of Christendom, because from 
its commencement, the prelates, ownng to their superior en- 
lightenment, enjoyed a respect and an influence in political and 
social affairs which were by no means yielded to them elsewhere. 
Under the Goths, they were the depositaries of civilization. 
Hallam turns away from the historj' of tlie Goths with a 
contemptuous sneer, simply saying that the annals of barbar- 
ians are unworthy of investigation. But this is an astonishing 
misconception, for of all the northern nations, the Goths be- 
came the soonest civilized, and partly for the very reason that 
they did adopt, to a certain extent, the civil and canon law. 
Being the first of the barbarian tribes that overran the Roman 
Empire, their name and that of the Vandals were perpetuated 
as synonymous with barbarity and desecration. Vvhen their 
successors appeared upon the stage, the worM had grown used 



12G SPAIN AND TIIK srANIARDS. 

to 8uch excesses, nnd they no Ioniser provoked those fierce 
(lenunciations. They had the fiirtiier mislortune of iiicnrring 
the unuthemiis of the fsiithful by their obstinate adherence to 
the doctrines of the Arian lieres}'. Yet, historians have vied 
with eacli other in repeating these maledictions, without stop- 
ping to institute a comparison or to investigate the propriety 
of this odious pre-eminence. Certainly they were far superior 
to the contemporaneous Franks and Anglo-Saxons. The Span- 
ish prelates seem to have been always influenced, both under 
the (Joths, and, subsequently, by the prevailing trait in the 
national character — an unwillingness to submit to foreign do- 
jnination, and refused to yield more than a nominal supremacy 
to the I'ope. Under the dominion of the Saritcens, the bond 
uniting them with Uomc became weaker still. The ("aliplis of 
Cordoba even ])resented the bishops. Upon the conquest of 
Toledo, the Mohammedans, who were strangers to the (Chris- 
tian doctrine of religious intolerance, granted the usual terms 
to the vanquished, that is, a certain number of churches (six 
in this case: St. Luke, St. Sebastian, St. Mark, St. Torcad, Sta. 
Olalla, and Stas. Justa and Rutina) were set apart i<»r their 
worship. In addition, they were granted an Alcalde, who dis- 
j)ensed justice among them according to the old Cothic Fuero 
.luzgo. Tiic same sort of polit}' is still preserved among 
Oriental nations, particularly with regartl to foreign consuls. 
These subject C/hristians were styled by the conquerors Muza- 
rabs, which was strangely enough derived by philologists, iVom 
mixti arabes, a derivation that no Arabic scholar would have 
made, for the Arabs were as ignorant of Latin as tlie Latins of 
Arabic. The inhabitants of Arabia have alwa3-s been distin- 
guished b^' their pride of descent and taste for genealogy, not 
only of horses but of men, and their over copious language 
lends itself to the expression of minute shades of difference. 
The original inhabitants of the desert, the descendants of Jvah- 
tan, the Arab al Arabi, never admitted an equality with even 
the descendants of Ishmael, who were distinguished l)y some 
modification of the word Arab, applicable to such as became 
Aralis subsequently. It is nuich more reasonable, thei-efore, to 
suppose the word Miizarab to be a corruption of Mostarab, 
meaning an imitator of the Arabs. Mr. Ford attributes this 
correction to Gyangos, but Gyangos makes no such claim, and 
Casiri had pointed out the true derivation long before. After 



THE MUZARABIC RITUAL. 127 

the reconquost, the Alcalde of the Muzarabs continued to judge 
the citizens of Toledo according to the Fuero Juzgo; the other 
Christians were rnlctl bv the Alcalde de los Castellanos, accord- 
ing to the laws of old Castile, which, of itself, would prove who 
the Muzarabs were. They retained also the (fothic Liturgy of 
San Isidore in its integrity. After the reconquest, the French 
wife of Alfonso and the Archbishop, likewise a Frenchman, 
persuaded him to conform to the general practice of Christen- 
dom, and to abolish, in Toledo, as he had done elsewhere in 
Castile, this relic of ancient days, but the Toledans rose in 
arms, and it was agreed, in accordance with the spirit of the 
age, to refer the question to the arbitrament of the duel. T^n- 
fortunately, Juan Ruiz de las Matanzas, the champion of the 
Muzarabic ritual, was victorious. The trial by fire was then 
appealed to with like success. The obnoxious Avork of the 
Goths came out unscathed. The exultation of the Spaniards 
was boundless, but the ultimate success of the persevering 
monarch is said to have given rise to the proverb, so common 
since, 

Alh'i van Icycs 
Do (itiiercn Reyes. 

A one-sided compromise was finall}'' effected, and in spite of 
the movement made by Cardinal Jimenez, the Muzarabic 
Ritual has, I believe, entii-ely disappeared, except in the service 
of this chapel. It differs in some points from the common 
Missal, though 1 am not sufficiently skilled in theology to say 
whether these differences be vital. 

It has been supposed, at least it was so charged, that the 
subject Christians introduced into their belief many corrup- 
tions from Mohammedan sources. Hut universal experience 
has shown that a vigorous faith is preserved in greater purity 
under oppression than when uplifted by world 1}^ prosjierity. 
It is probable, however, that the exterior observances were 
somewhat modified by the various points of agreement Avliich 
the two religions presented. The .Mohammedans respected 
Jesus as a great prophet, inferior onl}' to him of Mecca, and so 
were many of the Jewish patriarchs and prophets held in 
equal reverence by the three great creeds which divide the 
childi'en of Abraham, the common father of them all. 



128 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

Vansc (lias, vicnon ilni"!, 
Vcnido era cl dc S:»ii Ju m. 
D.tndo Cristianos y Moros, 
Iluocn gruii joluinuidaJ, 
Los Cristianos echan junoi;i, 
Y log Moros arrayan. 
L(».s Juilio? cchaii cncas 
For la fiesta mas honrar. 

That tlio essential doetriiios of belief suiTei'ed any al'ioration 
ov corruption is scarcely to be supposed. If any such there 
were, the teri'or of the Inquisition has effectually rooted them 

(IU(. 

The Cathedi-al of Toledo, anioni;- other precious relics, boasts 
also a marble slab, upon Avhich the Viri^in descended to place 
tlie Casulla upon the shouUlers of St. Iklefonso. Caboza rev- 
orenlly thrust his two fingers into the holes which devotion 
has made, and kissed the tips of them. May he derive all the 
benefit he anticipated. He assured us wc were fortunate in 
the time of our visit, being the fail-, as the image of the Virgin 
would be clothed in her jewels. To describe ail the treasures 
contained in a Cathedral that has received and merited the 
appellation of "La Eica," would be a task as tedious as un- 
profitable. The great mcdian-al Cathedrals are said to resume 
in themselves the history o{' their times. This is eminently 
true of that of Toledo, which is a repository of ancient art and 
history. I liked nothing about it better than the beautiful 
appearance of the towers from the Alcazar. The sonorous 
peal, loo, of the bell is grand. But whatever may have been 
the effect of the (cathedral, it was surjiassed by that of the 
cloister, which seemed to us, coming out of the nai-row glaring 
streets, the most beautiful sight wo had ever beheld. The 
elegant colonnade and luxurious green of the Patio might well 
reconcile one to an abnegation of the exterior pleasures of the 
woi'ld. 

After loitering at)0ut awhile, we returned lo dinner at the 
Posada, and enjoyed the meal, thoroughly, under the awr.ing. 
It was a foretaste of Amlalusia. Hitherto on t!ie journey 
through Aragon and Castile, I had seen little to ve(!all the 
Spain of the Poets. The style of domestic architectui-e, the 
dress and Inibits of the people, had savored somewhat of the 
cliilly north. Here we felt once more at home. Seated on a 
rickety chair in the Patio, sui-rounded by dogs, cats, women 



THE COMUNEROS. HOUSE OF PADILLA. 129 

sewing, and an-ieros with fajds and calanes hats, and the ther- 
mometer standing at 140° in the street outside, we admitted 
that mere existence was beginning to be agi-ecable. 

The manufactoiy of arms being some little distance bej-or.d 
tlie walls, the host offered us, after dinner, a carriage at three 
dollars. We proposed one and a half, the full value, which he 
refused. AVe started to walk. He came down to two. Our 
pride declined meeting the offer of conijn'omise, and fortun- 
ately, as we would thereby have missed a very pleasant stroll, 
and, in all prol)al»ility, have been Jolted nearly to death. So 
off we went under the reluctant leadership of Cabeza. 

There were two spots in Toledo, vcr}- interesting in their 
historical associations, which I had overlooked on the former 
visit. We proceeded to them at once. The one Avas the site ot 
the residence of Padilla, the leader of the rebellion of the Com- 
uneros against the Emperor Charles, the last vigorous stand 
made for the old Spanish liberties. Contemporaneous histo- 
rians, writing under the influence of the monarch, have dwelt 
upon the frailties of the rebels. Yet, making due allowance, it 
was a noble effort to save their country from the ever increasing 
preponderance of the royal prerogative. But the struggle 
was in vain. The united power of the Sovereign of Spain, of 
German}^, of Italy, and of America, was too great. Tiie rod 
of the anointed swallowed up the smaller rods, and Padilla 
atoned for his temerity by jtlie forfeit of his life. Ilis noble 
wife, Maria de Pacheco, refused to surrender, and when forced 
to yield the suburl)s of the city, retired to the Alcazar, where 
she, for a long time, continued to resist, until, all hope gone, 
she succeeded in effecting her escape to Portugal. Every trace 
of the rebellion was obliterated and the very dwelling of its 
chief razed to the ground, so that one stone should not stand 
upon another. The Court was removed to punish the city, 
which had sympathized with this attempt, and the pall of abso- 
lutism remained four long centuries, stifling every aspiration for 
freedom. Had the prayer of the Comuneros been granted, 
Charles might not the less have been the great Emperor, and 
Spain would have been free. In more fortunate times a return- 
ing sense of justice caused the spot to be marked by a small 
tablet, commemorative of the event. 

The other was even more interesting — the ruins of tiie palace 
of the Duke of Escalona, the head of the Pacheco family. 
10 



130 SPAIN AND TUT. SPANIARDS. 

AVIicii tlio Constable of Bourbon, wlio Imd fouglit against his 
nativo country, and was brandi'cl throuiiliout Europe with the 
name (»f traitor, came to the Spanish Court, after the battle of 
Pavia, its lofty cavaliers were unable to conceal their horror of 
a crime which shocked all those ideas of honor and loyalty that 
formed the foundation of their knightly character. Charles 
requested the Duke of Escalona to receive him into his jialnce. 
The subject professed his readiness to comply with the com- 
mands of the sovereign, but the jiroud grandee vowed the 
destruction of the mansion so soon as his unwelcome guest 
should have departed, considering that the house which had 
sheltered a traitor was unworthy- to continue the residence of 
a Castillian gentleman. The ruins yet remain, the noblest 
monument that any mortal ever erected to himself Cabeza 
fitly remarked, that the times had changed, and that treachery 
was now the shortest road to preferment and to fame. 

Our route lay by the two S^'nagogues, quite unique in Chris- 
tian Kui'ope, for nowhere else did the Jews enjoy sufficient 
security to justif}' them in making a public display of their 
wealth. Notwithstanding their present bigotry, there was a 
time when Spaniards were as dislingnishcd for tlieir lilicrality 
in tolerating ditfei-ence of religious belief, as they have since 
been for its ojiposite. The Toledan Jews boasted a ver}' 
ancient origin, and asserted that, w lien consulted by their 
brethren of Jerusalem as to thi,» crucifixion of our Saviour, 
they returned a strenuous remonstrance, of which a eopy exists 
in till' libi'ary of the Vatican, arguing, hence, that the}' were 
not to be included in the just hatred of Christians. The A^iti- 
can, doubtless, contains many strange documents, wiiicli, if 
brought to light, would require the history of modern times to 
be re-written. Whether this be included among them, is a 
more doubtful matter. Credat Judanis. The position occu- 
])ied by the Spanish Jews, between the Christians and the 
Mohammedans, capable of benefiting or injuring either party, 
would have been much more efficacious in securing them a 
respectable position than an}' such ixMuonstrance of their ances- 
tors, however well authenticated. Be the i-eason what it may, 
the fact is beyond dispute, that, in the Peninsula, this people, 
the oppressed of all naticMis, enjoyed an immunity to be found 
nowhere else. Partaking of the peculiarities of the nation, 
from whose midst tiie edict of the Inquisition l)anished them. 



THE JEWS IN SPAIN. 131 

they have, even in exile, hecn characterized h}- an uncompro- 
mising haughtiness and pride of birth, denying equality with 
their brethren of the faith from less favored lands. These two 
Synagogues were built in the pride of their power. The 
smaller of them, now Santa Maria la Blanca, was built as far 
back as the ninth century, the century after the conquest bj^ 
the Arabs. The other — El Transito — was erected by Samuel 
Levi, the famous treasurer of Don Pedro, who enjoyed, per- 
haps, greater influence in the kingdom than any of his faith 
had ever done before or has ever done since. In the earlier 
days of the Spanish monarchies, the struggle for national 
existence was too engrossing to permit of attention to aught 
but the science of war. The light of knowledge was kept 
liurning only at Constantinople, Bagdad and Cordova. To 
the latter the Jews had full access, and hence in the nascent, 
Christian kingdoms they are found in exclusive possession of 
certain occui)ations, such as medicine and tinanee. From time 
immemorial, they wei'e conspicuously engaged in tlie treasury 
department, which was a source at once of power and unpopu- 
larity, and had much to do with their final expulsion. From 
whatever cause, their privileges were far greater in the Penin- 
sula than in any other part of Europe; among them, the 
capacity to hold land, which was not conceded to them else- 
where, so far as I can remember. Their subsequent expulsion 
was an utterl}' unnecessary and indefensible act of intolerance, 
but it was eifectuall}' accomplished. The race disappeared 
from the soil of Spain, and the accounts, renewed from time to 
time, of Hebrews still secretl}^ professing their fiiith, thouo-h 
filling high offices, even in the hierarchy, are mere idle tales to 
gratify the credulity of untravelled readers. The two Syna- 
gogues are both of simple rectangular shape, and in outside 
beauty rival the glories of fire-engine house architecture, but 
within are the splendor and minute elegance of the P'ast. 
Costly woods, M-hich Solomon was so fond of using, slender 
columns, fairy latticed galleries for the women, who were thus 
concealed lest the eyes and thoughts of men should halt be- 
tween heaven and earth, all illuminated by the rays of the 
western sun. streaming in ro.sy waves from above, produce a 
com])lete illusion. But the dcsillusion is at hand in the tawdry 
modern ornaments of the one, and the vile collection of old 
rubbish deposited in the other. Some guide-book or tiaveller 



132 SPAIN ANP THE SPANIARDS. 

comi>lains of the surliness of the custodian. He cither has not 
been changed, (jr has left a worthy successor. 

In the same neighborhood is the Church of San Juan de los 
Ilcyos, erected b}- Ferdinand and Isabella in gratitude to their 
tutelar saint. The noble fugade is still ornamented with the 
chains ])laced there b}' the Christian captives whom the suc- 
cess of the Moorish war had freeil from slavery, but the body 
of the editice, and particular!}' the exquisite cloister adjoining, 
are in a sad state of dilapidation. The former still contains 
some fine works, among them a magnificent wooden statue of 
some saint, by Alonso Cano : the pensive head is uncommonly 
good. Cabe/.a romai'ked, " that head is Ijctter lliaii iiiino" — a 
fact we did not dispute, as his must have been somewhat dam- 
aged by its six wounds. The pulpits, too, arc gems in their 
way. Among the decorations were scattered plentifully the 
arms of the Catholic kings, with the 3'okc and the arrows. 
There is also a gallery of jiaintings, which we looked at from 
politeness. The court of the cloister was grown up with broad- 
leaved tropical plants, forcing their vigorous life amid the ruins 
of fountains and broken statues. Part of the upper corridor 
had fallen, and fragments of sculpture lay scattered around. 
The whole was a melancholy sight. Its cowled inhabitants 
were gone forever. The stillness of death reigned around, and 
the sound of our footsteps, echoing in these deserted halls, was 
painfully audible. Progress is certainly desirable ever3-where, 
but its triumphal procession is too often like that of Jugger- 
naut, marked with the mangled remains of what is most beau- 
tiful, and the sacrifices which this deity demands are frequently 
so revolting as to cause its tlivinity to be questioned. 

0])posite to the Church are the ruins of the Palaces of Jime- 
nez, of Wamba and of Jioderic, as at least of what are so 
called. Vvo\n the last is a view down into the gorge in the 
river upon the Moorish mills, and the tower where La Cava is 
said to have been bathing when seen by Don Roderic. Much, 
perhai)S all of this, is apocryphal, but wiiy destroy these ro- 
numtic fables? AVe cannot live by bread alone. The connec- 
tion of Don Julian and his daughter La Cava with the invasion 
of Spain by the Moors, was received without question, until 
the rise of the historico-critical school, when it came to be re- 
garded as a fable and the pure invention of Monkish chroni- 
clers. This was the other extreme. Sulisequent investigations 



DON JUAN AND LA CAVA. 133 

have shown that the truth lies in the middle ground, and this 
romantic incident will prohahly resume its place in serious 
histoiy. As told b}^ the old historians it is substantially as 
follows : 

In the days of the Gothic kings, it was the custon\ that the 
daughters of the nohles should be educated in the Eoyal 
Palace at Toledo, and form a portion of the (Queen's Court 
until the period of their marriage. At the accession of Don 
Roderic, one of the principal magnates of the realm was Count 
Julian, descended from the blood roj^al, and related to the re- 
bellious sons of Wittiza, and the traitor Bishop Oppas. He was 
entrusted with the Castle of Ceuta, in Africa, then the bulwark 
of Christianity against the advancing tide of Mohammedan 
conquest. In accordance with the custom of the kingdom, his 
daughter, La Cava, was in attendance upon the Queen. One 
day, when the young ladies were diverting themselves by bath- 
ing in the golden watei'S of the Tagus, Don Roderic, in an evil 
hour for Spain, looked from his window, and spell-bound by the 
extraordinar}' beauty of the fair Cava, forgot himsell^, his king- 
dom and his religion, 

Ay do Espaiia ! 

Perdida por im gusto y por La Cava. 

Beside herself with grief at the affront. La Cava wrote a 
pathetic and touching letter to her father, who hastened to 
Toledo, his heart overflowing with revenge. Roderic, sui'priscd 
at his sudden appearance, inquired if he had procured certain 
hawks for hunting, which he had been desirous of obtaining 
from Africa. '' I have," replied the incensed parent. " They will 
accompany me on m}^ next visit, and they are such hawks as 
3'ou have never seen before in your life." Pretending that his 
wife lay mortally sick at Ceuta, and that nothing could assuage 
the pangs of her malady exce])t the sight of the beloved Cava, 
he succeeded in returning with his daughter to Africa, where 
he entered into the negotiations which led to the landing of the 
Mohammedan arm}' and the battle of Guadalete. This event 
must therefore have happened a year or so ])revious to A. D., 
711, and the little tower on the bank of the river has been 
pointed out by tradition as the scene of its occurrence. Aa 
before stated, the history of La Cava received implicit faith, 
until a critic remarked that the name of neither was mentioned 



134 SPAIN ANI> TIIK SI'ANIAUDS. 

in any wi-itini; previDUs to the chronicle of tlie Monk of Silos, 
who lived in Iho twelfth century. The two contemporary 
chronicles, and that of Duleidio, of Don Alfonso, and the lOiuil- 
ian. do not even acknowledi^e their existence. This silence 
was considered cojulusive. and the famous histor}- of Don 
Julian was bani.shed to the misty reigns of fable. 

Since then, however, the attention of Spanish literati has 
been turned toward the Moorish authors, and they have enjoy- 
ed the peculiar advantage of seeing the picture of their historj' 
from two exactly opposite points of view. Many difficulties 
have thus been cleared away. The researches of Gyangos, in 
particular, liave thrown great light upon the present matter, 
and established conclusively that so far as Don Julian is con- 
cerned, his existence at least is not a fabrication of the Monk of 
Silos, for he quotes Arabic authors of an early date, \vho, how- 
ever much they may differ in the spelling of his name, and his 
position under the Gothic monarchy, agree in calling him Lord 
of Ceuta, and in assigning him a prominent place in the ])re- 
parations for invasion. The silence of the early Christian 
authors can be easily explained, when Ave reflect that a treason 
of this sort would natural!}' be better known to the Moors, and 
moreover that Don Julian (or Ilyan as they call him) was pro- 
bably a half independent chief, paying only a nominal alle- 
giance to the Gothic monarchs, and choosing his side in war, 
without thereby attracting much attention to the motives by 
wliieh he might have been prompted. Apostacy seems to have 
cost very little at that day. Munuza, subsequentlj' the Moor- 
ish commander of the northern frontier, and the hero of 
another romance, which has been ornamented by poetry and 
the drama, was, from his name, evidently a Basque renegade, 
Munoz or Muiiez, plaj-ing a similar part with Don Julian. As 
for the two contemporaneous authors, one of them, Isider Pa- 
censis, describes the invasion in less than twenty, and the other 
the continuator of the Biclarense, in less than ten lines, with- 
out mentioning the names of Bishop Oppas, or the sons of 
Wittiza, about whoso intrigues there can be no doubt. If their 
silence were suflScicnt negative proof, the history of that era in 
Spain would be reduced to meagre proportions. The succeed- 
ing chronicles were written in the recesses of Gallicia, Ticon 
and the Asturias, faraway from the local tradition, wiiich was 
probably known only to Don Eodcric and the courtiers, and it 



BON JULIAN AND LA CAVA. 135 

is natural, that the few survivors, it' any there were, sliouUl not 
perpetuate tlie nieinory of an oeeurreneo redounding so little 
to their honor, and whose connection with the suhsequent inva- 
sion Avas prohahly unknown to them. Moreover, the Monk of 
Silos merely says that the insult to his daughter increased the 
disaflfection of Don Julian, who was already leagued hy family 
ties with the rebellious sons of Wittiza, and that the\- were all 
alike engaged in the negotiations with the Moors. The pecu- 
liar prominence assigned to him was an emhellishmcnt of sub- 
sequent historians. 

In all this, however, there is nothing said about La Cava, 
and historians and guide books give her up for the same reason 
that the}' formerly gave up Don Julian, because she is not 
mentioned in the early chronicles. That La Cava is not the 
invention of any Christian, is evident from her name, which is 
])ure Arabic and rather an ai)iiellation. What her real Gothic 
or Eoman name was, is unknown. She is sometimes called 
Florinda. The Spanish chroniclers drew the tale, therefore, 
either from an early Arabic autlior, whose work is lost, or from 
some tradition current among the Moors. The thing in itself 
was not improbable. It is well known that the Gothic Counts 
or Comites, were the comj^anions of the sovereign, and that 
their children were educated at the Court, a custom i)erj)etu- 
ated to a very late da}^ in Spain, not only b}' the sovereigns 
themselves, but by the great magnates. That the daughter of 
Don Julian should have been sent to Toledo, or to Seville as 
others have it, is natural. The act attributed to Don Roderic 
is possible, if we believe the general accounts given of his dis- 
solute morals, though a great part of the crimes laid to his 
door were pious fictions to explain the heav^y judgment of 
Providence upon him. On the other hand, it is not probable 
that the Moors invented this tale, because there would be no 
motive for their so doing, and because it contains references to 
customs of the Gothic Court with which they would scarcely 
have been acquainted, and which were altogether difterent 
from their own. The eloquent letter that Mariana attributes 
to her, is, of course, a subsequent composition, for if the con- 
fiding Cava knew even the alphabet, she was far in advance of 
contemporary beauties, and of some of her fair countrywomen 
a great man}- hundred years afterwards. The bath itself, is 
probably equally apochryphal. Popidar traditions are poor 



136 SPAIN AM> TIIK SPANIARDS. 

reliance in mere matters of detail. Itiit tliey arc scldoiu without 
some foundation in general I'act, and unless eontradieted 1)V. or 
inconsistent with ascertained events or unreasonahle in them- 
selves, are not wholly to be rejected, because not reduced to 
writing till some ages have elapsed. So, in spite of the almost 
unanimous opposition of critics, I was determined not to bo 
cheated out of the existence of the young lady, and gazed over 
the jiarajiet with as much interest as though Don .Tiilian's 
daughter were present in reality as well as in tradition. 

licaving the city by the beautiful (late of Cambroii, we 
descended to the river bank, and pursuing our way through 
lu.xui'iant gardens, irrigated by water wheels of the most 
Oriental type, the veritable Moorish norlds, an<l giving and 
receiving abur from the peasants, we reached the manufactory 
of arms. It is strange that some favored spots seem pecu- 
liarly fitted for the production of cutlery, without its being 
])Ossible to assign any satisfactory reason therefor. Some 
attribute the virtues of this locality to the atmosphere, others 
to the water. Whatever be the cause, Toledo has always been 
famous for its weapons. Owing to neglect, the}^ once well 
nigh lost their Avell deserved reputation, l»ut are now ftist 
rising again into rei)ute, and bid fair to equal those of the 
sixteenth centui-y. '^flie wliite anus of the 8])anish service are 
made here, and alreaily compare favorably with an}' in the 
world. The building itself oft'ers nothing extraordinary — a 
large court surrounded b}' workshops. Nor did the process 
seem to be materially ditterent from that imrsued at Chateaxi- 
rault and other ])laces. In old times, a great many dcmi- 
cabalistic cx])edients were resorted to, but the}" have been 
long since abaiidoneil. The weajxnis are tested in the most 
eft'ectual manner, both as to strength and tem])er. Tlie blades 
are thi-ust against a wall, and bent nearly double. They are 
tlicii struck violently on tlie flat side upon some hard sub- 
stance, and the edge is fmall}' tried on one of the softer metals. 
The daggers are driven by some strong-armed person through 
a cop])er or silver coin. After j)assing through such tests, they 
may laugh at bone or cuirass. Those famous blades that were 
|)acked in a circular V>ox, can still he made, but more sturdincss 
is i-ecpiiiT'd at present. In truth, it is not easy to understand 
how such flexibility was consistent with the necessities of 
actual service. 



ROMAN RUINS. — GABACIIOS. 137 

I embraced the opportimit}^ of selcctliii^ four poignards of 
approved quality, as they were tested before my eyes, and 
have no doubt they will i^rovo equal to any emergency. I 
only hope there will be no necessity for trying them. One of 
the workmen from Cadiz maintained that the locality was of 
no importance, and that their excellence de]iended entirely 
iipon the skill of the artizan. Cabeza, Avho was a native of 
Toledo, fired u]i warmly in liehalf of the steel-tcMnpcring 
Avaters of the Tagus. As they were evidently partial wit- 
nesses, I rejected the opinions of both, — but it is certain, that 
though other localities have been tried, this, by unanimous 
consent, has been selected as producing the best. 

Between the Fabrica de Armas and the city lie the ruins of 
the old Christian Basilika and (he Roman Circus. It is sup- 
posed that the Roman city extended over this plain, as the 
modern one must do, if it extend at all, just as has occurred at 
Granada. Built upon a lofty rock, Toledo suffers, as it has 
always done, for want of water. In ohl times, the business of 
supplying it with this indispensable fluid was in the hands of 
the (Tabachos, who came for that purpose from the French 
Pyrenees, whither they returned after accumulating a small 
fortune. As I have before remarked, the word " (Jabacho " is 
of very uncertain origin and meaning. It is now a])])lied almost 
exclusively to the French as a malciiction. They were called 
here Azacanes, from the Arabic word, signifj'ing '' Waterer." 

On the way back we enjoyed a magnificent view. The 
whole heavens in front were covered with a black mass of 
thunder cloud, such as tropical climates alone can show. The 
wind was coursing furioush' down the upper valley, sweeping 
and tossing high into the air vast clouds of dust on both sides 
of the city, charged with the earth}- odor of freshlj- fallen rain. 
Projected upon the cloud, and struggling between its gloom 
and the rays of the setting sun behind us, was the white line 
of the city from the gate of Bisagra, by the Casa de Locos, to 
the ruins that crown the banks of the Tagus; palaces peeped 
over palaces, and, reaching far above all, was the glittering 
Cathedral upon the summit of the rock, with the ponderous 
Alcazar in the back ground. This view, alone, would have 
repaid us for the visit. As the storm was some distance off, 
we proceeded leisurely, stojjping to look at tlie outlines and 
scanty remains of the Roman ruins. After that we challenged 



13s SPAIN AM) THE SPANIAULiS. 

C'abeza to a race up tlie hill, ami, thanks to hi.s many wounds, 
distanced him ; had he been thirty years younger, the victory 
miijht not have been so easy. He evidently thoui^ht us "origi- 
nals," perhaps madmen, though the exact ])art of the -world 
which hor.ored us with a home puzzled him. He was kind 
enough to congratulate us upon our grammatical Spanish and 
fine jironunciation, which, from a ToK'dano,' was very satisfac- 
tory, though he reluctantly admitted, when hard ])i'ossed. that 
our fluency was not so great as that of the natives. 

We re-entered by the gate of liisagra, and, leaning over the 
parapet, enjoyed the prospect which extended on three sides. 
On the plain below stood the vast convent of Afuera j and, be- 
yond that, were the ruins of the castle, to which the i-omancers 
say that Don Julian retired with his daughter. On tlie right, 
the view embraced the valley of the Tagus, the Pasco, and the 
castle of Cervantes on the eminence beyond the bridge of Alcan- 
tara; to the left, was the road we had just left, behind us rose 
the city, tier after tier of ancient houses mounting above each 
other, until the whole culminated in the rosy towers of the 
Cathedral. As the sun disappeared, we Avound down the east- 
ern slope, crossed the bridge, and took our seats in the train. 
A few miles out, we met and traversed the storm, and ten 
o'clock found us seated before a cold fowl and a flask of Yal 
de Penas at the Fonda in Madrid, pleased with ourselves and 
the whole world. 

There are few more interesting excursions than the one I 
have just described. It was a visit to the ])ast, the yet living 
j)ast, without vigor, but still existing. Toledo is fortunate 
above most cities in preserving relics of the various phases of 
civilization which have existed in the Peninsula — the Roman, 
the Gothic, the Moorish, the S|)anisii up to tiie age of Philip II — 
and it has always been the favorite abode of the Christian 
hierarchy. "Whoso has not seen Toledo, has not seen S})ain. 
Nor are the reveries of the past disturbed by the advancing 
tread of the presetit. In former da3's, when the treasures of 
America found their only exit through the Spanish galleons, 
and prelates were powers in the State, the Archbishop of To- 
ledo and Patriarch of the Indies enjoyed a salar}^ estimated at 
$600,000, a fearful sum at that time, though very little of it 
went to the gratification of his personal wants. The number 
of pi'iests, monks and nuns was liniitless. They have all passed 



GENERAL. 139 

away, but the tenantless convents and monasteries attest their 
former opulence. This world-renowned cit}', the home of 
Wamba, the favorite seat of councils, the bulwark of the 
Moors, the last asserter of Spanish liberty, has dwindled to a 
fifth-rate town, whose scanty- population scarce suffices to pro- 
tect its crumblinj^ walls. Even the railroad seems to have 
entered the conspiracy, by drawing off its population to the 
superior attractions of Madrid. The primacy, the manufac- 
tory of arms and the military school alone give the semblance 
of life. Everything beyond the merest necessaries is sought at 
the capital. Even bull-fights have ceased; those of Madrid 
being so accessible on great occasions. When the communica- 
tion with Lisbon is opened, a change may take place, though 
in the present ago of peace and ease, it is difficult for a city 
built iipon a hill to maintain its importance. 



CnAPTKU Vlir. 
:\I A D JU D TO S E V I L L E . 

Departure — La Mancha — Don Quixote — Entrance into Andalusia — La Carolina — 
IJutllc of Las Xavas de Tolosa — Battle of Bailcn — Andujar — The Country — 
View near Carpio — Cordova — Valluy of the Guadnlquivir — Party from Lora — 
Api>roach to Seville. 

The reasons wliic-h dotaiiied ine in Madrid having ceased to 
exist, 1 made all speed to enihark for Andalusia, and a l>riij;lit 
August tiiorning found nie in the Seville diligenec. I occupied 
the herlina alone. A young Catalan and his hride, an inteUec- 
tual-looking Italian, were in tiie interior. They fraternized with 
me immediately as a fellow-countrynian, at which I knew not 
whether to be pleased or niortitietl, for, though it is generally 
flattering to be mistaken for one of that handsome race, j'et it 
was provoking to be told in Italy that you had a Spanish 
accent, and in Spain an Italian accent. However, as they were 
very agreeable people, the oifence was venial. The rotunda 
received a bull-fighter, a .stout, well-made fellow, a little Sevil- 
lana, who said "Si Seiior" so prettil}', and a young man on his 
Avay to the Havana. There was the usual collection of friends 
to see us off, but the young man in the rotunda was most to be 
envied. He bade farewell, with commendable serenity, to sev- 
eral elderly ])ersons, and, finally, to a handsome young lad}*, 
who must have occupied a much dearer place in his affections. 
She struggled in vain to suppress the tears that fell from her 
cheeks. How exquisitely beautiful she looked I Oh! 3'e dream- 
ers who doat upon the Madonnas of Rafaelle and the Magda- 
lens of Correggio I reserve your admiration for a Spaniard in 
teal's, not the tears of real attliction, but those which refiect the 
image of love, and which, alas! absence dries too s])eedily. 
And if those tears, perchance, are shed for 3"0u, fortunate mor- 
tal, inscribe your name among the ever happ}', and pi'ay to be 



LA MANCIIA. — VAL DE PEN AS WINE. 141 

removed to the mansion of the blessed, for you have expe- 
rienced all that earth can ofter of felieit}'. Yet, who would 
believe it, this faithless SM^ain was laughing at breakfast, two 
hours later, as though the aching heart in ]\Iadrid had no 
longer a place in his memor}-. 

As the dreary natui-e of to-day's ride Avas familiar b}' expe- 
rience, I begged the mayoral to give me some company ; any 
Avould be better than none. A few miles out, my request Avas 
granted in the sluipe of a long weazened, good-humored anti- 
quity, who descended from the coupe until some one more 
worthy than he should api^ear. lie was ushered in b^" the 
mayoral, with profuse coninuMidations, and though he was 
innocent of many things, and prohal)ly did not know whether 
George Washington was born in Kamschatka or Patagonia, or 
that the British lion had bit the dust at New Orleans, yet he 
knew all about La Manclia, Avhich was much more to the 
present occasion. We Avhirled on the railroad by Aranjuez to 
the station at Tembleque, where we took our mules and em- 
barked, for it seems like undertaking a long sea voyage. The 
ancient looking square of Tembleque, with its slender colon- 
nade, was familiar, but for many weary hours the road remained 
utterly devoid of all interest, save that conferred b^' the immor- 
tal Cervantes, who, with rare success, has rendered one of the 
most unattractive countries in Europe a centre of interest to 
the whole literary world, for he enjoys with Homer the felicit}' 
of being read and admired in all countries, and his fame seems 
destined to survive through all ages. To do La Mancha jus- 
tice, it must he said that the dullness of the country' is by no 
means a characteristic of tlu' ])e()])Ie. who are as good-humored 
and lively a set as exist in 8pain. Hard-working in the day. 
but work once over, devoted to dancing manchegds and singing 
Seguidillas until the morning. And then they produce the 
Val dePenas wine, wiiich is tlie especial growth of the triangle 
between ]\ranzanare.s, Val de Penas aiul Cuidad Real. There are 
said to be two kinds, white and red, though I have never seen 
the former. The red is full and rich, of more bod}- than most 
French wines, except perhaps some of the Cote d'or, and is a 
great favorite in Spain, when it can be procured, for the means 
of communication from one province to another are still such 
as to require the pig-skin and the mule. A considerable por- 
tion of the best is consequently consumed on the spot. In 



142 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

some parts of La ^Maiulia i^ood water is so scarce that the juice 
of tl»c grape, in its various forms, is the ordinary drink of the 
inhabitants. 

As for points of interest on this road, tliere are scarcely any, 
save, as 1 have said, those wliich recall the gallant knight. 
Near the City of Ocana. on the Iclt. Areizaga underwent a 
disastrous defeat, resembling in causes and consequences that 
of (Jates at Camden. A few leagues farther on we passed a 
villainous-looking gang of prisoners — gallej' slaves — " creeping 
like snail unwillingly to" work on the road. I do not remem- 
ber, in my whole life, ever to have seen people make such an 
interval between the setting down of one foot and the lifting of 
the other. The thing had evidently been reduced to a science. 
At the Pass of Puerto Lapiche, Don Quixote encountered the 
wind-mills, whose descendants are still flourishing, and defeated 
the Biscayan after nearly driving him crazy by asserting that 
he was not a "gentleman." Farther on is a Venta, said to be 
built upon the spot where the Don was knighted, which may 
or may not be so. Ilis second salida was near our road into 
the Sierra Morena to the Venta do Cardenas, whence he was 
taken home in a cage. Toboso, the cave of Montesinos, and 
other localities mentioned in the third salida. all lie to the left. 
Many foreign cdiloi's and illustrators of Don (^hiixotc have 
been far from com))rehcnding the various assenililage of good 
and bad traits which are combined in the character of the two 
])rincipal personages in tlie history. The famous illusti-ations 
of Tony Johannot will, 1 am sui-e, give little pleasure to any 
one who has resided in S})ain long enough to appreciate its 
inhabitants. ]le makes Sancho a sort of Dutch boor, and the 
knight ridiculous and absurd. Both are erroneous. Don Quix- 
ote is a monomaniac, but a true and lo^al gentleman, whoso 
hands were never soiled by anything unworthy of the exalted 
ideal which, in his madness, he adopted as a model. The spirit 
that prompted iiini has alwa3's existed in Spain. Jt elevated 
her to the throne of the world. Something beyond the mere 
practical, some little ideality is necessary to greatness. The 
veneration and enthusiasm of a soldier for a strip of soiled, 
shot-torn bunting, fluttering from an old staif, is purely imagin- 
ative; yet, what noble deeds has it not prompted ! In our day, 
devotion to an idea is stamped as Quixotism, fanatTcisni, and 
considered fair subject for ridicule. Even chivalry has become 



• MY CO^rPAMON. 143 

a term of reproach. The next generation will pi-obably be 
convinced of its error, and confess that hap})iness is not con- 
fined to the gratification of bodil}- or even intellectnal desires. 
A long causeway led over the now dry ojos de Guadiana. 
The same treeless, brown, dusty landscape, bounded by blue 
mountains, and covered with blue sky, continued until, at 
length, toward sunset we approached j\Ianzanares, a considera- 
ble toAvn, which, Avith its gardens and irrigated fields, seemed 
a ver}^ oasis. It was almost the first green 1 had beheld since 
leaving Aranjuez. IManzanares ransacked the highways and 
byways of beggardom to give us a suitable welcome. One of 
the applicants — a good-looking, tidy-clad matron — had some 
peculiar claim upon the purses of travellers. She was blind 
for one thing, and had received a good education in her youth, 
suflicicntly evidenced by the correctness of her speech. 1 was 
too glad to escape by paying the required tax. Here my ven- 
erable companion was forced temporarily to give place to three 
brisk manchegas — -just one too many, as there were only three 
seats — though the mayoral said, that as I had in the morning 
complained of want of company, I should not complain now 
of too much, lest it might be supposed I was hard to please. 
We had a lively time to Val de Peiias, where they dismounted, 
and the ancient resumed his place. He was very apprehensive 
of being upset in crossing the Sierra, and was continually say- 
ing : " Pienso que hemos de volcnr ; el gand-o no vale nd-a." (1 
think we are going to upset; the cattle are perfectly worth- 
less.) I gave him all the consolation in my power, which was 
to the eftect that I could not prevent the upsetting. It is 
strange how people of a certain age dislike the idea of being 
killed ! and how loth they are to follow the doctrines of pre- 
destination into practice ! Not that I was particularly desirous 
of dying upon the threshold of Andalusia; iji fact, I never felt 
less in the humor of receiving extreme unction than at that 
moment. We sympathized on one point, at least. Contrary 
to good manners, but very consistent with nature, I forgot the 
perils of the road and slept soundly. An unworthy env^' of 
\\\y superior powers of repose prompted him to awaken me 
frequently under pretext of offering water and other courtesies 
of the road, until i hinted that all men were not endowed alike 
in this resi)cct, and that opening my eyes would not necessarily 
close his, whereupon he uulxirthencd his heart and vowed that 



144 SPAIN AND THE SPANIAUDS. 

it was a shame to sleep so, while he was coiulemned to hopeless 
watchfulness. We made an amicahlc truce, however, and I 
awoke in Andalusia, as we were thundering down the rocky 
street of La Carolina. To my surprise, all sorts of accidents 
liad happened during the night ; the tongue had broke, the 
mules had got loose, «&c.. &c., Imt we were all sound in body 
and in mind, and exchanged congratulations at tinding our- 
selves once more in the land of the cloudless climes and starry 
skies. 

If. in crossing the Pyrenees, the traveller feels himself in a 
dilforent land, equally strong is that conviction in passing from 
l>:i .Manclia t(^ A mhilusia. The sun was just rising above the 
hills, yet the little posada had the hot, still temperature of a 
tropical country. Its Avcll-swept tiled floor would have been 
worth}' of Holland. Plants of various descriptions, neatly ar- 
ranged in pots, adorned the irregular court, and the dining 
room, ornamented with rude prints of the Virgin and of the 
romantic exploits of some of the conquerors of Peru, evinced, 
at least, an humble taste for the beautiful. On the outskirts of 
the town was the Paseo, with its immense oaks and walnut 
trees. Hedges of aloes and cactus skirted the roads, and olive 
groves covered the hill sides, Avhile far in the distance were the 
lofty Sierras of Jaen and Granada quivering in the heated 
atmosphere. With what rapture did I find myself once more 
in fair Andalusia I and how unutterably sweet to the soul was 
the music of joys that were passed, but yet survived in mcm- 
or}' 1 .M 3' first passage over this i-oad had been in midwinter. 
Leaving the chilly, freezing winds that howled over New 
Castile, I bail crossed the Sierra Morcna about noon, and 
descended the valley of the (Juadalquivir on the evening of a 
warm day in January. ''Behold Andalusia 1" exclaimed my 
coniiKinioii, himself a Sevillano, pointing to the land that 
unrolled itself beibre us. The ravines widened out into lux- 
uriant valleys, concealed in whose bosom flowed the head- 
waters of the Gruadalquivir, pouring their silver tribute on. 
"White farm houses relieved the green of the olive and the 
orange. The city of Baeza, the pastures of Ubeda, celebrated 
for the best of Andalusian steeds, and even the Cathedral of 
Jaen, it was supposed, with the golden-tipped AljDujarras be- 
yond, were visible to a practiced eye in the rays of the evening 
sun, whose nielhnv warmth difiused light and health to the 



LA CAROLINA. 145 

fininiate world. As tlie halin}^ breezes floated !)y, laden with 
odors from a thousand tields, it seemed to me then, and it seems 
to nic now, thouo-h long, long years have intervened, a fairy 
scene, whose harmony would have been marred l)y the most 
dulcet tones that ever issued trom mortal. The natural charms 
of the country, infinitely heightened by the strong contrast of 
the morning, thi-ew me into one of tliose undefined, dreamy 
states of l)liss so dear to the Oriental imagination, Mhich find 
noade(|uato description except in the expci'icuce of the Hasheesh. 
ITpon the present occasion, hesitating anticipation had yielded 
to tiie certainty of experience. Then it was a dream of doubt- 
ful fulfillment, now it was a reality. The a])proaching month 
was to compensate for an age of tedium and strife. 

Andalusia is the ])oetry of Spain. It is the Spain of which 
we read and di-eam. "What gloi-ies can compare with its glo- 
ries y \Vliat other land in Euro])e thus coml)ines the remains 
of J^:)man. ^looi-ish and S])anisii grandeur? What thus unites 
every ]iroduct of the earth, from the orange and olive to the 
tender flowers which bloom at the verge of perpetual snow, all 
in one beautiful harmony i:* What can boast such treasures of 
mineral wealth Z What such noble specimens of animate crea- 
tion':' What so cloudless a skyy Truly has it been st3led the 
mansion of the blessed. 

La Carolimx is the fruit of an eflbi-t made in the last century 
to re-people the wastes of the Sierra Morena with a new popu- 
lation drawn from Germany. Olavides, the mover of it, fell 
under I ho lian of the accursed Inquisition before his work was 
completed; but the foundation of the colony was laid. .Many 
ti'avellers have thought that the}- perceived, in the fair com- 
plexion of the inhabitants, traces of their Teutonic origin. The 
children are lighter colored than those of most southern na- 
tions, but the adults seemed to me real S])aniards in eveiything 
except the contour of the face. Indeed, comjdexion is entire!}' 
an affair of climate, though not necessarily of latitude; the 
features and the shape of the head are more enduring evidences 
of race. This attempt at colonization was not very successful. 
The emigrant did not coalesce witii the native population. 
Nor have such attem))ts ever been successful except under 
ancient J^)me ami in the United States. The remedy for a 
declining population should have been sought, not in the impor- 
tation of human beings, but in the reform of those political eviU 
11 



14<» SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. * 

which ehainc'fl thecncrgj'of her people and forbade tlioir increase. 
Under enli"'htcncd Governments, sucli a.s now rule Spain, there 
is and can l>e no deficiency of men. 

One of the pleasures of travelling in Andalusia is that every 
valley and every plain have been the scene of .some romantic 
conflict during the long contest which raged between the 
Christians and Mohammedans for the possession of this favored 
rcion. A few leagues from La Carolina, near the Sierra, lies 
Las Navas de Tolosa, a name ever to be honored in Spanish 
annals. After the empire of the lieni Omeyah had fallen to 
pieces, the Spanish Arabs found it necessary, from time to time, 
to ajjpeal to the Berbers of ^'orth Alrica for sujiport against 
the ever advancing wave of the Christian c(jnqucst. The Ber- 
bers, indeed, did not always wait for an invitation. Andahisia 
was famous throughout all the Moluimmcdan dominion as the 
earthly paradise; ami the leader wlio could cross the vStraits of 
Gibraltar, and successfully establish himself in its possession, 
was envied of the human I'acc. The Alnioravides, having con- 
quered the Empire of Morocco, pursuant to the invitation 
extended to them, entered Spain under Joseph or Yusef beu 
Tax tin, and, in 1U8G, gained a signal victory at Zalaca ovgr 
Alfonso VL The Almoravidcs, in turn, made way for tlie 
Almohades, a sect of Unitarian reformers, who, under Jacob or 
Yacoub al Mansour, with equal glory and fame, overthrew 
Alonzo VIII at Alarcos, near Almagro, in the year 1195. Still, 
the Christians, notwithstanding these deleats, pursued their 
steady course of aggression until Mohammed Nasser eddin 
Allah (defender of the faith of God), son of Al j\Iansour, deter- 
mined, by one great eti'ort, to restore the Moorish Empire to its 
j)risline glory, and crush forever the aspiring Christian nations. 

The I'eligious war was proclaimed throughout Andalusia and 
Al Magreb, and the I']mir crossed the Straits at the head of an 
immense army, threatening to stable his horses in the portico 
of St. Peter's. While making his final preparations at Seville, 
he received an embassy from King John of EngUuul, which 
besought his aid against the Pope and the rebellious Barons. 
But the noble Mohammedan, having informed himself as to the 
true character of that worthless monarch, rejected his j^rayer 
with disdain, expressing equal disgust for the meanness of the 
sovereign and the cowardice of the subjects who could submit 
to such a master. The approach of so formidable an ojiponent 



i 



, THE CAMPAIGN. 147 

thi'cw Europe into terror. Innocent III issued a bull arousing 
Christendom to a sense of its danger, and proclaiming remis- 
sion of sins to such as should join the II0I3' Crusade. The rival 
banners of Castile and Aragon, followed by all their chivalry, 
floated in conjunction over the walls of Toledo. The Arch- 
bishops of Narbonne and of Bordeaux, the Bishop of Nantes, 
two thousand knights, ten thousand horsemen, and fifty thou- 
sand foot from l)oy()nd the Pyrenees, joined the allied forces ; 
some in the true sjtirit of Crusaders, some influenced by an 
expectation of the tangible rewards of this earth, others under 
the fascination which dangerous emprise possesses for the . 
generous youth of ever}- age. The clergy bore their part not 
only spiritually, but temporally. Processions and a fast of 
bread and water were oi'dered at Rome, Avhile many a Spanish 
bishop exchanged his crozier for a battle-axe. Long centuries 
had elapsed since such discordant elements were united, and 
the army set forth with the prayers of Christendom for their 
continued harmony. But dissensions soon destroyed the good 
accord Avhich had been anticipated. The foreigners thought it 
best to begin their pious work by a general slaughter of the 
Jews, and forthwith commenced upon those in Toledo. The 
Spaniards were too civilized for such religion, and defended 
their countr^'men, SMord in hand. With great diflficultj-, this 
first commotion was appeased. Don Diego de Ilaro, Lord of 
Biscay, the hero of the ballad commencing — 

En Burgos e.-ta el buen Rcy — 

was then sent out at the head of the foreigners as an advance 
guard, and stormed the toAvn of Malagon. And now, says 
Archbishop Roderic, the devil, envious of such good fortune, 
turned the hearts of the ultramontanes from the holy cause. 
By dint of earnest persuasion, they were prevailed upon to 
continue as far as Calatrava, two leagues distant, whose garri- 
son made a desjierate defence, and were permitted to retire 
with their lives. This put the finishing stroke to the disgust of 
the ultramontanes. They had been debarred the pleasure 
of murdering the Jews, they had clamored in vain for the sack 
of Calatrava, and were determined to retire to their homes. 
Deaf to the entreaties and reproaches of their allies, they 
replied that the heat was too great; thus anticipating the sol- 
diers of one of our regiments at Buena Yista, who refused to 



148 SPAIN AND THE SPAM.VUDS. 

drink from the canteens of the Mississippians because the water 
of .Saltillo. sonic miles to tlie rear, was so much cooler I The 
booty was generously divided between the foreigners and the 
Aragonese ; and they de|)arted, in the language of an eye 
witness, " without honor or glor}'." True to themselves, they 
attempted, on the way, to take Toledo l»y treachery; but the 
iidialntants closed the gates, and batle them defiance. As 
tiie eajtlive floors had been sent off under the escort of Don 
Diego do Ilaro, in order to preserve the honor of the Span- 
iards, at least, the ultramontancs reached their homes in 
sutliciently bad humor. Yet Mr. Ford seems to think that the 
Eu'dish and French were entitled to the glory of the campaign, 
and were cheated out of it bj' the Spanish historians, just as 
the inevitable " Duke" was centuries later ! The truth being, 
that, witli the exception of the Archbishop of Narbonne and 
Theobald de Blazcon, a knight of Poiton, but of Castillian 
descent, with some one hundred and fifty others, all told, not 
one of the whole herd remained. 

El Nassr, who had been quietly wailing at Jean, in expecta- 
tion of some such event, now advanced towards the Sierra Mo- 
rena, and ordered its passes to be occu])ied. The Christians 
presented themselves at that of Al Muradal, wliich was strong- 
ly defended, but Don Diego de llaro, who, like liosquet, in the 
Crimea, seems to have been present whenever needed, sent his 
son with a detachment to seize the neighboring heights, and 
thus forced the Moors to fall btick for a short distance, but to a 
much stronger position, which in fact proved to be impregna- 
ble. Tiie Chi-istians were now retluced to great distress and 
perplexities. To retire for the purpose of seeking another jiass 
would have the appearance, and might induce the necessity of 
a retreat, which, under Ihe circumstances, would have been a 
I'out. At this nioinent a shepherd (or San Isidro, in the guise 
of one) offered to lead them up by a goat path. Don Diego 
de llaro and Don Garcia Romero, volunteered to follow, and 
on Saturday, the 14th .July, 1212, the astonished xMusselmen 
beheld the Avhole Chi-isLian encamped on Las Navas ( the 
])!ains) de Tolosa. Battle was immediately offered to the 
Christians, who, however, declined the challenge. That and 
the following day were spent in resting from their fatigues 
But on Sunday, at midnight, "the voice of joy was heard in 
the tents of tiie Just." The heralds sounded the note of pre- 



THE BATTLE. 149 

paration. The Mass of the Cross wah celebratod. Every sol- 
diei* confessed his sins, received absolution, and took liis ])laec 
in the ranks. The King of Navarre commanded the right 
wing; the King of Aragon tlie left; in the centre were the 
('astillians, in four grand corps, commanded hy Diego de Ilaro, 
(lonzalo Nunez de Lara, Roderic Diaz, and the King. Not far 
in front, on an elevation, was visilile the I'juir's Eed Tent of 
Battle, and the sacred camel that carried the Koran of Oth- 
nian. The Emir himself was surrounded by a circle of chains, 
and his guard of forty thousand men formed, witli their pikes, 
an impenetrable wall. At the rising of the sun, tlie trumpetd 
ordered the charge. As the volunteers, forming the first line of 
the Mohammedans, advanced, the Christian centre either re- 
treated or was driven back, but the two Avings closed in upon 
the flanks of the enemy. The issue was doubtful. More than 
opce did Alfonso exclaim to Ivoderic : " Archbishop, let us die 
here I" But the stout-hearted prelate replied: "Nay, noble 
King, let us conquer here." At length, when all l)ut honor 
seemed lost, the cross of the Archbishop and the standard of 
the Holy Virgin were advanced, and the tide of victory changed. 
The volunteers, to the number of one huudi'cd and sixty tiiou- 
sand, were utterly routed. Not content with this success, the 
Christians charged the second line, composed of Almohades 
and Arabs. When the battle was at the highest, the Andalu- 
sia n Moors, to revenge the various affronts they had received 
from the liajib Ibn Djamea, rode off tiie field. Confusion im- 
mediately ensued. The followers of the Prophet Qxcry where 
took to flight, with the exception of the Sultan's guard, whose 
circle of spears defied the efforts of the Christians, until back- 
ing their mail-clad horses upon the points, they forced an en- 
trance, burst the iron chains, and El Nassr himself was com- 
pelled to seek safety in flight. Night alone checked the bloody 
pursuit. The number reported to have been slain is scarcely 
credible. Archbishop Roderic puts that of the Moors at two 
hundred thousand, and that of the Christians at twent3'-five, 
which one of the best modern historians of Spain has inter- 
preted twenty-five thousand. But the other eye witnesses give 
similarly marvellous numbers. Alfonso says that by the con- 
fession of the Moors themselves, one hundred thousand fell, 
while scarcely twenty-five or thirty Christians were missing. 
The Archbishop of Narbonne cstimatus them respectively at 



150 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

sixty thousand, and fifty. It really seem.'* as thousjjh St. Jau^o 
were present. The Moorish writers too. say that of the hun- 
dreds of thousands who entered tlie Kattlc, scarcely a ili<)nsan<l 
escaped, while famine created as "rreat i-avaiijes anionic the 
fu>j;itives as the sword. In these days of u;unpowder and 
tactics, such slaughters are scarcely possihle; hut it was far 
f>therwise when every man met his enemy face to face, and the 
battle became a series of individual encounters. The ])hinder 
was of course boundless. For tin- two days that the anny 
remained encamped upon the rield. they used no fuel except 
the spears and arrows of the Moors. Even the silken tent of 
the Emir, and his gold embroidered standard fell into the hands 
of the conquerors, and were presented by Alonzo to his Holi- 
ness. 

Great was the rejoicing throughout Christendom at the news. 
Te Deums were chanted, and the lineaments of the shepherd 
sculptured in the choir of the Cathedral at Toledo, where they 
are still dimly visible. The King of Navarre placed the chains 
upon his shield in memory of his prowess in bursting through 
the defence of the Emir's camp. Many private families also, 
the Zuiiigas. Peraltas, Abarcas, hence derive the same em- 
blem, while otlu'i-s bear the Cross, emblematical of the heavenly 
signal which ajtpeaivd to cheer the Christians on. It was one 
of those overwhehning defeats that seal the fate of races and 
religions. The western Moslems never recovered from its 
effects, and for centui-ies aftei-uanls did their i)oets and histo- 
rians continue to bewail the dark day of Alakab. This cam- 
paign is instructive as affoi-ding an opportunity of comparing 
the Spaniards and Moors with their contemporaries, bringing 
into strong conti-ast the cowardice, brutality and bigotry o+'the 
one. and tlie chivah-ic gallanti-y and humanity of the other. 
No better evidence could be desired of the superior civilization 
enjoyed by the two races, which divided the Peninsula, over 
that of the Europeans to the north of the Pyrenees. 

A few miles farther on is Bailen, the scene of another victory 
ovor an invading foe, not less distinguished in its day, and of 
consequences even more momentous. In the year 180S, Europe 
was physically overwhelmed by the armies of Na[)oloon. and 
morally crushed beneath a l)elief in the invincibility of his 
eagles. Austerlitz, Jena and Friedland, had successively re- 
duced the three continental nations to the silence of dcspaix*. 



BAILEN. THE BATTLE. 151 

Spain and Portugal had been apparent!}' eonquei'ed. Every 
English army that landed, whether in Holland, Italy or France, 
had been driven with ignominy into the sea, and universal 
empire, like a paral^'zing doath-pall, hung over the eastern 
hemisphere. As the daylight succeeds the darkest hour of 
night, so did the victory of Bailen startle the ear of expiring 
Europe. It was stealthily whispered about, even in Paris, 
that an army of eighteen thousand Frenchmen, under one of 
the best Imperial generals, iiad laid down its arms l)eforc Cas- 
taiios and his collection of half armed Spaniai'ds. F<n' de- 
scribes the effect upon Napoleon. lie cried with rage, not at 
the material loss, for what were twenty thousand men to him, 
who disposed at his whim of the lives of millions ? But the 
charm of invincibility was gone. " Is j^our Majesty unwell ?" 
"No." "Has Austria declared war?" "Would to God that 
were all!" exclaimed the Emperor. Bailen was to Europe 
what the battle of King's Mountain had been to the Southern 
States in the American Revolution. To appreciate its effect, 
one must have heard old people tell of the prostration of our 
own country when in the hands of two worthy patriots, but 
incompetent generals, sent us by Congress; the good cause had 
gone down, and no Whig dared avow his principles. It Avas 
then that the beacon light, kindled by our hands upon our 
rugged mountain-top, sent forth beams of joy and hope through- 
out the land. And so did the Spaniards, trusting to no foreign 
aid, arouse Europe to a renewed struggle for her independence, 
a struggle which was not to cease, till from the Soutli and the 
East, the conquering generals met in Paris itself English 
writers have endeavored to depreciate the value of Bailen, 
wishing, as usual, to monopolize for their island the credit of 
the Peninsula resistance, but all dispassionate men M'ill ascribe 
to this glorious victory the regeneration of prostrate national- 
ities, and, in its ultimate consequences, the salvation of Furo])e 
itself 

As a militar}^ operation, the campaign was, in some respects, 
curious enough. One half of the French army under Yedel 
was at Carolina. Bailen was occujjied by a portion of the 
Spanish. On the road to Andujar, was the main bod}' of the 
French under Dupont, and beyond them the Spaniards under 
Castanos, so that the advantages of position were ahuost ex- 
actly equal. The diligence road runs at right angles through 



152 SPAIN AM> TIIK SI'AMARHS. 

the battle field. Both sitles have boon freely critici-sed lor liav- 
ini!: plaeed themselves respectively between the mill stones. 
Fortune decided for Spain, and in a few weeks, scarcely a 
French soldier remained south of the Ebro, except the Portu- 
guese army of poor Junot, who, after vainly altemptin-j; with 
inferior n:imbers to Ibrce the British ])osition at Yimeiro — cut 
off from communication with France, and menaced by a nation 
in rebellion — concluded the Convention of Cintra. The })anic 
of Duponl can be explained but not excused. Nothini;- could 
excuse a (icnoral for surrenderiiiLC with eighteen thousand dis- 
ciplined troops. Surrounded with a hostile peasantry, whoso 
activity isolated him even from his own advanced i;-uard. 
crisped by the rays of an Andalusian midsummer sun, ])ai(hi'd 
b}' thirst amid these burning hills and exhausted river-beds, 
embarrassed by loads of treasure, the plunders of many a cathe- 
dral and convent, it is not altogether wonderful that he should 
have become confused, have vacillated and despaired. More 
than this cannot be said. Napoleon regarded him with horror, 
and never called him into service again. But the general opin- 
ion in the French army has always been that he was too 
severely punished, and that the necessity of making a terrible 
example influenced the Emperor's conduct as much as justice. 
It was a universal and not unfounded complaint with his offi- 
cers, that ho demamled from them in Spain, with young con- 
scripts, results which would have done honor to veterans. 

At Builen, the high road to (Jranada branches otf, and we 
received a reinforcement of passengers, two of whom, ver^' 
pleasant gentlemen, entered the berlina. They were going to 
visit some relative residing near Carpio. Mistaking mo as 
usual for an Italian, the conversation turned immediately to 
the war. It afforded a good exam])lo of the astonishing 
ignorance of many well born and educated Spaniards upon 
external affairs. It was with some difficulty I convinced them 
that Victor Emanuel Avas not a republican at heart, leagued 
with Garibaldi in a secret alliance against monarchy and reli- 
gion throughout the world I We had a severe arguuKMit upon 
the Italian (piestion in general. It is to be hoped that Ihey 
learned something more u))on the subject than they knew 
before. From Bailen the road continued to descend rapidly, 
crossing several streams — mountain torrents in winter, but 
nearly dry at present — one of them bearing the appropriate 



ANDU.TAU. — TRAITS OF CHARACTER. 153 

name of Eio Scco — a very eominon iip])clltitlon of rivers iu 
Spain, and not infrequently well deserved. At length we 
reached the for famed Guadalquivir, antl about noon halted for 
breakfast in the ancient cit}' of Andujar. 

The great, and so far as I could see, the only manufacture of 
Andujar, is that of porous rarthen jars for cooling water, 
which arc indispensable to Andahisian comfort, and are found 
in every house. It is one of the inventions that are well 
worthy of being introduced into our country. Filled in the 
night, the contents are found in the morning of exactly the 
desired temju'rature, and to my taste more agreeable than ice 
water, besides being much moi-e cleanly. As the effect is pro- 
duced by evaporation of the fluid that oozes through the jar, a 
low dew point is requisitt'. which is the case in nearly every 
part of .Spain. Suitable clay can be found all over Andalusia, 
and, if I do not forget, in Cuba also, but that of Andujar either 
is or is thought to be better adapted to the purpose, communi- 
cating, moreover, no earthy taste to the water, and is conse- 
quently preferred. It is surprising to see how much will exude 
fi-om a pitcher even during dinner, and the greatest luxury 
of a hot climate is thus placed Avithin reach of the poorest 
family. 

A nice young Norman had joined us at Bailen, on his way to 
Seville. The diligence being full and he the last comer, it was 
necessary to displace the mayoral from his seat; he, in turn, 
displaced the zagal, who sat wdiero he could, which, generally 
speaking, was nowhere. All this had to be ])aid ibr extra by 
way of a (jratlficacion to these functionaries. The Frenchman 
])aid it with man}* protests, com])laining that it was a mere 
cheat and an imposition upon him as a stranger. My compan- 
ions took tlie accusation ver^' much to heart, as they thought 
the honor of their countiy involved, and made great efforts to 
exjdain. but neither party understood the language of the other 
suliiciiMilly well, so they prayed me to clear away the stigma 
from Andalusia, which I was able to do satisfactorily at the 
next stoji]iing place. I mention this because it is an example 
of another of the thousand traits of Spanish character that find 
a counterpart in the United States, or at least in the Southern 
portion of them — that sensitive, even thin-skinned national 
pride, which feels that the conduct of every iiulividual reflects 
either for good or evil upon the general character, and regards 



loi SPAIN AM) TIIK SPANIARDS. 

the jniljlic as inseparable iVoiu the individual reputation of its 
nienilji'i's; wjicreas the general disposition of Europe is to con- 
sider the goveninieiit or the pu!)lie ami the individual as dis- 
tinct beings. 

Leaving Andujar and its Moorish tower, we ascended slowly 
fron\ the left hank of the Guadahiuivir. Every step developed, 
with increasing beauty, the characteristic charms of the South. 
From tile top of the first little cui'ski we looked down into a 
delicious green valle}' with a stream and antique Moorish 
bridge, that caused us all to exclaim aloud with admiration. 
Even the may<jral caught the contagion. From that time f()r- 
ward the road ascended and descended lofty hills with table 
lands, through immense olive groves, extending far as the eye 
could reach. Interspersed among the pale green could be seen 
numerous farm houses, surrounded by white walls, and occa- 
sionally a Moorish tower, that had done good service in the 
olden time, would rear its head to the light of the evening sun. 
To our right, at some distance, flowed the river in a broad 
fertile valley, and beyond stood the Sierra Morena with its 
groves and sparkling villas uj) the mountain side. Peasants, in 
the graceful Andalusian costume, Avere everywhere at work. 
Sometimes a horseman would ])ass us with his rifle slung over 
the saddle, then a long string of mules laden with merchandize, 
and more rarely an e(piipage of the better sort came flying by. 
The scene was lively compared with the Castiles, in which you 
seldom sec any one out of the towns. 

At sunset we descended the hill side into the valley of a 
stream thai here enters llie river. We passed through a vil- 
lage, crossed the stream a little above its mouth, and beheUl 
one of the most lovely landscapes I remember ever to have 
seen. None but a painter could adequately rei5i*esent it. The 
road skirting the river hank ran for a half mile directly west; 
on our right was a grove of Spanish oaks interspersed with 
olives, and ])rotecting from the fuiy of the mid-day heat a 
green, worthy of Scotland. At some little distance in front 
stood the intensel}'^ Moorish looking town of Carpio, rising to a 
])oint stec-]) on the left, with its castle and dhurch projecting 
against the ruddy sky, while directly along our path was the 
smooth bosom of Guadahjuivir, bathed in the golden light of 
the sunset. The Sien-a Morena bounded the view beyond. A 



FONDA AT CORDOVA. — JOURNEY TO SEVILLE. 155 

different play of light might, perhaps, deprive it of ita charms; 
but as Ave saw it, I retain few more beautiful visions. 

Leaving the town, we were qnickly ])lunged into darkness. 
Andreas, our one-ej'ed postilion, had a narrow escape. His 
horse fell and was run over by the rest, but Andreas alighted 
on his feet on the right hand side of the road. How he got 
there no one could tell. The mayoral accused him of being 
asleep; a pardonable offence, considering that he had been in 
the saddle thirty six hours — all the way from Madrid. About 
midnight Ave passed around the Avails and entered Cordova, our 
mules striking fire from the precipitous street, and took lodg- 
ings in the Fonda Kizzi. 

The architecture of the Fonda Avas thoroughly Andalusian. 
A considerable part of the building consisted of the Court or 
Patio, exposed to the air, and floored Avith mar1)le, Avith tables 
and chairs arranged around the foimtain. This Patio is bor- 
dered by a colonnade, upon Avhich open the A'arious rooms. I 
recognized the place immediatel}', but it appeared to me that 
the Patio formerl}- Avas in the second story. The mystery Avas 
soon soh^ed b}' learning that the original entry had been 
from another street on a difl^erent level. At that time I had 
thought it a beautiful place, and had been fully impressed Avith 
all sorts of poetical feelings. But T had not then seen Seville, 
Avhich spoils one's taste for most else. Indeed, such Avas the 
attraction It possessed for me, that I could not refrain from 
starting the next morning on the railroad at early dawn. In 
1852, Ave Avere still confined to the diligence across the hills, at 
an expense of tAventy-four hours' additional travelling ; but Avcre 
rcAvarded, first, by the famous view of Cordova from the oppo- 
site hill ; then by the City of Ecija, on the banks of the beau- 
tiful Genii, Avhich, rising near Granada, passes here to its union 
Avith the (Juadalquivir; and, lastl}-, by the truly magnificent 
morning view from the City of Carmona, Avhich embraces not 
only the Vega of Seville, but even the mountains of Eonda, and, 
as they say, the Alpujarras. Kcija, situate in a A'alley, surrounded 
by high table lands, is supposed to be the hottest jdace in 
Spain, and is called "Xa ciudad del Sol," or "La Sartenilla,'" 
" the frying-pan." The city is famous for its antiquity, its fine 
promenade, and the blue blood of the inhabitants of its Callo 
de los Caballeros. 



156 SPAIN AM) TIIK SI'AMAUns. 

The railrojul now passes (iiroctl}' down the broad valley of 
the GiiadaUiiiivir. most of the way upon its ri-^ht hank. As 
may be supposed, the soil is of exuberant fertility, and jiroduces 
everythini; (hat can he desired, except, perhaps, the temperate 
fruits. The Sierra Morena skirts it on the north-west, its steep 
side is ornamented, near Cordova, with numerous villas, whose 
white walls, flittering in the rays of the rising sun, could be 
seen from a great distance. The deserted Convent of San 
Joronimo is well worthy of a visit in the winter, Avhcn the 
green crops cover the earth. The view from its terrace is 
superb, as it is, indeed, from any jjurt of the patli; but, at 
present, the heat of the dog-days had already parched up the 
vegetation. This valley was said by Cardunue to have con- 
tained, in the time of the Beni Omeyah, twelve thousand 
villages; and subsequent writers for a long time received this 
statement with wonder, but respect, until our countryman, 
Prescott, suggested that there was not adiial sjiuce ujxjii the 
river banks for so great a number, much to the amusement of 
certain Kuropeans. who quoted this example of what the}- con- 
sidered American jn-acticality, but tlie}- atl()})te(l tlie result. It 
seems that Cardonne's error arose from a mistranslation, and 
not from a dis])osition to invent. Whatever might have been 
the case formei-ly. at present the towns are not very numerous, 
and the p()i)ulation is reduced to the number requisite for the 
cultivation of the soil. 

The breezy morn was delicious, and the life around unbroken 
by a single discordant feature. It was Andalusia, and nothing 
but Andalusia. Every village had its j)hice in iiistory as the 
scene of some knightly encouiitci-. Casiles and antique Moor- 
ish mills adorned the river bank, while the heights on the right 
were studded with watch towers. Beautiful Andalusians with 
fans, crowded every station. The fine weather and unclouded 
skies of summer had seduced the neighboring population into 
the fields, and we frequentlj'' passed little thatched huts or 
tents, the habitations of the famil}' since the end of the raiu}' 
season, father, mother, and children within, the pig and the 
donkey witliout, leading a harmonious existence together. 
Lowei' down the valley roamed those herds of l)ulls which fur- 
nish coniltatants for the ring. The i-iver approaches the 8ierra 
at the town of Almodovai- it lie i-(»iiih1 castle) del ilio, winding 
around a beetliii"' crag, wliicli overhangs the Iiaiik with its 



PARTY FROM LOR A. ArPROACII TO SEVILLE. 157 

ruined fortress. M}' solitude was lierc relieved by the entrance 
of a gentleman from Lora, dressed in the Andalusian costume, 
somewhat modified to suit the better class. The modification 
consists in substituting pantaloons for the breeches and gaiters. 
He wore a nicely- fitting, embroidered jacket, a neck handker- 
chief, the ends passed through a ring, a calanes hat, round, Avith 
the border turned stiffly up two or three inches. A red sash 
surrounded his waist, and a gun completed the whole. This 
latter is an almost invariable accompaniment of an Andalusian 
when journeying otf from the immediate highway. I am afraid 
to say how many wo had on the diligence. The gun and the 
fan went together. My companion, like all Spaniards, was 
very proud of his immediate locality, his pais and his pueblo. 
Being in a state of exhihiration. and thoroughl}" tcte montce with 
the near approach to SeviUe, J agreed with him to the full, and 
suggested some points which he had overlooked. This laid the 
foundation of much good feeling. At Lora he dismounted, and 
I was just regretting my return to solitude, when the opposite 
door opened, and a party entei-ed. First, a gentleman of some 
fifty summers, very subdued in look, as if pressed down beneath 
the weight of responsibility. He was emphatically seco (dried 
up) muy seco, but not disagreeably so. Then came a good 
humored mama. Then four young ladies, in great spirits, 
" Avith eyebrows like the new moon of Eamadan, and mouth 
like the seal of Solomon," each handsomer than her prede- 
cessor. Another mama, of the sub-acid character, " qualis de- 
cet esse duennarum," brought u]i the rear, and filled the coach. 
The best looking took the seat by me; another, opposite; by 
her side, a mama. Tlic}" were going to Seville to spend a day 
and shop a little; were fidl of joyous anticipations, and dressed 
out to kill. Flashing eyes, black lace veils, a rose peeping out 
from the glossj" folds of their tresses, and a fan, were unmis- 
takable evidences of their country. Every click of the latter 
was like the crack of an electric battery. The gentleman and 
m3"self could just see each other's heads over the piles of 
muslin. (I suppose it was muslin, for I am not skilled in this 
de])ailment.) As soon as avc were well settled, and 1 hitd 
recovered from the first overwhelment, my former com})anion 
came to the window, and, ])resenting me to them in a general 
wa}^ added: "Caballero, all these were brought up in my 
pueblo.'' I made my acknowledgments, and vowed that, though 



15S STAIN AND THK SPANIARDS. 

Lora had appeared lair in inv eyes belore, it must now be con- 
sidered the choice irardeii of the earth. But the opportunity 
afforded by the introduction was not neglected. The young 
ladies were full of fun, elegant in person, graceful in manner, 
and innocent in soul. Hverytiiing interested them, and they 
were interesting about everything. When some more decided 
hilarity broke forth, the mama would look at me with a sympa- 
thizing smile, and exclaim : "Ah, las ninasi" whereupon "las 
niHas" would take a fresh start. And so the time passed until, 
crossing the CJuadalquivir, the town of Carmona, upon its lofty 
hill, became a landmark, as we sped along the now open 
country', amid a vegetation that rioted in tropical luxuriance. 
At length the far famed (lirakhi appeared above the trees. The 
sight of it, after so so many years of absence, recalled the lines 
of the "Ancient ^[ariner" wlien he approaches his native 
town : 

Oil, dream of joy ! Is this, indeed, 

The light-house top I see? 
In this the hill? is this the kirk ? 

Is this my own countrce ? 

It is, perhaps, not easy to say why 1 hailed Seville with such 
jo^^ous welcome. Localities exercise a strange, oftentimes 
inexplicable influence, and when our train entered the station, 
I really felt as though the object of a long journey had at 
len<:th been attained. 



Chaptkr TX. 
S E V I L L E . 

Hotel— The Barber— Peek Lodgings— La Giralda— The Bells— The View— Stas. 
Justa y Rufina — Promenade — Plaz-a Isabel — The Scene — Costume of Spanish 
Ladies — Mantilla — Fan — Beauty of the Ladies — Their Walk — Their (5 race — My 
New Domicile — The Sercnos — Las Delicias — Morning Walk — Scene in Winter — The 
Guadaliinivir. 

I ^vas not sorry to part from tlic company at the station, for 
four young Andaluzas, vestidas de gala, with four mantillas 
and four fans, all crowded into one railway carriage, were 
rather trA-ing to the nerves, so placing myself at their feet, I 
proceeded to a new hotel erected since my last visit. It was a 
great improvement over the old Posada. Do not expect, how- 
ever, one of our Broadway caravansaries, full of people, and 
baggage, and rich furniture, and huge chimney places, and 
nois}- bar rooms, with other comforts of a cold climate. Brus- 
sels carpets and gilded decorations there were none ; but then 
there were marble courts and splashing fountains, cane bottom 
chairs and mats, camp bedsteads and balconies, with a genuine 
good humor on the part of the employes, which made 3'ou feel 
yourself a part owner of the establishment. 

The first business was, of course, to see old acquaintances, at 
least such as one could venture to visit at that hour of the day. 
Returning, I passed by my former quarters in the Plaza Sto. 
Tomas, where I had resided a winter, selecting the house partly 
on account of its proxinnty to the Cathedral, the Alcazar and 
the Patio, partly because of the Barber of Seville, whose shop 
was on the opposite side of the square, for there is nothing like 
living directly under the influence of the fjeiiius loci. You 
smile at such stress being laid upon the barber. But he is not 
in Andalusia a mere chin-scraper; he is the factotum. His 
acquaintance is indispensable, and you may live a thousand 
years in Spain and yet learn nothing of the Spaniards unless 



inl* SPAIN AMI THK SPANIAnns. 

you know llic Iiarb(M'. Spaiiijinls. even wlicn bearded, which 
is very rare, leave a little varant spot sonuwhere lor the 
ex'^ress purpose, I havi- tlionirht, of ijiviiiu; :in excuse for visit- 
ing that fiinctionarv. If they shave themselves, still his 
services are required, half a tlozen times in the course of the 
week, to trim their hair. In places too poor to support a 
whole harltcr reirularly, he makes periodical visits on his mule, 
with his apparatus and the helmet of ^lamhrino slunuj over 
his shoulders. On out-of-the-way roads you may meet him* 
exactly as he is described by Cervantes, and his approach is 
welcomed with all the delii>;ht Mhich the dispenser of gossip is 
known to awaken. He there retains the importance which 
the march of improvement in cities has curtailed. He is the 
contidant of both sexes, and consequently knows the secrets of 
the whole community. In his ca]>afity of barber-suri;eon he 
heals the diseases of the body as well as the mind, and the 
heart has been, from time ininicniorial, under his especial 
superintendence. In general, he shares the esteem of the cora- 
niunity with the priest, an<l, on the frontier, with the contra- 
bandista. lie is an established wit, too, and his feeblest Jokes 
cause hilarity to wrinkle the soap-suds upon the faces of admir- 
ing patients. Nor are his functions contined to mere gossip. 
He can get ii]) a fandango or bolero, ^if desired, ami till any 
chance vacancy by bearing a part himself The gniitar is a 
jiortion of his being. Xo Imij harhcro sin guitarra ? What's a 
barber without a guitar? No class in society can dispense with 
l>is services. The French imitate the Spanish in ap])()inting 
one for each company or battalion of soldiers. In the day of 
queues, it was the fashion, in the Sjianish army, for the soldiers 
to sit in a circle, each upon the knees of his neighbor behind, 
while combing the bail- of his neighbor in front, to the great 
saving of time and l)arl)ers. I'lit the disai)pearancc of queues 
and beards bus ivstorcd the lilhe fraternity to their former 
pre-eminence, for it is found no easy task to shave and be 
shaved simultaneously. 

There was little, however, id'! in the I'la/.a Sto. Tomas to 
hang this barber ejiisode upon, foi- the old shop was shut up to 
undergo rej>aii-s. and I was compelled to transfer my patroiuige 
to another in the Calle de las Sier])es. The lodging-house was 
occupied, too, so 1 hied to a Iriciid of a friend of my Madrid 
hostes.s — a ('a<liz lady — who. upon hei" recommendation, would 



SEEK LODGINGS. — LA GIRALDA. 161 

doubtless consent to accommodute a cahallcro fan fino como vm. 
as she was pleased to add. It is never advisable to criticise a 
compliment, nor did I stop to inquire whether the epithet 
^' gastador" might not have been appropriately inserted in the 
recommendation, for Spaniards respect an open hand A pull 
at the bell-rope was followed by a ^' quien es ?" (who is it?) 
from above, uttered in -a musical voice, with an Aixhilusian 
iU'cent. Good sign : the house began to feel comfortable at 
once. The reply of " amigo I" (friend) caused the door to be 
opened by a string from above, and I entered a modest Patio. 
The old pass-word, to obtain admittance, used to be "Ave Ma- 
rw j)(//v*//»a .'" to which the re]»ly was, '^ sin pecado concehida" 
(conceived without sin). The common answer is, " gcnte de 
paz," or '' Espaiin," but in the cities these arc seldom heard. 
'^Amigo," or if it be your own house, a ferocious " yo" answers 
every ])nrpose of a night key. Doiia Carmen soon made her 
appearance. When the object of my visit was announced, wo 
were joined by two young ladies, one, apparently' twenty-five, 
ver}' talkative and lively; the other, the owner of the voice, 
about eighteen j-ears of age, and I cannot say that my expecta- 
tions were disappointed. We mutually inspected each other. I 
was more than content, for I dislike to live in a house with 
ugly or disagreeable women. Dona Carmen impressed upon me 
that she was not in the habit of taking lodgers, but that mine 
was an exceptional case. I hinted, in reply, that 1 seldom went 
into lodgings excejit in exceptional cases. Terms Avere soon 
arranged, and I found myself installed upon the ground floor, 
to avoid the heat, though I was almost persuaded, b}* my host- 
ess and her daughters, to believe that the temperature, notwith- 
standing the evidence of the tlKM-mometcr, would be freezing, 
for when a handsome Andaliiza makes an assertion, however 
improbaltle, you find yourself ^-ielding an unhesitating assent, 
as though it were sheer folly to question its accuracy. 

As the evening closed in, I wended my way to the Cathedral 
Tower — La Giralda — to enjoy the panorama, and to sec what 
changes seven years had wrought in the capital of Andalusia. 
This wondrous tower, tlie admiration of all who behold it, is the 
work of the Moorish architect Geber or Guever, who undertook 
its erection, ])robably, b}' the command of Yacoub al Mansour, 
in gratitude for the signal victory of Alarcos. In those dajs it 
served the double purpose of astronomy and religion. Such 
12 



102 SPAIN AM) THE SPANIARDS. 

was the affection felt for it. tliat wlicii the city was conquered 
Uy San Fi-rnando, tlic Moors intended its destruction, and wei*e 
deterred only hy the direful threats of the Christians. Suhse- 
quently, at the pulling down of the old Mosque, this was 
retaine<l hy the chajitcr on account of its extraordinary heauty, 
and their decision has hcen sustained hy the unanimous ap- 
jjroval (if travellers. It stands on the outside of the Cathedral, 
at the north-east corner, in the ani^le made hy the wall of the 
Patio de los Naranjos. The original tower, as erected hy the 
Moors, is simpl}' a square of some fifty feet, and rises to the 
height of two hundred and fifty, up to the gallery where the 
hells arc hung. Ahove this is a smaller continuation of a hun- 
dred feet, added hy a Spanish architect, Fernan J^uiz, and, 
unlike most continuations, worthy of the original. It contains 
the famous clock. The whole is surmounted h}' a hronzc figure 
o^ La /'V (Faith), fourteen feet in height, and weighing twenty- 
eight hundred ])Ounds, which yet turns with the slightest 
breeze, and, hy a palm leaf in one hand, indicates its direction, 
while the other displays the Lubaro, the banner of Constan- 
tine. The elevation of the whole is more than three hundred 
and fifty feet. The lower or Moorish portion is cliai'miMgly 
decorated with balconied windows, sustained by double marble 
columns, and, after attaining a certain height, with arabesque 
work. The Spanish aildilioii is more elalioratel}' ornainented. 
hut the two harmonize l)eautifulh', and, at a distance, appear 
of a delicate, ro.sy hue. 

It had been my habit, on the former visit, to mount the 
Giralda every evening at sunset for the prospect, so that it was 
prominently connected in my mind with the charms of the 
place. Even the tones of the principal bells were familiar, and 
I have ollcn, before retiring, listened, in m}' house, on the Plaza, 
near b}-. for the sonorous ])eal of Sta. Maria, as it boomed over 
the city, announcing the hour of midnight. Ascending the 
ramp, which is so broad ami gently inclinetl that two horsemen 
have ridden up abreast, I reached my old friends. There they 
were, just as they had been when J last saw them. AH the 
world has acknowledged the peculiar inllueneo of the sound of 
bells in awakening the associations of memory — more jxiwerful 
than even regular music. The well-known instance in the life 
of Napoleon, who, after an existence spent in war and the 
selfish strife of politics, was momentarily overcome on hearing 



THE BELLS. 168 

tlie sound of tlie bells of Bricnne. stcalino- up from the valley, 
is an illustrious example. What a moment was that ! llow 
reproachfully beautiful must have appeared those daj's of chihl- 
hood's innocence, when seen across thirty years of ambition and 
blood ! Who, in our humbler lives, has not acknowledy-ed their 
effect, when returuiiiu- to a spot hallowed by recollections of 
former hapjiiness? I am sure 1 never felt it more strongly 
than in Seville. The church bells in Spain are regularly dedi- 
cated, and have bajitismal names, as though thej^ were indi- 
viduals. My favorite of these was the large one to the east, 
within the outer wall of the tower, called Sta. Maria or La 
Gorda, weighing some sixteen thousand pounds, the work of 
,luan do Halabarca, and presented b}' the Archbishop Gonzalo 
de Mena. Corresponding, on the western side and nearly equal 
in weight, is San Miguel. At the four cornei's are Sta. Cata- 
lina. Omnium Sanctorum, Sta. Cruz and St. Jago. These are 
all large, and struck In' moving the clappers — de golpe. In the 
embrazures of the outer wall, commencing on the right of Sta. 
^laria, arc San Juan Bautista, Sta. Lucia, San Jose, San Pedro, 
Sta. Ines, Sta. Barbara, San Isidro, San Pablo, Sta. Cecilia, San 
(Vistobah'San Fernando, and Sta. Justa — all de imelta. Sunday 
morning, at nine, A. m., is a fine time for the latter. Sta. Lucia, 
ill particular, is a great sufferer. Kveiy liell has its boy, and 
they are made to turn over frantically liy winding the rope, 
around the axle and then causing it to revolve. Every now 
and then one of the ringers goes flying up into the air twenty 
feet, as though he Avere about to plunge out upon the Cathe- 
dral ; it is onh' to stand astride the axle and get a better pur- 
chase, but it makes one hold his breath to see the performance. 
Last spring a poor fellow did get his feet entangled in the rope, 
and was, consequently, dashed into a thousand pieces upon the 
pavement, three hundred feet liclow. One day I determined 
to find out from the guardian the exact hours of striking the 
Sta. Maria. "A very simitlc matter," you will say; "only 
ask." No such thing. To get reliable information ahout the 
smallest matter in Spain requires a regular system of cross- 
examination, for Spaniards are not teachers by nature. So 
offering him my petaca, wc took a seat on the upper gallery, 
near the clock, and commenced. To the first direct interroga- 
tory he answered, *' High Mass, and at no other time." By 
dint, however, of hard work and much reiteration, I at last 



SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

made out that it oc-c-urrcMl lour times in the twenty-lour liours: 
first, at Mihlruqada or early Mass; secondly, at High Mass, 
uhout liaU'iiast nine o'clock ; thirdly, at Oraciones ; and, 
fourtlily, at midnight. 

IJiit, in talking ahout the hells, I have forgotten the prospect, 
and the sun is getting low. Even those who do not admire 
Seville, admit that the ))anorania, from the Giralda, is some- 
thing superli. From this great height, the city and the sur- 
rounding c<tuntry are laid out like a maj) at your feet. The 
narrow, Moorish streets seem little lanes, winding about among 
the white houses and the domed temples, dwarfed beside the 
immense Cathedral, which re})oses directly undei-neath, with 
its thousand pinnacles pointing to the world above. Then 
comes the Lonja or Exchange, with its beautiful court and 
colonnade. lieyond that, to the south-west, the enormous to- 
bacco manufactoiy, the ]»al:ice of the Dukes of Montjiensier, 
and the flowery Salon <le ('inisiiua. Fai-ther still, the delicious 
Pase<^ with its orange and leuKjii groves, and the golden (Jua- 
dalquivir coursing at its feet. To the north-west, the I'laza de 
Toros is conspicuous. On the opposite side of the river, extends 
the gil)sy faubourg, La Triana, tlic home of the fancy of all 
kinds. A little be^-ond. across the fields, rises the Chaboya, a 
steep spur of the Sierra Morena,*with the old Convent of San 
Juan de Alfarache, whence there is such a magnificent view. 
Farther to the north, lies the old town of Castilleja de la 
Cucsta, where the conqueror of Mexico lived and died. The 
plain itself is spotted over with villages — Alcalii, Algaba, Santi 
Ponce — built from the ruins of the ancient Italica, the birth- 
place of the Iioman Emperors. The back-ground is filled with 
the Sierra Morena, whose bai'c summits are bathed in an ocean 
of light. The horizon, on the opposite side, is bounded by the 
hills of Carmona and Alcuhi, and the mountain chain of Ronda. 
Seen from the (Jiralda, Seville looks as though it had never 
known a spot of dirt, owing, doubtless, to the })urity of the 
atmosphere, rather than to any extraordinary care that is 
taken of it. Two changes of importance were visible — the 
grand Plaza de Isabel, which makes a fine show from this 
])oint, and the iron bridge over the river, reidacing the former 
one of boats — which, together with the Mos(pie and the repa- 
ration of the aqueduct of Carmona, are attributed to Yuscf, of 
the dynagty of the Almohades, in the latter half of the twelfth 



STAS. JUSTA Y RVFTNA. 



L^ 



centmy. As the sun nearcd the horizon, its purple light trans- 
formed the whole into a fjxiry scene, to which all the colors of 
llie rainbow contributed. It was difficult to realize that these 
localities, intimately connected, many of them, with events 
which influenced, more or less remotely, the discovery and 
fortunes of our hemisphere, and are, consequently, familiar to 
American youth in the jiages of our most gifted authors, were 
truly around me. This cit}' was the favorite of Columbus, and 
the subsequent residence of his children; and here are still 
deposited the records which contain the earl}' histor}' of our 
continent. Yon village is honored ly the sepulchre of his 
family. From this river sailed the great fleets which wei-e to 
renovate the Old World b}* pouring into its lap the riches of 
the Xew. Here Avere born the chivalric warriors who lent 
such romance to our early history, and the dialect of the Span- 
ish Americas attests, to the present day, the influence of this 
province over their destinies. 

The Giralda is generall}* represented, as in the celebrated 
paintings of Murillo, standing between the two Saints, Justa 
and Rufina, who have preserved it against many a storm, and 
are its' especial guardian, though their protecting care extends 
over the whole city. These ygung ladies were daughters of an 
humble maker of earthenware, who lived near the gate of La 
Triana, poor in worldly goods, but abounding in wealth of 
piety and faith. It seems that one of the Pagan ceremonies in 
Seville was the procession of Venus Salambo, a Phoenician god- 
dess, whose image, representing her in lamentation for the death 
of Adonis, was carried about on the shoulders of Avomen, while 
the crowd ahead demanded contribution from all they met. 
On one occasion the procession halted in front of the sisters' 
shop, with the usual request, which the}' indignantly refused, 
protesting that they Avorshippcd one God, maker of heaven and 
earth, and not a senseless idol. The bearers of the precious 
image, horrified at such impiety, let it fall, so as to slily lireak 
the earthen pots, right and left; at least that was the result. 
The two Saints, not to revenge the loss of the i)ots ( as the 
historian carefully assures us), but to destro}* a heatlien mon- 
strosity, retorted upon the idol, which was considerably dam- 
aged in the conflict. They were immediatel}' thrown into 
prison, and tortured in every way to make them acknowledge 
their error. The IJoniau Judge once forced them to follow 



1G(» SPAIN AND TIIF, SPANIARDS. 

Iiiin liarofoot to the Sierra Moroiia. Finally, 8ta. Jiista died, 
and lior body was ii^nominiously cast into a well, whence it was 
rescued hy the Bishop, and decently interred. Sta. Rufina was 
delivered over to a lion, hut he, as usual, refusinir to perform 
his part, she was killed by the executioner, and her body burnt. 
The}- died in the true spirit of martyrs, and their fame extend- 
ed rajtidly tlirouirhoiit the earth. Churches were erected to 
them, and oftices in the Breviary, both (Jothic iiwd Muzarabic, 
attested the efficaej' of tlieir intereossion altove. Nor were 
these honors paid to them in vain, for many a cit^'did they save 
fntni destruction. They have thus far preserved their especial 
charjre from peril of earthtjuake and cannon ball, and it is to be 
hoped that the}' will long secure to posterity the same grati- 
fication which has been enjoyed by past generations. 

About nine o'clock in summer, the whole of Seville i.ssue8 
forth to enjoy the evening air on the Plaza Isabel, which is the 
favorite promenade at that hi)ur. So following the current, I 
found myself in a large parallelogram, surrounded by stately 
buildings in the modern st^de, and half filled with an innume- 
rable throng of all classes, some seated, some walking. Most 
of the men Avere smoking, and most of the women fanning 
themselves, with occasional intermixtures of conversation; but 
the great occupation of every one is to look and be looked 
at. On the first turn, I met some of my companions of the 
morning. They had done an immense amount of shopping — 
had visited ever}- ladies' establishment in the Calle de las 
Sierpcs and de los Francos, had caused half the goods to be 
taken down, and l)Ought. I doubt not. five dollars' worth, that 
being the usual way in which ladies shop. The next divy, 
however, was to l»e the grand finale, when all Seville was to be 
transferred to I.iOra. They were delighted with the city and 
itfl grandeurs, not tliinking there could possibly be anything 
like it elsewhere. Though ni}' young acquaintances had seen 
little of the world, it was surprising how entirely they pos- 
sessed most of the advantages that travelling is supposed to 
confer, with the sole exception of their prejudices, which re- 
mained almost intact. They left next day in the afternoon 
train. 

A i)ublic promenade is indispensable to every Spanish city, 
however small, and every Spaniard is sure to pass there some 
portion of the week. Particularly is this the case in Andalusia 



THE SCENE. 167 

and Valencia. Tlie unbroken clear weather continuinuj during a 
large part of the year, converts the occasional constitutional 
stroll into a daily habit, and an afternoon or evening walk is as 
much a matter of course, as attendance at Mass. Fortunately 
for strangers, they have thus, during the spring and summer, 
an opportunity of soeijig a considerable portion of the popula- 
tion, without the necessity of resorting to letters of introduc- 
tion, which involve the sacrifice of more time than a passing 
traveller can spare. Seville is the cit}- where this, as all other 
national customs, is seen in its "reatest perfection. In former 
times, the Alameda Vieja was the resort of the fashionable 
world, where valiant cavaliers, returning from the wars in 
Germany or Ital}', or perchance America, hastened to pa}^ hom- 
age to the fail- dames, whose protecting images had cheered 
them through many a hard won field. In honor of its historic 
associations, two columns ai'e erected at the farther end, sur- 
mounted respectively by statues of Hercules and Ca'sar. It is 
now almost entirely deserted, except on certain holidays. The 
little square at the foot of the Calle de lasSierpes — made by the 
demolition of a part of the old palace of the Dukes of Medina 
Sidonia, the Guzmans — succeeded to the pojMilar favor. But 
the great centre at present is the Plaza Isabel, on the site for- 
merly occupied by the enormous Convent of the Franciscans, 
and a more beautiful scene than that it presented on the eve- 
ning in question, cannot be imagined. The night was Spanish, 
and who can describe the glories of a Spanish summer night on 
the banks of the Guadalquivir ? The mellow lustre of the moon 
seemed to have overflowed the earth, and the blue vault of 
heaven had given even to the stone buildings around an ap- 
pearance of liquid silver. It was as though the air itself had 
a visible, tangible substance, and we Avere floating ui)on the 
bosom of an enchanted ocean. The lamps served but for orna- 
ment, and stood like little points of burnished gold. Not a 
cloud obscured the sky. Odoriferous breezes from the south 
wafted gently over, as if fearing to embrace too roughly the 
fair cheeks that sought their Avooing. A quadru]ile row of 
chairs offered repose to the indolent or weary, and from time to 
time some young lady would take compassion u))<)n a score of 
admirers, by remaining where all might approach within sound 
of her voice ; but the more interesting part of the assemblage 
was generally to be found on the promenade. 



168 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

The beauty of Spanish women has ever been a siibjeet of 
admiration to all who are endowed witli a ])ereej)tit)n of th^; 
lovely. Yet, while aeknowletl^injjf its irresistible power, there 
18 nothing so ditticult as to explain the fascination which it 
exercises; for, unlike the rest of their sex, the daui:;hters of 
Andalusia owe nothing to those artificial processes which may 
bo said to form a jiart of the female education elsewhere. 
Their taste in dress is excellent, when combined with simpli- 
city, as is generalh" the case; for they have by nature very 
little disj)Osition to the variety of colors, which appears to bo 
the ruling passion of Parisian circles. The universal costume 
in winter, and the usual one out of doors in all seasons, is a 
dark colored skirt, called a basquiiia, titting close around the 
waist and extending to the feet, which are thus concealed. It 
is sometimes kept in ])lace by leaden pellets aliixed to the 
border. The same innate selise of delicacy, or, perhaps, an 
intuitive knowledge of the weakness of men in believing no 
charms equal to hidden charms, j)reserves them I'roni those 
fearful exposures of neck and shoulders, which so shocked the 
Japanese. A delicate satin slipper encases a foot that would 
not crusli a daisy. From the toj) of the comb, if one be worn, 
gracefully fall the mantilla's folds across a gently budding- 
breast, where it is confined by the fingers of the wearer's lel't 
hand, or at times the veil is thrown forward over the face, 

when 

Tapandose la ciira, 
Descubren el corazon. 

From the hair, massed above the temples, stealthily peeps a 
rose, as if hesitating to venture its humble beauties beside such 
loveliness. Two little curls — guedcjas, caracoles de amor — bear 
it company. A fan completes her costume. Thus armed, the 
maids of tlie (iuadal(]uivir go forth to conquer the world. 

The use of the black veil seems traditional in Spain, since it 
is mentioned by the Iloman geograj>hcrs as a part of the 
ancient costiinu' i-xistiiig in those provinces which had not 
full}' adopted the dress of the Conqnei'or, and they describe it 
as frequently thrown forward over the face in the same stylo. 
Just so has (he dark cloak or saguin been perpetuated to our 
day, both as a winter and a summer garment, notwithstanding 
the unceasing war waged 1)}' Ibi-eign tailors and milliners and 
native c()[)Nists. In recreant Mailrid, they have partly sue- 




NATIONAL COSTUIMES DISAPPEARING. 1G9 

ccodcd, and they have olitaiiied a foothold even in Seville, so 
far as the men arc concerned ; but thei'c are occasions when 
the old costume for the ladies is still (fc rigueur. The Church 
here, as in Ivonie, i-cquires the female head to be covered. A 
person entering uncovered, would cause a general rush of the 
beadles, crying for life, " Cubrense vvm. Cubrense rrm." On the 
other hand, 1 leamit by my own experience that it is not per- 
missable to enter the Cathedral embozado — that is, with the 
cloak thrown over the mouth and left shoulder, in the Spanish 
style. Neither is it polite to retain the cloak in this position 
when addressing- a pei-son, for the same reason which required 
the old knight to withdraw his glove in shakinjr hands. It is 
a disarming. I agree with the new school, that after attaining 
a certain age and a certain degree of corpulency, the jacket 
without the cloak is not a vovy suitable garment for the men; 
but the national costume suits the ladies far better than any 
other style they can adopt, and it will be a sad da}- for them 
and for us poor men too, when they surrender themselves to 
the tyranny of the Parisian mautua maker. The mantilla is 
peculiar!}- becoming'to the Spanish style of features, while the 
French hat presents the most odious and hidious contrast con- 
ceivable: the former lends additional attractions — the latter 
destroys those which alread}' exist. One may be insensible to 
everything else, but the mantilla is irresistible. A hasquina, a 
Cinderella slipper, a mantilla or veil, a rose and a fan. are all 
that any Andaluza needs to bring the world to her feet. 

But the fan! the magic fan! who shall describe its wonder- 
ful powers'/ Who can sound the dejiths of its mysteries? 
Every movement of this potent Avand is fraught with hapf)i- 
ness or misery. In their hands it positively speaks, and its 
gentle recognitions are far more winning tlian any assertions 
of the tongue. It is said to have a language, a sort of ali)habet 
of its own, but that is doul)tful. Its utterances are of the 
magnetic character, which need no inter[tretation, and are felt 
i-atlier than learnt. The art ol" managing it was always to me 
an unfathomable science, and though I embraced every oppor- 
tunity of becoming a jjroficient, and actually took two formal 
lessons, I failed utterly of success. It must be said, however, 
that my instructor had learnt by intuition, but unfortunately 
was not able to teach by the same method. I was always told 
that there was only one way of opening it, yet there arc cer- 



170 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

taiiily five, for the theory is almost as difficult as the practice. 
But having, by dint of hard study, acquired, as you fondly 
ima^riiie. the requisite theoretical knowledi^e. you desire to sec 
it einhodied in action. Your instructor shows how the finijers 
are jdaced. You are tiien told to do "so"; whirr I ijoes the tan. 
and it i^ all over before your eyes have cauirht the first move- 
ment. A <^entleman ])resent at my discomtiture, consoled me 
by sayinix that he would not respect a man who could acquire 
the art; that in men's hands it was a j)ractical instrument for 
jtuttinijf the air in motion. The ladies certainly do not so 
rci^nrd it. 

1 had been apprehensive lest this costume, rendered so poet- 
ical by the descriptions of travellers and the dreams of roman- 
cers, were not the true secret of the admiration which I had 
Ibrmerl}- carried away across the Pyrenees, and that it was a 
reflected, semi-poetic, semi-romantic, at all events unsubstantial 
conception. Such is not the case. On the present occasion 
the prevailing color, in accordance with the season, was white; 
and the mantilla was replaced by a simple lace veil, so that 
there is certainly some external attraction independent of 
dress. I atti-ibute it to the combination of personal beauty, 
such as the woi'ld cannot surpass, with a grace of movement, 
an innate, inalienable elegance of manner, which no education 
can give and no words describe. An Andaluza is born, not 
made. Not too tall and never dumpy; (horrible word!) her 
person is so ex(|uisitely pn^portioned, that without some meas- 
ure of comparison, you would form no opinion as to her real 
size. An elegant fullness preserves hei' alike from the scrawny 
penury of the English or the corpulenc}' of the Italians. Her 
lofty brow justifies her sparkling wit, and the delicate organi- 
zation of her feelings and intellect is in harmony wilh the 
finely chiseled features. Luxuriant masses of dark, glossy 
hair, parted slightly on one side, and nobly arched eyebrows, 
are a fit setting to a rich Southern complexion, not of sickly 
yellow, but of a clear olive tinge, through which the timid 
blood, with every emotion, mantles to the surface. The pride 
of her beauty is the lai-ge, lustrous, almond-shaped, velvety 
e3"e, half covered with silken lashes, as if to screen her admir- 
ers from the danger of being consumed; but when aroused into 
activity, flashing forth pride, interest, incxhaustil)le love, with 
a tire more irresistible than that of a thousand suns. Then it 



BEAUTY. WALK. 171 

is that, with an imperious wave of tlic fan, she bids you phini;-e 
into a maelstrom of vijiers and 3-ou obey. 

Tliere is a widely ditl'used. but very erroneous belief amoni; 
us that every Spaniard has perforce black eyes and a dark 
complexion. Such is far from being true eveii in Andalusia. 
Ladies of the better class, who are not exposed to the sun or 
wind, have beautifully clear complexions, though brunette. In 
Konda, blue eyes form the majority, and they arc by no means 
uncommon in other provinces. But the Spanish blonde is still 
a Spaniard, and her type of beauty very different from the 
insii)id combination which often passes under that name in the 
north. There is the same smothered fire, the same deep ex- 
pression in the eye, the same richness of complexion, which, 
in union with raven tresses, form an exquisite picture Light- 
haired person.s — nthias — ai-e rarer, and of course much admired 
to look at, though every one falls in love with their dark- 
haired rivals. Of the luxuriance and elegance of their hair 
the ladies are justly proud, and no pains are spared to render 
it as l)eautiful as possible. The time devoted to this object is 
sacred in all classes, and if, in response to an inquiry or request, 
the ominous reply is heard, "hombre! estamos oriipadas con <i 
2)elo,'' it is useless to remain. Nothing short of another inva- 
sion of the Moors could arouse them. During the civil war 
Zumalacarregui, or Merino, for it is narrated of both, placed 
death for the men and loss of their hair for the Avomen, upon 
the same footing, and found them equally efficacious punish- 
ments. 

Spanish girls are taught to walk gracefully, too, as all girls 
should be, and since the narrowness of the streets prevents the 
general use of carriages, and the arms of gentlemen are seldom 
ojffered and never accepted, they avoid falling into the tottering 
shutHe, which is produced by the o]>])Osite customs. The walk 
of the Seville ladies is something peculiar to Andalusia. That 
they take steps is firmly believed because required by the ana- 
tomical construt-tion of mankind, but in their case the belief is 
the result of induction, not of ocular perception. The}' glide 
over the earth as though supported by unseen liands, and dis- 
appear from jour sight ere you can believe that they are 
actually moving. Who can gaze upon them witliout inwardly 
repeating the oft quoted, ever-applicable lines — 



172 SPAIN AND TUT. SPANIARDS. 

Avcrtcns rost-a cervicc rcfiilsit 
Ambrosiaeqiie comae divinmn vertioe odorem 
Spiravt-rc ; pciicf" vcstis defluxit ad iinos, 
Et rcra inccssu ]>atuit Deu. 

The Anilalusian foot is a marvel, liotli for size and bcantj. 
A la«ly will wear with ease the slipper of an ordinary jj^irl of 
fourteen. If any artificial means are used, the pressure must 
be very slif^lit, as the appearance is perfectly natural, notwith- 
standiim the fact that the}- seldom adopt an}- other means of 
locomotion. The develojinient of the En<ijlish undei-standin<; 
is a sul)ject of perpetual wonderment on the Guadahjuivir, 
where they are accustomed to compare its covering to a 
twelve oared boat. 

The ijraceful walk of the Sevillanas is not more peculiar to 
them than the noble carriage of the head, due, doubtless, in 
some degree to the absence of those fragile, yet cumbrous 
ornaments which force others to assume a stiff and constrained 
]>osition. It gives them an air of haughtiness b}- no means 
di.sagreeable, however, as j-ou are quite ready to admit their 
unapproachable superioritj'' before they assert it. Ever}- Anda- 
luza has two points of beauty — fine eyes and hair. Then she 
may have a good complexion, and she is almost certain to be 
graceful. If to these she unite wit and cultivation, who so 
daring as to deny her pre-eminence? Progress, perhaps more 
change, is desirable in many things in Spain, but that Heaven 
may preserve her fair daughters from the hand of innovation 
is the prayer of native and foreigner alike. It is scarcely pos- 
sible that the best laid schemes of any power on earth could 
effect an impi-ovement. Better resign the (Quixotic attempt, 
and leave the lonely traveller despairingly to exclaim, 

0! si yo njicifi-a cie;'o, 

ti'i .«in beldad nacicra ! ^P^ 

No wonder the hours glided by imperceptibly. About eleven 
o'clock the company began to tlispersc. The music had taken 
its departure at the ajjpointed time, with praiseworthy i)uiic- 
tuality, and in a half houi- the square was deserted. Sta. 
Maria was sending forth its booming peal of midnight, as I 
slowly retraced my steps, through the silent streets, to my 
domicile. In the meantime, everything had been arranged in a 
style above criticism, though not in any excess of luxuriance. 



MY DOMICILE. — WATCHMEN. 173 

The floor was covered with one of those beautiful mats, tlie art 
of making which has been handed down from the Moors, and 
is still practiced with mucli skill in various parts of the city, 
])articularly by the gipsies. A table, a few plain chairs, a 
mirror, a cane settee and a wardrobe, completed the list of the 
furniture. All the linen was scrupulousl}^ clean. Upon this 
score I have never had cause to complain in the humblest 
posada. Wherever I have succeeded in getting a bed at all, it 
has been of the color of snow. Half the money a Spaniard 
spends on himself goes to his linen, which, if he can afford it, 
is embroidered in the most costly style. It is his iu.xiiry, and 
clean-shirt day is certain to find him in a good humor. There 
was a net over the bed, too, for there are mosquitoes at Seville, 
but such misei-able ajiologics ! No more to be compared with 
our sonorous and ])owerful beasts, the gallinipper grandisoncns, 
than Mount Vesuvius is with Cotopaxi. Everywhere in Europe 
an American finds a justification for his national pride. 

I was not in the humor for sleep. The spirit of the past Avas 
upon mo with its recollections and meditations. The watch- 
man under my window cried out, " La una de la noche y sere- 
c-e-eno," " Las dos de la noche," &c., &c.,) one o'clock at night, 
and clear, &c., &c.,) and he was crj'ing the third hour when I 
retired only for a nap, for I was up with the sun. The guar- 
dians of the night in Seville remind one of a former gejiera- 
tion, as the}- go about in their sheep skin cloaks, with long 
staves and lanterns. Indeed, they might be legitimately traced 
to the Addaraboun of the floors, except that thc}^ were also 
provided with a dog to give warning of tiie approach of a rob- 
ber, and perha))s to give the latter a friendly hint of the dan- 
gerous neighborhood. True they have the keys of the houses, 
and let in a belated occupant, whose porter has retired to rest, 
and they will also accompany 3-ou honie, if 3'ou have lost the 
wa}-, which it is very casj- to do in these crooked streets, all 
resembling each other, but it is difficult to imagine how they 
pass the rest of the time. A fire is something unheard of, 
probably the oldest inhabitant has never known one to take 
place, and it seems no part of their business to interfere with a 
little peaceable fighting, unless it amount to an etneute. I 
remember once striking a Berlin watchman — who was springing 
his rattle witii delil)eratc frenzy under the window — quite dumb 
with amazement, either at my ignorance or impertinence, by 



174 SPAIN AM) TIIK SPANIAUnS. 

askini; him the locality of the tire. lie evidently thou-;ht I 
was attempting to "chawf" him. A Seville brother would, 
under similar cireumstanees, ]irol)a!)ly experience the same 
emotions as Schultz did. They are, however, standing, or 
rather sleecping, evidences of the fine climate, for from the 
eternal fair weather and their continually crying out "Sereno," 
they eiijo}' that name throughout the Peninsula. 

The next day, after a cup of chocolate, I strolled thi-ough 
the (Jate of Jerez to the Promenade on the Guadalquivir, 
known b\' the appropriate appellation of "Las Delicias." It 
commences at the " Torre de Oro," which, after being attributed 
to various historical characters, is now believed to be Moorish. 
Could it speak, it might many a tale unfold. Treasures, both 
animate and inanimate, have been guarded within its walls. 
It has been a prison, too, and some have entered that little 
door, who were never to behold the day again. The Prom- 
enade lies between the river bank and the garden attached to 
the palace of the Dukes of Montpensier, whose orange trees 
suspend their golden fruit above the fair promenaders. Far- 
ther down it expands into a Avood interspersed with alleys and 
flower beds. Most of the distance the river is straight, but at 
the end of the promenade gently curves south-westerly, so as 
to bring the whole city in view at the extremity of the vista. 
There are few as lovely scenes in Spain, and it is ditticult to 
say whether it be more favorably viewed at sunrise or sunset. 
The stately Cathedral, with its delicate tracery of Gothic, 
towers above the trees, surmounted by the still loftier (Jiralda 
at its si<le. From this jjoiiit can its vast tliniensions be best 
ajtjjreciated. A'arious convents ami churches bear it worthy 
companionship. On the western bank is the faubourg of La 
Triana, and in the foreground the triad of lonely ]ialm8, 
which every traveller should remember as sole living relies of 
the former conquerors. lietwcen the two flow the pink and 
purple behued waters of the Guadalquivir, enlivened by nu- 
merous little craft and fishing smacks that ply to San Lucar 
and Cadiz; and if the hour be early, the steamer down the 
river will disturb the quiet of the scene, recalling you from 
your revery, and reminding you that you are not on the banks 
of the Tigris, in the reign of llaroun al Rashid. Over all 
reigns the indescribable charm of an Andalusian landscape, 
like the delicate odor of a bouquet. Though the middle of 



APPEARANCE IN SPRING. — THE GUADALQUIVIR. 175 

the clay is intensely -wai^m. the character of the Spanish soil 
causes a great radiation of heat during the night, and the con- 
figuration of the country keeps Die air continually in motion. 
In the morning, tiiere is, consequently, a delicious breeze blow- 
ing ah)ng the river, which old and young are anxious to enjoy; 
and as the population is ver}- sociably inclined and abounds in 
leisure, I i'requently spent two or three hours in casual conver- 
sation with persons who seemed to have no more al>sorbing 
occupation than myself The winter, however, or spring, is 
the heyday of Las Delicias. The air being then too chilly for 
the nightly promenades on the Plaza Isabel, all people of 
leisure (and how many does not that include in a Spanish 
city ?) meet here about an hour before sunset for ever}^ con- 
ceivable purpose. The fairer sex, I fear, to show a new man- 
tilla, or to displa}^ the power of that most potent weapon, a 
Spanish fan ; the ruder to be remorsely slaughtered, willing 
victims to the sweetest of sacrifices; the old to take in large 
draughts of pure air, which here supply the place of the re- 
nowned medicaments of IJrandrcth and Jayne; the children 
of the better sort to drive about in sheep and goat carts, or to 
lead gail}' caparisoned laml)s with a string, while the humbler 
class are intent in pursuit oi' cuartos, b}- offering lighted matches 
for extinguished cigars. The carriage way is filled with equip- 
ages — some of most venerable appearance, others of the latest 
elegance, and prancing steeds occupy the centre. Perfect 
equality and good humor characterize the whole. 11^, amid ;ill 
these combustible elements, the old couplet, 

El hombre es fucgo, la muger estopa, 
Viene el iliiiblo y sopla, 

or, 

Man is fire and woman tow, 
Comes the devil and gives a blow, 

is sometimes verified by an example, it is a not unnatural con- 
sequence. 

The Guadalquivir — the poet-sung Eaetis of the Ancients, the 
Great River, the Wady '1 Kebir of the Moors — gives Seville a 
pre-eminence over other Spanish cities, for none can boast so 
noble a stream to do it homage. We, who luxuriate in the 
majesty of the Father of Waters, may be disappointed at its 
size, but in parched and thirsty Spain it has ever formed a fit 
subject for poets and novelists. Even in our own distant 



176 SPAIN AND TIIE SPANIARDS. 

country its naim* is siii;<j;cstive of visions, that, perlmps. liavo 
scarce existence l»eyon<l the boundaries of Dreanihuul. Spring- 
ing from tlie Sierras of Alcaraz and Cazorhi, and fretting be- 
neath tlie enormous crags of the Sierra Morena, it pursues a 
south-westerl}^ direction amid the fertile fields and olive plan- 
tations of the ancient kingdom of Jaen, by the cities of Baeza 
and Ubeda. Thence by Andujar, famous for its earthenware, 
and the steel-renowned Alcolea, with the noble bridge to Cor- 
dova, the city of the Caliphs, where it first becomes navigable. 
Thence to Seville, Avhose orange groves it threads, and turning 
the last spur of the Sierra Morena, winds its tortuous course 
through the uninteresting pasture lands lielow, to pour its 
watei's into the broad Atlantic. It was distinguished among 
the timid inarincrs of the old world by the mysterious el»b and 
flow of the tide, and supposed moreover to communicate a 
golden tinge to the famous wool, famous even at that early 
day. 

Bactis olivifera erinem rediraite corona, 
Aurea qui nitidis vellera tingis aquis. 

In sculpture and ])aintinL!:, it still rejoices in its olive crown ; 
but its waters no longer groan beneath the weight of treasure- 
laden fleets. It maj' be easy to find streams more beautiful 
than the Guadalquivir, as it is possible, perhaps, to surpass the 
Khine, but there hangs about these two rivers an attraction 
which, though intangible, has a real existence, and which 
thousands of years and millions of castles could not give to 
the Seine or the Thames. 



Chapter X. 
T 11 E C A T II E D II A L AND P A 1 N T I X G S . 

Its Foundation — The Patio do los Naraiijns — General Impression — Description — 
The llctablo — Sacred Music — Sculptures — Paintings — Marshal Soult — The 
Guardian An.2:els — Tombs— Church Fca.'-ts — The Virgin — Grand Effect of the 
Cathedral — Paintings in La Caridad — The Museo — Murillo's Conceptions. 

The principal mouumeut at Seville is the Cathedral — la 
Iglesia Mayor — the largest and gi-andcst in all Spain, and for 
impressive effect unequalled in the Avorld, even by the Basilica 
of St. Peter's. The characteristic excellencies of the principal 
Spanish Cathedrals are enumerated in the following quatrain : 

Sevilla en grandcza, 
Toledo en ri(iueza ; 
Compostclla en fortaleza, 
Leon en sutileza. 

Tradition has pointed out the spot as the site of the tem])les 
of the various religions which have successively ruled at Seville, 
commencing Avith the goddess of the Phoenicians. The Moorish 
Mosque, erected by Yusouf, the Almohade, and completed by 
Yacoub al Mansour, his son, was, after the reconquest, purified 
and consecrated to the worship of the true God, or, as the 
Mohammedan authors complain, to the adoration of idols; but 
in the beginning of the fifteenth century, it had been so much 
injured by earthquakes, that the Chapter determined to pull it 
down, and to erect in its place a temple worthy of the city and 
of their religion. In the year 14Ul, the Beneficiaries of the 
Cathedral being assembled, it was resolved "that, inaemuch as 
the Church is daily threatened with ruin, from the shocks it 
has received, and is about to fall in various places, another be 
built, such as shall find no equal, and shall correspond to tKe 
greatness and authority of Seville; and that if tlie funds of 
13 



178 SPAIN' AND THE SPANIARHS. 

the Church l»e not puffioiont, everyone shall contribute from 
his salary what may he neeessarj-." (Digeron que por quanto 
la Yglesia de Sevilla amena/aba cada dia runia por los terre- 
motos quo ha habido y est:! para caer por muehas partes, que 
8C labre otra igk-sia tal y tan buena, que no haya otra su igual, 
y que se considere y atienda a la grandeza y autoridad de Sevilla, 
V su ii^lesia conio nianda su razon y que, si para olio no bastare 
la renta do la obra, digoron todos quo so tonic do sus rontas de 
cada uno lo quo bastaba, quo olios jo dai-aii on sorvicio do Hios.) 
And one of the Chapter ad<iod : "lot us build a church so great, 
that tiioso who see it tinishod will boliovo us mad." Most noble 
resolve, most noble Chapter, and most nolily did tlioy acconi- 
pli.sh their proposed object I AViihout the aid of j)i'incos or 
taxes, b}' their own savings and tho assistance of alms from 
the faithful, they erected the marvel of Andalusia. The exte- 
rior, like that of most Gothic cathedrals, is not impressive 
when soon from near by; though occupying a large square, it 
is not disfigured, as is usually the case, by mean houses. In- 
deed, it is rather fortunate than otherwise in its environs. To 
the north, on the opposite sido of the street, tho liousos are 
j)roserved, as though tho Moors had doi)arted but yesterday; 
and the little colonnade is said to be devoted to tho same 
trades that were carried on in tho same place six hundrod 
yeai"s ago. On the oast is the Archbishop's palaoo. The 
Alcazar and the Ijonja lie to the south, while tho Cathedral 
itself is surrounded by a torraoo, slightly olovatod above the 
level of the street. Tlie western fnnit, as usual, is not finished. 
A groat man}' reasons ai-c given for this peculiarity about 
Spanish cathedrals. Some say it is to avoid a paynuMit which 
was due to liome upon tho completion of over}' religious edi- 
fice ; others say to escape the olfocts of the "evil eye;" otlun-s 
a prosaic want of funds. IJo tho reason what it niay, Spanish 
churches are seldom entiroly oomploto. Tho out I'aiioe by the 
north is through i^a Puorta del Pordon, which leads iulo the 
I'atio de los Naranjos, (the court of the orange trees,) sur- 
rounded on three sides by the lofty walls of the Parish Church 
and tho Library. The Patio, its fountains, the horse shoe gate 
of the Perdon, are all Moorish and fine specimens. In the early 
moi-uing or afternoon this is a delightful sjiot to while away 
the hour, listening to tho hubhling of the fountains and the 
conversation of the water carriers who eomc hero to fill their 



PATIO DE LOS NARANJOS. 179 

casks, while the breeze rustles amid tlie dark green leaves and 
yellow fruit of the orange trees, and the fairy Giralda towers 
majestically over head in silent beauty. Most of the Cathe- 
drals, built upon the sites of Moorish mosques, retain the 
entrance coui-t and the ioiiiitain foi- ablution, which was neces- 
sary to the Moluunniedan worship. To the east of the Patio, 
near the librarj- entrance, is the stone pulpit, which the inscrip- 
tion pronounces to have served St. Vincent and other persons 
of distinction in the Church. The Library itself, as most 
lil)raries, is uninteresting enough to the sight, but precious to 
the mind, as it consists principallj- of books presented by Fer- 
nan Columbus, with manuscripts of the great navigator him- 
self, and hence styled La Colomblna. It contains, moi-covcr, a 
great many historical souvenirs of the re-conquest and subse- 
quent periods. The Sagrario or Parish Church, on tlie opposite 
site of the Patio, Avould be considered handsome if it were not 
in such immediate proximity to the Cathedral. Some of its 
wood carvings are beautiful, particularly the altar-piece and 
the Sta. Veronica above ; and a figure of St. John is also Avell 
worthy of remark. 

The old Sagrario near the gale of (he Patio, is converted into 
a sort of vestiary. The Catlu'(lral, on my first visit, bein*'- 
closed, as the siesta was not quite over, I took a seat here to 
await the opening of the doors. The sun's rays poured fiercely 
down, I>ut within ail was delightfull}^ fresh and cool. The 
altar-boys were engaged in the elevating occupation of stand- 
ing on their heads for a wager, while in the next apartment, 
separated b}' a screen, some functionar}- snored away with the 
reverberating snort of a Mississippi high-pressure. The ex- 
ample was catching. I took one of the sweetest naps that ever 
fell to my lot. Soon the grating of the doors awakened me, 
and I entered the glorious edifice. Without all had been full 
of glare, almost blinding; here a faint, mellow twilight floated 
among the lofty columns, scarceh' disturbing the solemn gloom 
which hushed one into an involuntary' silence. The sound of 
footsteps was lost in its immensity, though its size could only 
be appreciated ly- comjtarison with some of the human sjjccies. 
Since leaving Seville, 1 have had an opportunity of revisiting 
most of the media>val cathedrals, and I can truly say that 
none of them compare with this in inspiring the feeling of 
grandeur in the object and humility in the subject, which is the 



ISO SPAIN ASP THF. SPANIARDS. 

peculiar merit of the Gothic architecture. I have twice been 
to the Minster of Strasbour*^ for the express purpose of com- 
paring; tliem. but it has ai)peare(l coUl and impressionless — 
sterile, so to sj^eak, wliereas the soul must be hard indeed 
that can enter liere and not feel inspired with an overwholm- 
\nfr sense of awe and reverence. Its founders were truly 
impressed with the divine conception of relii^ion. Nowhere 
else is the Cliristian thought so appropriately expressed in 
stone; and if I were to select the two edifices of Christendom 
that had most snccessfiilly attained the end for whicli tliey 
were erected, it would \)v the ('athedrals of Milan and Seville, 
the exterior of the former ami the interior of the latter being 
respectively all that cuuld ivasuiKiltly be demanded of archi- 
tecture 

The ground ]thin is tliat of the Mosque, which preceded it, 
being a jtarallelogram of some tour hundred and fifty feet in 
length and more than three hundred and fift}' in width, with 
large chapels on the northern and southern sides. Between 
these are the five aisles, extending east and west, formed Viy 
noble colonnades and surmounted by graceful arches, sustaining 
the roof, some eighty or a hundred feet above. There are in 
fact seven aisles, but two of them are occupied by the lateral 
chapels. The centre aisle and the transept, forming the cross, 
are more elevated, attaining the enormous height of a hundred 
and forty-five feet, while the dome is still more lofty. JJich as 
the Cathedral is in treasures of every description, in paintings, 
sculpture, jewels, it contains nothing gaudy or sti-iking, with a 
single exception — no huge frescoes to divert the attention from 
the great end of the architect. The eighty-seven windows, 
painted in the most beautiful style of mediaeval German art. to 
represent Scripture scenes, some of them twenty or thirty feet 
in length, are scarcely noticed. l*]veiytliing has been made 
subservient to the jjurpose of elevating the creature to the con- 
templation of the great Creator, in whose hands are all the 
corners of the earth. Truly does it merit the distinction of 
" La Grande." llow much nobler an aspiration than that of 
the (Jrecks, who sought merely to emI)ody the highest concep- 
tion of worldly beauty, and whose ideas of religion scarcely 
rose above the ground on which they stood. And the conduct 
of the worshippers here seems prompted by a sympathy in 
accordance willi the spirit of the place. Every purely .worldly 



BESCRimoN. — MU.Sir. 181 

enjoyment is banished. From this point of view the chairs of 
the Frencli and the pews of the English churches are equally 
destructive to any elevation of feeling, inasmuch as thej^ neces- 
sarily recall one from meditation on things above to the mere 
comforts of the body. Spanish ladies, if they desire to sit, 
have a mat carried by a servant and placed upon tlic pavement 
in the veritable Eastern styh\ wliile the men, noble and peasant 
alilce, kneel upon the marble mosaic. 

The internal arrangement of the Cathedral resembles that of 
most others in Spain. The centre aisle from the transept to 
within fifty or a hundred feet of the great western entrance, is 
occupied b}' the coro (the choir), closed toward the west by 
the trascoro, but open toward the high altar, which occupies 
a similar position on the opposite side of the cntre los dos coros. 
Each is railed off by a handsome grating — reja — of ornamented 
steel, and a little gangway connects the two. The rcjas in the 
Spanish cathedrals are always worthy of the attention of 
travellers, and give some idea of what the gold and silver and 
steel work in these churches was before the AVar of Independ- 
ence. The whole high altar, is a magnificent piece of skill and 
ornamentation, and the refablo. extending nearly up to the roof, 
is famous even in Spain. It is of alerce wood, and divided into 
fortj'-four compartments, which represent scenes from the Scrip- 
ture history. Far up above, seemingly in the clouds, is a 
crucifix, projected apparently upon a back ground of dark 
velvet. At certain hours of the day, depending upon the 
season, the rays of the sun, through the stained windows of 
the cimborio or dome over the transept cross, fall njion this 
crucifix, which is thus brilliantly illuminated, while the rest of 
the edifice remains in profound gloom. The effect is beyond 
measure impressive. The coro is finely ornamented within, 
and above it are tlie grand organs, whoso deep tones, swelling 
through the Cathedral on a feast day, and filling its recesses 
with the immensit}* of their volume, are indeed magnificent. 
One of them, built by Jorge Boscli. the largest in the world, 
contains a hundred and nineteen stops, and five thousand three 
hundred and twenty-six pipes; the other, b}' Vcrdalonga, is 
almost as large. Sacred music is still preserved in its purity 
and grandeur at Seville, resembling, in this respect, the cities 
of (Jormany. The artist, M'ho performed on great occasions in 
l!i52, was a master, and did full justice to the noble instrument. 



1S2 SPAIN ANn TIIK SPAMARDS. 

thoii<^h tliis summer I heard uo music tliat was remarkable. 
Aroiiml the corn and hij:;h altar, on the outside, arc nnmcroua 
small altars and chapels, containinijj many works of art, fa- 
mous, some of them, for their excellence, othei*s for their 
antiquity. Amontj them is a celebrated ima^^e, in wood, of the 
Vir<riii, by MontaHes. probabl}- the finest specimen of wood 
carving in Spain. It is perfectl}' exquisite, tlie cmboditication 
of tiie highest and purest style of Andalusian beauty, a Murillo 
Holidified. A quantity of ornaments of a rich description, glit- 
tering jewels and costly silks, have been placed upon it, greatly 
impairing the effect; but a certain amount of silver about these 
images serves to heighten the relief, only it requires great 
judgment to know when to stop. For the artistic reputation 
of Spain, it is to be regretted that its sculpture consists almost 
entirely* of either wood or earth in its various ])rcj)arations. 
Its churches are crowded with images which, if in marl>le, 
would receive the unqualified approltation of the artistic world. 
As it is, they arc generally hurried over with a passing notice, 
j)artly because when seen by strangers they have been removed 
from the situations for which they were originally intended by 
the artist, and partly because of the cheapness of the material 
out of which the}' arc made, as though the excellence of the 
conception were not the same, whether executed in marble or 
terra-cotta. 

The whole circuit of the Cathedral is a series of chapels and 
altars, with endless treasures of ever}' description — a veritable 
museum. Its jiaintings would, of themselves, form a gallery as 
distinguished for excellence as for numbers. During a consid- 
eral>le part of the War of Independence, Marshal Soult reigned 
supreme in Andalusia, and, to sjieak in plain tenns, robbed 
and stole whatever fell within his grasp. Nowhere in Europe 
did the Revolutionary Generals hesitate to melt down an}'" 
ornament of the precious metals, however beautiful or sa- 
cred. Such conduct, though strange in those who came osten- 
sibly as benefactors, might have Ijccn forgiven, but Soult, 
not content with this, by a refinetl species of robbery, plun- 
dered works of art. Some, in anticipation of this invasion of 
Vandals, had been removed to Cadiz, others hidden away in 
the vaults beneath, but such precautions did not always suflicc, 
for the Chapter was occasionally comjielled to produce its 
secreted treasures by the threat of a military execution. I was 



SAN ANTONIO. THE UUARDIAN ANGEL. 183 

present, in 1852, at the sale of Jus collection in Paris — those 
ver}- ])ictnres seized hero by fraud and violence — and J saw the 
ai^ent of the Spanish Government bidding for the Murillo, its 
OAVJi ])ropert3^, now in the Louvre, which sold for the enormous 
sum of four hundred thousand francs. How the Allies could 
sanction the retention of them b}^ Soult, and yet send back 
those which were in the possession of Napoleon, is incon- 
ceivable to an ordinary conscience. But the morality of the 
Avorld is a strange science, and Europeans, who hold up their 
hands in holy horror at the thought of a Cuban filibuster, tind 
nothing to blame in all this. A'number of magnificent ]\lui'il- 
los W(M'e, however, preserved. The first chapel on the left, 
entering from the Sagrario, contains a large altar piece repre- 
senting San Antonio de Padua kneeling before the infant 
Saviour, which is considered by many the master work o^ the 
artist. Whether it be entitlc'(l to this ])re-eminonce may admit 
of a question, l)ut it is a grant! painting, one which imjtroves 
with ever}- visit. The picture is of large size, yet it would 
puzzle the critic to point out a fault. The somewhat unnatural 
subject, that is, unnatural when viewed from the ex})erience of 
life, is clothed with dignity by the consummate hand of the 
master, and the devotion of the saint to a mere infant, i)ro- 
duces none but the noblest impression. The " Guartlian An- 
gel," leading a little child b}- the hand, which is an altar piece 
near the western entrance, is entitled to all the admiration it 
has received. Nothing can surpass the benevolence of the 
Angel, who, with chei'ishing love and hope, points to Heaven,, 
or the confiding trust expressed in the countenance of the 
child, as it clings to the hand of its protector. It is one of 
those pictures which remain in tlie memory, and seems a vision 
of some ])revious stage of existence, ere man had fallen from 
his purity. The Chajitcr House, too, possesses a treasure in 
the " Concepcion," which is. jierhaps, unequalled among the 
conce])tions ; and another chapel, to the north, has a Madonna, 
by Alonzo Cano, that may worthil}' rank with the best. In 
the south transept is the celebrated " Gencracion." by Luis de 
Vargas, commonly called "La Gamba," from the leg of Adam. 
I was never able to perceive the great merit of this painting, 
but every one else does. There can, however, be but one 
opinion about the miserable kitchen clock above, the only 
incon<rruous ornament in the Cathedral. 



184 SPAIN AM) TIIK SPANIAUns. 

The Ilo^-jil Chapel hehiixl tlio altar. :i thiirfh in size, contains 
a precious relic in the well-preserved body of St. Ferdinand, 
the reconqneror of Seville. The coffin in which his body was 
formerly enclosed still remains, with inscriptions in Latin, 
Spanish, Arabic antl Hebrew. Here, too, are his sword and 
the sacred ima<jje of the Virgin, which hun<5 at his saddle bow 
durini^ tiie camjiaign. The original ke3s of the city, which 
were presented to him by the Jews and Moors on the surren- 
der, are guarded in another part of the Cathedral. On certain 
anniversaries tlie body is exposed to view; guard is mounted 
by the jiicked troops of the gari'ison (this duty was formerly 
dischai'ged by the master tailors of the Cofradia de San Mateo, 
among whom he was enrolled), and the flags are lowered l)el'ore 
the saintl}' conqueror. In this chapel lies also the body of 
Maria de Padilla, formerly considered the mistress, now be- 
lieved to have been the wife of Peter the Cruel. The tombs of 
Garci Perez de Vargas and other Conquistadores, nre to be 
found in the various chapels, so that the Cathedral has been 
happily styled a Pantheon of Chivalr}-. The most interesting 
of all is that of Fernan Columbus, Avho is interred near the 
western entrance. A simple slab, let into the pavement, marks 
the spot, antl on it are carved the caravels of the great dis- 
coverer, with the proud motto — proud in its simjilicity — 

A Cast ilia y a Leon, 
Nucvo muiido dio Colon. 

The remains of Columbus himself, after many translations, 
repose in the C'athedral of Havana, and should the ])roject, 
avowed by western Europe of Africanizing the Island, be car- 
I'ied into execution, it is to lie hoped tliat they will lind an 
appropi'iate atid final resting ])lace in the bosom of the great 
American Republic. Filibustering, for this end, would deserve 
the approbation ol' tlie civilized world. 

There are nine entrances to the Cathedral, one to the south, 
two to the east, three to the west, and three to the north upon 
the Patio dc los Nuranjos. Over one of these, la del lagarto, is 
suspended a wooden alligator, about wbich many marvellous 
tales are told, such as that it was a courting present from the 
Soldan of Egypt. In fact, it is, with the curb and other em- 
blems beside it, inercly symbolical of the cardinal virtues. The 
door.s of the great western entrance are opened in summer for 



CHURCH FEASTS. I'KOCESSION OF THE VIRGIN. 185 

ventilation; but the iron grating is never removed, except to 
admit the monarch, or for the installation or burial of an arch- 
bishop. 

Though the feasts of the Church at Seville ai-e no longer 
celebrated with the pomp of former days, when a considerable 
portion of the wealth of the kingdom was in the hands of the 
clerg}', they are still second in magnificence only to those of 
Rome. On such occasions, the (iirahhi is illuminated IVoni its 
base to its summit, and as the flames flicker with the wind, the 
huge tower itself, like a burning arrow, seems to sway about 
in the heavens. The great Easter candle, formerly twenty- 
four feet in length, and weighing eighty arrobas (some two 
thousand pounds) is sadl}' reduced in its dimensions, but is still 
of enormous size, and the lofty Monumento, which is ei'ccted 
on the eve of Good Friday, and stands a pillar of fire in the 
general gloom ot the Cathedral, yet displays its glories, far 
surpassing the descriptions given of the illuminated cross that 
used to be suspended in St. Peter's on the Saturday of Holy 
Week. Easter and the Feria, or fair, attract crowds from all 
parts of Spain, and not a few foreigners from the scapoi'ts of 
Cadiz, Gibraltar and Malaga. Then, Seville ese Labevinto de 
jorasteros, combines every attraction, and the ceremonies of 
the Ciiurch, even to the eating of the Paschal lamb, are strict- 
ly observed. The market where these latter are sold used to 
be well worth a visit. Adult faithful throng to pi-ocure the 
hoi}' symbol, Avhile children embrace the opportunity of pur- 
chasing young pets, which are here great favorites. In the 
processions the image of the Virgin is conspicuous. Indeed, 
Seville has, during all ages, been famous for the honors it has 
paid to tlie ilother of God. Centuries ago, the dogma of the 
immaculate conception was fought and sustained here, and 
even passed into a shibboleth. As a question of revealed reli- 
gion, every one must decide for himself Regarding it from a 
merely human point of view, the worshi]) of the Virgin appears 
to me very natural. What can be more worthy of respect, to 
go no further, than the ideal of female excellence? that inef- 
fable purity and beauty of soul which doubles the enjoyments 
and divides the sorrows of life, which diff'uscs its rays over this 
weary pilgrimage below, and alone renders existence endur- 
able? These ma}' be mere phantasies of inexperience, the 
dreams of a bachelor. If so. it would be a sad mistake to 



ISG 



SPAIN AM) TI!K srANIARDS. 



exchange thorn for the cominonphicc realities of truth. If one 
nia}' he pardoned for niinj^Iing things on earth with things 
above, I will confess that a visit to the ('athedral on a 
feast day could sufficiently explain to me the prevalence of this 
featurr <»f religious \vorshi]», without the necessity of seeking 
its origin in the ^^)nlan Diana, or the Pluvnician Astarte. 
Surely, no other spot on earth can offer such typi'S of female 
loveliness as then crowd its sjiacious aisles. 

As the excellence of the Cathedral does not consist so much 
in the contemplation of particular i)arts as in the general effect 
of the whole, it should be visited at all hours of the day in 
order to appreciate it full}'. A stranger, with a guide and a 
guide book, will detect, perhaps acknowledge, its manifold 
beauties; l>ut really to feci it. he should saunter in alone, with 
a mind free from preoccupation and ready to imbibe its myste- 
rious influences. I was never more i)rofoundh' impi'cssed than 
one evening, about sunset, in the month of September. The 
vesper chaunt had just ended, and the lust notes of the organ, 
faintly echoing their mellow cadence, were dA'ing away in the 
vaulted roof Priests and choristers hurried out, with doubtless 
very prosaic feelings — it was their daily occupation — and I 
was left almost alone, with here and there a pious devotee liir- 
gering liefore some favorite altai'. The cx])iring i-ays of the 
sun sti'i'amed in through the westei'u jioiial, but were lost in 
the vast i-ecesses of the edifice; the wiiole eastern portion lay 
shrouded in gloom. A faint gleam of light, struggling through 
the jiaiiited windows of tlie iImihc, fell iipim the lofty crueilix, 
and seemed to point to the life of purity l)eyond. At stieh a 
time, one cannot but feel that there is an ethereal s[)ii'it within, 
a spark of the J)ivine es.scncc, which would fain cast off its 
prison house of m(n-tality and flee to the Eternal existence that 
gave it birth. This edifice is one of the few creations of man 
that realizes expectation. Morning, noon or niglit, none can 
enter without acknowledging that be stands on holy ground. 
The accessories, the trembling swi'll of (he organs, the sweet 
odor of incense, the beautiful woi-ks of art, which elsewhere 
distract the attention, here combine in universality of gran- 
deur to establish that harmony of the soul so conducive to 
devotion; and if the excellence of architecture consist in the 
accomplishment of the rational purj)0se assigned, to this must 
the palm lie awai'ded. Political economists may reason that 



PAINTINGS IN LA CARIDAD. 187 

such an expenditure in unproductive stone withdraws from 
the general circulation a sensible capital; the severe reformer 
may preach against the adoration of saints and images; the 
abstract ])hilos<)plier may denounce the appeal to the senses, but 
their remonstrance will fall pointless upon the heart. There 
are occasions when humanity rises above the earthly rules of 
logic, and acknowledges obedience only to those hidden laws 
which govern the divine portion of our nature, and whose 
sequence is beyond the reach of human intellect. 

In olden times, the great city of Seville contained more than 
a hundred churches, besides hospitals and other semi-religious 
establishments. The various wars of the century, the%up- 
pression of monasteries and the confiscation of the church 
property, have reduced the number to a small fraction of what 
it originally was; and the works of art with which they were 
crowded have been transferred to galleries, oftentimes with 
ruinous effect, for they were always calculated for the precise 
position they were intended to occupy, with due regard to 
light and shade, and it rarely happens that they are, or can be 
suitably placed elsewhere. In no department has the genius of 
Andalusia been more pre-eminent than in painting. Murillo 
and Velasquez are but the brightest ornaments of a school, 
Avhich iiunibered many others entitled to a high rank. The 
taste still survives, though the faculty of originating grand 
conceptions seems to be dormant, and almost eveiy one h" re is 
capable of appreciating, if not of executing. Many of the Mu- 
rillos have found their way to Madrid, and even further; but 
the best are, unquestionably, still in Seville. Between the city 
wall and the river is the hospital of La Caridad, which con- 
tains very fine ones. Hence was taken by Soult the Sta. Isabel, 
now in the Academy at Madrid. Two of those yet remaining 
are larger in size than Murillo was in the habit of painting'^ 
they represent, respectively, the miracle of the Loaves and 
Fishes, and Moses Striking the Hock. The composition of both 
has been criticise.l, and is, perhaps, faulty, as in neither is 
the princii)al figure sufficiently prominent. But in invention, 
drawing, coloring, they seem quite equal to the best. The San 
Juan de Dios had been to me formerly a disagreeable picture, 
on account of its dark back ground, and gloomy, forbidding 
manner, but I now acknowleilge its excellence. The "Dead 
Bishop," by a less distinguished artist, is a revolting subject, 



188 . SPAIN AM) THE SPANIARDS. 

but a most admiral»Ie painting, if complete success in produ- 
cing the desired effect be the true object of admiration. A 
certain hauglity jjrelate had treated the artist with a want of 
respect, who, in revenge, determined to teach his reverence a 
lesson of humility. There he lies in his coffin with mitre and 
crook, the flesh seeming to fall from his bones, and the fright- 
fully life-like worms crawling in and out. Pfaugh I Murillo 
protested that he could not look at it without holding his nose, 
and the prou<l Bishop, with unwilling regrets, confessed the 
truth of the Preacher's words — "All, all is vanity." 

The greater portion of the ])ietiires wiiieli liad belonged to 
the suppressed convents, were subsequently coUecteil into a 
museum, where they j'ct remain, the old convent of La Merced 
being appropriated for that purpose. As for those in the 
church, I will not venture to give an oi)inion, for the workmen 
were making some repairs, and m}' entry seemed always sim- 
ultaneous with an increase of industry, producing such a dust 
and noi.se -that it was impossible to enjoj' the fine arts, (^ne 
hall on the second floor is entirely filled with Murillos. whieli 
seems to me a matter of regret. At least, I have always found 
it difficult to bring away a distinct impression where there are 
so many which necessarily resemble each other to a considera- 
ble extent. It otters, however, the best opportunity of study- 
in<r the artist himself, and this collection reveals ^lurillo in all 
his glory, though it is defective in representations of profane 
subjects. The " Servilleta," which he painted upon a table 
napkin, is deservedly adtnired, but the face is evidently taken 
from some not very handsome reality, whom he has portrayed 
more than once. The patronesses of the (iiralda, the St. b'ran- 
cis, the San Antonio, and others, are much more to my taste. 
Among them are two "Conceptions." An Andalusian courier 
in the service of a friend of mine in Paris, vindicating the 
superiority of Murillo over all rivals, acknowledged in them 
an idea of the beauty of form and color, but claimed that his 
countr3'man alone could bring out the " insides." The criti- 
cism was better than the English in which it was conve^^ed, 
and is particularly apj)licalile to the "Conceptions." Aturillo's 
success in this, the most difficult of all subjects, is marvellous. 
Who but he has adequatel}'' imagined what \'iclor Hugo some- 
where calls " le point mystic de la Virginite, de la Maternite, 
ct de la Bivinite?" The task imposed on Spanish painters far 



' MURILLO'S CONCErTIONS. l!^0 

exceeded in difficulty the simple representation of the Ma- 
donna, who in unini]->assioned repose idealizes freedom from 
earthly thou<>-hts — a purely negative cifeet. Murillo has ac- 
complished greatly more than this; he has emhodied a concep- 
tion of the most exquisite earthly loveliness, free from the 
taint of earthly passions; a picture of enraptured ecstatic beati- 
tude, uncorrupted bj^ the guilt of sensual gratification ; a seraph 
who feels that she has unconsciously become the mother of the 
Saviour. Whether other artists could have equalled Murillo, 
is best answered by the fact that they huve not done so. Even 
Rafaelle, except in the Transfiguration, has rested content Avith 
the comparatively expressionless ])urity and serenity of (Jreek 
sculpture, nor would his Madonnas ever convey the idea of a 
mortal who has immaculatel}" conceived, and is to bring into 
the world the Son of the living God — the hoi}- ambition of all 
the daughters of Israel. The one followed the classical taste 
of his age and country, the other the living, impassioned en- 
thusiastic nature around him, and I have always thought that 
the greatest triumph of the Spaniard w^ould be to place his 
master work between the frigid purity of the Madonna di San 
Sisto, and the sensual ecstacy of Correggio's lo. Then would 
deserved honor be accorded to him who first had united humani- 
ty and divinity. 



4 



ClIAI'TKR XI. 

THE AT. (WZAR AND OTIIKIJ F. DIFTCES. 

The Alcaxnr — Don Pedro and Mnria de Padillo — Casa dc Pilatos — The Lonja — The 
University — The Ribcras — Tobaecft Manufactory — The Streets — Flowers — The- 
atre — Dances, origin, character — The Funcion — El Ole — El Vito — (.Jipsy — Com- 
parison — Religious and Social. 

The finest, tliougli not the purest, relic of Moorish art in 
Seville, is the Aleazur, which has served as a royal residence 
even from the da^s of the Romans. After the dissolution of 
the Cordovese Empire, Seville became the residence df one of 
the most enli<rhtencd families, that succeeded in establishiii'; a 
dynasty- upon it.s ruins — the Beni Abhad. Under them and their 
Huccess;rs, particularly the Alinohades, the Alcazar was great- 
ly improved, if not rebuilt. But the finest portions date from 
the time of Peter the Oi-uel of Castile, whose alliance with the 
^loorish sovereigns of Gi-unada and Africa enabled hiin to pro- 
cure architects ami workmen, and to I'ival the extinct glories 
of Cordova. Ferdinand and Isaliella, and the Emi)eror Charles 
made alterations and additions, l)ut some sul)sc'(|uent barbai'ian 
actually wliil(.'waslu'd the Moorisli ceilings, it iialtles ingenuity 
to conjecture the motive for such a jterformance. Since my last 
visit, the Duke of Montpensiei-, with the taste and libei-alit}' 
which characterize him, has caused much of it to be removed, 
and is attempting to restore the whole to its original state. A 
sjtecimen of the old whitewashed iioilion has been retained for 
the purpose of offering a comparison. If his intentions arc 
carried out. it will lie almost as great an ornament to architec- 
tural Spain as the .Mhamlira. Indeed, 1 must say, that the 
Hall of the Ambassadors at Seville, lian-ing the balconied win- 
dows cut into the Media Naranjn, sui-passes its rival, nor is 
there anything at Granada to equal the great court — the Patio 
jirincipal — which, with its fountains and columns, is by moon- 



'^ 



THE ALCAZAR. — PON PEDRO EL CRUEL. 191 



h* light really eiichantinc:;. It is some seventy feet in length, and 
some fifty in width, paved with the purest of white marble, and 
surroiindod by an elegant colonnade. The decoration of the 
Moorish jiortion of the Alcazar is, if possible, richer than that 
of the xVlhambra, and reasonably- so, as the sovereigns of Se- 
ville, whether Christian or Mohammedan, w-ei'e possessed of 
greater wealth, and had almost equal facilities with those of 
CJranada; but beautiful as the Moorish Alcazar is, it lacks the 
charms of situation and the romance which lend such attrac- 
tions to the Alhamln-a, and is moreover brought into too imme- 
diate contrast M'ith other wonders to make its full im])rossion. 

The number of rooms, ancient and modern, is considerable — 
more than three score — but some of them are ver^' plain in their 
decorations. The little chapel of Isabella, the Catholic, is a 
model of a royal clKqx'l for devotion. Throughout the niodern 
part are displayed the c^-pher of herself and her husband; that 
selected by Isabel was a bundle of arrows, the Spanish word 
for arrow (flecha) commencing with the initial letter of her 
husband's name; Ferdinand in turn adopted a yoke (yugo), the 
capital letter I, of Isabella, being written in Spanish as a Y. 
The motto, Tato Mota, has been erroneously interpreted to sig- 
nify the equality between the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, 
whereas none such existed or was contemplated. It has, with 
better reasons, been supposed to mean, simply, that it is as well 
to effect the union of the monai-ch3^by marriage as bj' conquest. 
The gardens of the Alcazar arc superb, and in spring the air is 
loaded with perfumes. One of the walks is lined with hidden 
fountains, whose jets arch over and drench the promenaders, 
and some unsuspecting attendant is generally made to suffer by 
way of illustrating the joke to travellers. It is not, however, 
half as good a plan as that of t»he facetious Archbishop of Saltz- 
Inirg, whose dining table was surrouudrd with stone seats made 
hollow, for the purpose, with pipes running to his hand. 

The Alcazar is haunted l)y the unea.sy shade of Peter the 
Cruel, about whose true character there is great difference of 
opinion among learned Sjumiards of the present day. The im- 
jiartial and inquiring spirit with which they have investigated 
this period of their history, is to my mind one of the evidences 
that the sound intelligence and critical judgment of the nation 
arc rapidly awakening. Few princes have fared so badly in 
history as Peter. The vivacity and sternness of his disposi- 



102 SrAIN AM» THE SPANIARDS. 

lion, liis treati'iiont of Blanche of Bourbon, his breach of faitli 
toward the Moorish king, Abu Said, the cruelty of his ven- 
geance were severely punished in this world by his premature 
death, and by the almost unanimous condemnation of histo-. 
rians. Of late, however, the foundations of this universally 
received ojiinion have been a^ain investigated, and found to be 
liable to gre-'t suspicion. Dui'ing the lifetime of his father, 
Alfonso XI. Peter and his uiother were humiliated by the am- 
bitious Leonora de Guzman, who aspired to substitute her own 
children in the place of the legitinuite heirs. When he ascend- 
ed the throne, a powerful feudal nobility, struggling to retain 
and enlarge privileges which were ceasing to be in accordance 
with the spirit of the age, and willing to embrace the opportu- 
nity afibrded b}' the dissensions of the royal family of encroach- 
ing upon the prerogative, opposed continued obstacles to his 
government, and surrounded him with snares and treacheries, 
so that he knew not whom to trust. That his brothers acted 
toward him with dissimulation is certain, and his treatment of 
the Queen, his obstinate refusal even to see her, must have had 
some secret justification, otherwise his conduct would have 
been that of a mere insensate; nor is it to be sup])osed that the 
King of France woulil have quietly permitted the imjjrisoiunent 
and execution of an innocent daughter of the blood ro^-al. The 
contemporary Spanish histoi-ians wi'ote under the influence of 
Henry of Trastamara, who had killed Don Pedro with his own 
hand, and thereb}' succeeded to the throne. AVhat tiiey say, 
therefore, must be taken with great allowance. We know that 
there was a very different narrative once in existence, though 
now lost or suppressed. The French writers are still less 
worthy of confidence, for their great leader, I)u Guesclin or 
Claquin, was Henry's General, and is denounced b\- the S])an- 
iards as a vile assassin for his part in the occurrence at ^Lon- 
tiel, where he decided the fatal struggle between the brothers 
in a manner not easy to reconcile with the conduct of a prcux 
chevalier. Pon Pedro had the adilitional misfortune of quarrel- 
ing with the Prince of Wales, his only ally, about the pa}' for 
which that skilful soldier had bargained his services, and thus 
from none could he expect even justice. His friendship for 
.K'ws and Moors was considered a heinous sin at that day, but 
jierhaps it was merely a liberality of opinion in advance of the 
age, and his unpopularity with the disorderly nobles of the 



> 



¥ 



ANECDOTE OF HIS JUSTICE. 10," 



realm, might well have been owing to the unrelenting severity 
with whicli he pursued offenders, whether high or Ioav. Of 
this tlierc are many authenticated instances. A striking one, 
in point, is narrated. Once upon a time a canon of the Cathe- 
dral having, in an ungovernable fit of rage at the bad shape of 
Ills shoes, killed the shoemaker, the family of the murdered 
man comphuncd to the chapter, and tlie offender was punished 
by a suspension from liis (hitics for a year. The son of the 
shoemaker avengcil tliis double wrong b}' the death of the 
canon. Peter took personal jurisdiction of the crime, and 
having first ascertained wliat punishment had been intlicted in 
the pi'cvious case, imposed a similar one by suspending the 
3'oung shoemaker for a year from the exercise of his occupa- 
tion. Surel}' this was even handed justice. 

Another anecdote is related of Don Pedro in this connection, 
Avhich seems to me to have been strangely misunderstood. It 
is said that, being out alone one night, he had the misfortune, 
a very common one at that day, of crossing swords with a 
stranger, and killing him. Next morning he summoned the 
Chief of Police, and demanded the name of the offender. No 
one could tell. Peter commanded him to ascertain the author 
of the deed, and to place his bust on the spot. On the folloAV- 
ing day his own appeared, with all the regal paraphernalia, 
and it. or a pretended one, used to be shown in tlie Calle del 
Candik'jo. His conduct in this particular has generally been 
construed into a poor and arbitrary jest in manifestation of his 
contempt for the law. But the idea of punishing a cavalier 
for the not unnatural consequences of an affair of gallantry, 
would have been considei'cd in Spain at that day, and for many 
generations afterward, quite absurd. Besides, he could not be 
expected to hang himself Yet it was his duty, as head of the 
State, to know the author of ever}* evil deed, whether excusa- 
ble or not, and the anecdote indicates a determination to punish, 
or at least expose, ever}- offender, however great. Otherwise, 
the police would scarcely have dared to comjily with liis com- 
mand. It would have been easy to feign ignorance, had they 
not known that such ignorance found no excuse in his e^'cs. 

In view of such considerations, it has been proposed to sub- 
stitute "El Justiciero" in the place of "El Cruel." Upon 
reading both sides of the question, it seems probable that Don 
Pedro was a person of bodily and mental accomplishments, of 
14 



104 SPAIN AM" THE SPANIARDS. 

a stern, unrelenting, passionate temper, soured by rivalry and 
treacherv ; but that he was innocent of many of the crimes 
imputed to liim, and somewhat sinned against ;is well as 
sinning; if occasionally violating the laws himself, yet demand- 
ing oltedience to them from others, and frequently blameahle, 
not so much for what he did, as for the cruel manner in which 
it was done. l>on:\ Maria de PadMla, though living with him, 
has escai)ed the breath of calumny except for her great liiult, 
and for that, many jialliations are to he found in the prevailing 
ideas of the age. It appears reasonably certain now that they 
were jirivately married. She was pronounced to be his wile b}' 
Don- Pedro in his will, and liiicnigh lu'i- daiightor, Dofla Con- 
stanxa, the Koyal Dukes of I^ancaster set up a claim to the 
Spanish-throne. The fascination which she exercised over this 
blood stained man, like that of her unfortunate conteniporar}- 
Ines de Castro, over her husband J)on Pedro of Portugal, can- 
not be ai)i)reciated by those whose iortune it has never been to 
travel in romantic Spain. Various places in the city are con- 
nected with the traditions ot their lives, and the baths in the 
garden of the Alcazar are still called by her name. 

There arc in the city other palaces and houses of Moorish 
architecture, better preserved than the Alcazar, and free from 
the great confusion of st^'les which disfigure it. Seville is almost 
the only place where such relics exist. The civil wars, after the 
downfall of the Beni Onieyah and the inroads of tiie Chris- 
tians, left little surviving of their former gramleur. and the 
Moors of Malaga and (rranada were too poor to erect costly 
structures. It was otherwise with the great Christian caj)tains 
who victoriously marshalletl the Con([iiisladores, and I'eceived 
boundless grants of territory. Numerous i)alaces were ei-ected 
for them in the exact style of the country, without restriction 
as to luxury or exjiense. Some of them t-ontain half a dozen 
or moi'c Patios. One of the most perfect specimens, though by 
no means the largest, is near the present liaidv. J desired to 
visit it again ; but the good lad}^ without raising her e^'es from 
the floor, replied to the guide's request with the ominous ejacu- 
lation, " estoy ocupada," which leaves nothing to be hoped. 

One of the most celebrated houses in Seville is the Casa do 
Pilatos, erected by a member of the Eibcra family after a jour- 
ney to Jerusaleni in the earl}'^ part of the 16th century, and 
supposed to be in imitation of the Ivoman Governor's mansion. 



CASA T)E I'lLATOS. 195 

It was once a beautiful jilace, tliough suffered to go to ruin. 
A feeble attempt has been lately made to clear away the rub- 
l>ish. and the marble courts, with their fountains, have been put 
in order. A peculiar and perfectly un-Moorish feature is the 
super!) staircase, which may comjiare. lonfjo intervallo, with that 
of the Palazzo della Scala. It can be seen at a i^-lance that the 
owner's presence seldom enlivens this residence. Everj^thing is 
in confusion. One of the best rooms is converted into a sort 
of painter's studio and old curiosity shop, in which, among other 
things, was hung a portrait of the fair mistress of the house, an 
Andalusiaii, and one of the most ]icrfect types of Spanish 
beauty. The porteress, a sister of the artist, was very commu- 
nicative, and set no bounds to her laudations of the painting 
and its subject. Like most other houses of state in Seville, 
there is a beautiful garden, with statues and fountains, all in a 
condition of neglect. 

The finest structure in SeviUe, which has been erected since 
the days of Ferdinand and Isabelhi, is the Lonja or Exchange, 
lying at the south-west corner of the Cathedral. It is a noble 
edifice, built for eternity, and its massive architecture is worthy 
of the da3's when Spain ruled the greater part of the world. The 
shape is a quadrangle, some two hundred feet square, with a 
marble I'atio in the centre. Unfortunately, its completion wa.s 
almost simultaneous with the crumbling of the Empire and the 
decay of its commerce, and, like many of the Spanish ])ridges, 
it seems to be a display of prodigal munificence. The papers 
relating to America, were, in the latter part of the last century, 
neatly labelled and packed away here, and have never been 
disturbed since. As the building is fireproof, and apparentl}' 
indestructible, the}' will be preserved to await the awakening 
into life of Spanish America, for whose history they are indis- 
pensable. The uninterrupted repose of these archives is con- 
clusive evidence of the intellectual torpor that reigns over that 
quarter of the globe. The white steps of the Lonja, facing 
the gorgeous Cathedral, used to be a cliarniing place to sit on 
winter nights, and meditate upon the past glories of Seville, 
when hundreds of ships yearly ]»oured into her laji tlie treas- 
ures of the New AVorld, and foreigners crowded from all ])arts 
of Eurojie to share in the golden flow. But, to descend from 
the sentimental, it must be admitted that my reveries were 
frequently disturbed by the snoring of the watchmen, who 



100 SPAIN AND TIIF. SPANIARnS. 

made tins and the opposite corner, at the entrance of the Callo 
(ie las Sierpes, a favorite nappini; place. 

The University is also modern, thoui^h anterior in date to the 
Lonja. As a seminary of learning, it is in the natural condi- 
tion which the long continued supremacy of the Inquisition 
wouM lead us to expect, and is distinjruishcd rather for works 
of art than of intellect. The church contains some magniticent 
sculptures l»y Montanes and Alonso Caiio. Imt the most striking 
objects arc the tombs of the liiliiTa laiiiily. now merged in the 
Medina Celi. The^" Avere removed hither upon the suppi-ession 
of tlie Cartuja convent. Over the tombs rejiosc the grim 
effigies of the o]<l knights, and by their side lie the partners of 
their honors and Jo3'S. The feet of the latter, in accordance 
with the old custom, are, in every instance, carefully coveretl. 
Whence this custom was derived I do not know, but so rigid 
was it in old times, that the carriage steps used to be so con- 
structed as to conceal these sacred objects from inspection, and 
husbands went tlu-ough life without having seen their wives' 
feet. A fair Goth, wdio might easil}- have committed and been 
pardoned grave peccadilloes, would have shrunk with liorror 
from sucli an exposure. As many of tlie Spanisli pi-ejudices 
were prompted by the desire of distinguishing themselves from 
the Jews and Mohammedans, it may bo that a similai- spirit of 
opposition to the Oriental custom of covering the face induced 
them to cover the feet. Whatever be the origin, this jireJM<lice 
was deeply rooted in the natiounl feeling, and was one of the 
regulations im})eratively prescriiied l>y the ln([nisiti(jn for the 
paintings of the Virgin. 

The Kiberas having left no male re])resentative, are spai-ed 
the mortification of seeing tlieii- ])onderous swords in the hands 
of puny ilancers around a modern court. The inscriptions tell 
how they lillcd, in succession, tlic great office of Adelantado, 
Mayor of Andalusia, at a time when such posts were entrusted 
to none, save stern warriors, whose deeds were more sonorous 
than their words, and whose leisure was more nobly occupied 
than in the unmeaning gallantries of a subsequent age. It is a 
]tleasant thing to wander amid the resting places of a family 
whose past is thus embalmed beyond the possibility of dis- 
honor, anil whose virtues are perpetuated in storied marble, 
while none survive to awaken the envy or conteinpt of suc- 
ceeding generations. There are many such in H])ain ; but the 



TOBACCO MANUFACTOUY. THE STREETS. 197 

evidences of their former i;-raiRleiir have too frequently disap- 
peaved under tlie corrodini;- influence of time and neglect. A 
noble monument of the munificence of the Rihcras yet survives 
in the enormous Hospital hi Sangre, without the walls, 
founded by a daughter of the house — a monument of art as 
well as of charity. 

One of the lions of Seville is the tobacco manufactor}', a 
vast establishment, with a number of courts. The operatives 
employed are enumerated at six thousand, of which four are 
women, their hands and tongues ecpiall}" busy. A large pro- 
portion are gi2)sies, and- such ugly creatures! I can honestly 
sa}' that I never saw but one handsome cUjarera, though the}' 
jiassed twice a day in front of my house. Wiiether it be the 
eternal odor of the tobacco, or the foul air generally, that 
produces this wonderful homeliness, no one can tell. Nor is 
modesty a prevailing characteristic, though there are excep- 
tions to that. A great outciy is made in Europe against the 
government monopolj' of tobacco, but it seems to me the most 
just of taxes. Tobacco is a pure luxur}-, which no one is com- 
pelled to use, though, in the language of the first discoverers, 
it does *' tend to open ye poi-es of yo bodyo and to disperse 
3^e humoures of ye minde." Everyone is at liberty to pa}- the 
tax or not, as he sees fit, and surely nothing can be faircj*. 
Another advantage is that it fiiUs upon the men alone, for not- 
withstanding the prevalent belief, women seldom smoke in 
Spain. I have seen the commoner class indulge, but this sum- 
mer I did not meet one such. The amount of revenue thus 
raised to the treasury is a serious item. At Seville they give 
you the onl}- good segars that can be procured in Europe, and 
those at one cent are better than the P'rench at six. The snuff 
manufactured here is mixed with a sort of ochreous-looking 
earth from Almaj'zaron, whicli gives it a reddish hue. I believe 
this has always been done, but in what consists the advantage 
I do not know. They seem to prefer it. 

The streets of Seville are b}' no means fine, according to oui- 
ideas of space, in fact scared}- broader than alleys, though 
proliabjy equal to the best of ancient Ilonie, and more airy 
than most in Ital}'. Not more than a dozen are wide enough 
to permit the passage of two carriages, and all run without the 
slightest regard to rectangularity. Tlie Boulevards, the Eue rle 
llivoli, the Calle de Alcala, Pennsylvania Avenue, arc modern 



19-^ SPAIN AM» THE SPANIARDS. 

n.itioiis. uiisuitod to tho climate or the tastes of Andalusia. 
Whatever they may thus lose in rei^ularity of aj)i»earaiuo 
they certainly ;^ain in comforl. where the sun pour.s down 
with i^reater fury than in Africa itself, and where one of the 
principal ends of street architecture is to exclude its ra3's. The 
Callc de las Sicrpesand that de los Francos, the principal shop- 
pin*; streets, are flagged entirely across, and in summer covered 
with awnings, according to the usual custom in such climates. 
Tlifv are, consequently, cool at all periods of the day, and as 
the air is dry, there is no nci-essity lor admitting the sun's rays 
to dissipate the moisture. It is easily comprehensible how 
travellers from the north, accustomed to the regularity of I'aris 
and London, and the gi'and thoroughiares of the J'ormer, are 
disai)pointed at tlie rirst sight of Seville, of which tlK\y have 
heard so much. But the climate, which enforces such rules of 
architecture, brings, also, corresponding atlvantages, so that 
the balance is restored. Its streets are not crowded by the 
throngs that press the Boulevards oi: the Strand, yet the gay 
l)alconies, the bright colors, which never fade in this diy cli- 
mate, the absence of disfiguring rust, smoke and damp, the 
veiy irregularity itself, more than compensate for the un- 
health}' restlessness of the north, lii its multitude of flowers, 
Andalusia reseml)les our own country. Every Patio and bal- 
cony smiles with them, and at certtiin hours of the day the 
vendors fill the streets, crying, in local dialect — 

Flor"! flor'! flni' ! 
Jasiuin y allieli ! 
Rosa' do to' color' ! 
Flor'! flor'! 

Tiic taste for these simple oniamcnts is univei'sal, and is 
hei-e abundantly gratified. All scnitlicrn peoj)le have the 
(jlfactory sense stroiigl}' developed, and nature seems to have 
kindly considered this peculiarity in the foi'mation of Anda- 
lusia, for ever}' waste is overrun with aromatic herbs, which, 
in sofiie localities are used for fuel, there being no other. The 
streets of Seville are redolent of the Alhncema. It serves in 
all the houses to scent the fresh M-ashed linen. A handful is 
cast upon the brasero, and the article held ovei* the i-ising 
fumes; and the ladies sometimes stand over a ])ei'fumed l)ath, 
such as is found in the Tocador de la lleina in the Alhambra. 



ANCIKNT REMAINS. — THEATRE. 199 

The centnil market is a delightful place on a summer morning, 
on account of its exposition of floNvers, and like every other 
establishment in ScN-ille is ampl}^ provided -with fountains, 
which serve to keep them fresh. B3'-the-bye, another curious 
article of sale in the same market were a number of crickets, 
enclosed in cages, keeping up a continual cri-cri, which seems 
to be a fjivorite music. 

The private houses are mostly of modest height, rarely ex- 
ceeding two stories. A few modern ones have been erected of 
three or more, but though they make a finer show on the out- 
side, they are probal)ly less comfortable and certainly less 
attractive than the others. All the older ones contain memo- 
rials of the preceding occupants; to pretend, however, to enter 
into an enumeration or description of the interesting relics of 
the Koman, Moorish or old Spanish eras, that remain, would 
be to invade the province of the guide books. Those from the 
Moorish days are more numerous and far better preserved than 
probabl}' in any other city of Spain. Cordova has little be- 
sides the Mezquita, and* the solitary boast of Granada is the 
Alhambra, while Seville contains numberless specimens, though 
no single one, perhaps, ma}^ rival the two mentioned. You 
have but to walk along the streets to be convinced of this fact. 
The old Moorish wall survives in part, looking just as in the 
illustrated chronicles of Don Pedro, and the bridge of boats 
used to be an equalh' characteristic feature, Init that has given 
place to an elegant iron structure. 

There is a good theatre at Seville. It was. however, closed 
during ni}' sojourn on account of the summer heats. Though 
the modern drama took its rise in 8i)ain, Spaniards are Ity no 
means so given to this amusement as the French or Italians 
who resort thither as almost the only place of public amuse- 
ment. It here encounters the rivalry of the Paseo and the 
stirring Corrida de Toros. which are more consonant with the 
ntitional tastes than regular tliealricals. The Andalusians are 
probalih- the best judges in Spain of theatrical and operatic 
performances, but they are much better got up in Madrid, 
where they compare not unfavorabl}' with those of Vienna and 
Paris. Indeed, the audience in both cities arc no means crit- 
ics. Classie dramatists, such as Calderon and Lope de Vega, 
appear seldom, as is the case elsewhere in Europe. Every 
place is overrun with translations of Scribe. I confess a pre- 



200 SPAIN AM) THE SrAMARDS. 

fcrencc for the .Sa3'nek', wIk-m I e:in uiKk'rstaiul it, w liieli is far 
from alwaj't*, for the plot is charnftcrized by the same inti-i- 
cacy, and the words used have frequently no place in the die- 
tionary of the academy. Spanish trai^ic actors are apt to 
overdo the thin/jj; there is so nuieh traged}- in real life in 
Siiain. that when they attempt to act it the result is generally 
rant. I think it may be stated as a general rule, that cold 
blooded i)eoplc make the best tragedians, for with all their 
efforts the}' can barely attain the appearance of nature, where- 
as the Spaniard starts from this point, and until half a dozen 
victims or so are slaughtered, he considers nothing done — the 
perl'ormance scarcely under weigh. Then, too, as has been 
often remarked, people go to the theatre to see something dif- 
ferent from every day life. Love and anger form the staple of 
most dramas, and what author could concentrate these ])as- 
sions into greater intensity tlian is t'ound in coinmon Andalu- 
sian existence y But in comedy, founded ujton national pecu- 
liarities, they are inimitable. In truth, Spaniards, though 
without frivolity, appreciate highly a ludicrous idea, if another 
be the subject, and their grave and serious exterior covers a 
fund of humor. In the Sa^-netc they are simpl}' acting lile. 
The theatre is, particularly in Seville, a place of recei)tion 
also, which is very convenient for strangers. Otherwi.se, the 
general arrangements are the same as elsewhere. 

Dancing is, and always was, a part of the entertainment. 
Spanish dancing from the most remote ages has been famous. 
The Latin authors bear testimony to the ravishing eftects 
produced by the (Jaditanas in the I'^lernal City, and describe, 
though with qualitii'd admiration, the warlike leapings of the 
other provinces. Wliether maiikiiul originally sprang from 
one stock or several, it is ceitain that the diU'erent nations of 
the earth have become marked by very great ])eculiarities, 
which no eilucation can connuunieate, and which seem to be 
radical, even in matters of co)uparative insigniiicance. It 
remains to be seen whether the culinary taste of the groat 
powers can be reconciled even by a congress of artistes. No 
Englishwoman could ever wear her dress with the taste of a 
Pa)'isienne; nor could either of thei\i imagine, much less imi- 
tate the grace of an Andalu/.a. In tiiese matters, the spiritless 
uniformity that is creeping over the world is produced rather 
b}' obliterating what is striking and national than by making 



ORIGIN. 201 

these peculiarities common to all. Spaniards ma)- forget the 
fandango, bnt no one else will ever acquire it. 

The origin and historic development of the Spanish dances 
is not easy, as the onl}- sources of information are scattered 
phrases, culled here and there ()Ut the c)l(l autliors; for the pro- 
fessors of the divine art themselves know their calling only as 
an art, not as a science. A great deal of confusion, too, has 
arisen from confounding pure Spanish with Moorish, and hoth 
with gips}' dances in general. The gipsies in Andalusia dance 
all; — but the gipsy dances proper, like the race, are de- 
rived from the far east, and have little in common w ilh the 
Spanish. They are, for the most part, simply sensual, without 
ideality or ]>oetry, except of the lowest order; and when gip- 
sies undertake to render the Spanish dances, it is done with 
ever}' license that the most prurient imj^gination can invent. 

If the Andalusian differ on the one hand fi'om the nicrc sen- 
sualism of the gips}-, they are equally removed, on the other, 
from the ph3-sical agility of the Slavonic polkas and mazurkas. 
They certainly belong to an age of the world and to a state of 
society in which persons sought enjoyment in witnessing the 
performance of others i-ather than in i)articipating themselves, 
as was the case in the ancient world, and is still in the east. 
Every ]»rovince in Spain has its peculiar dance, scarcely known 
beyond its limits, except npon the stage. The wide difference 
between them would manifest a great diversity of origin, 
which no competent ])crson has taken the trouble accurately 
to investigate. Andalusians never indulge in the Jota, nor 
can the Aragonese supple themselves to the swimming 01c, 
3'et each locality enters with such real gusto into its peculiar 
amusements, that a traveller who passes a dull evening in any 
village in Spain must he a veritable Ileraclitus. Neither gout 
nor dy.spcpsia Avouid be a sufficient excuse, for the climate is 
an uncompromising foe to both. The same general division, 
dependent upon temperature and tem])erament, obtains here 
as in the rest of Eurojie. Those of the north arc characterized 
by agilit}' and activity, those of the south by beauty :md grace. 
Of the dances of the north- west I know nothing by pm-sonal 
experience, excejtt what I have scon in the streets of Madrid 
to the music of the ZanilH)inl)a, anil that was not very prepos- 
sessing; Init the .Iota Aragoncsa ami the Manchcgas of La 
Mancha are difficult to resist. Andalusia, however, is, as usual, 



202 SI'AIN AX1» THK Sl'AMAUnS. 

the home (»f elefjance in this department. The descriptions of 
JuviMial ami Martial leave little room for <loul>t as^o the iden- 
tity of the ancient with those still in vogue on the hanks of 
the (ftjadal<iuivir. Whatever changes may have heen intro- 
(luee<l hy Moor or gipsy, thoy aro certainly in their essence 
not to he derived from either of these sources, and if they 
existed in the east, it is sti'ange that the Konians. ransacking 
the world to ]t:iin])cr their pleasures, couhl find llu-in only in 
Ba-tica. From time to time, the names and j)eculiar devcloj)- 
nuMits have heen altered and hecome ol)S()lete. Thus the Zara- 
l»an<la, once so famous, lias, I helieve, entii'cly disappeared; the 
fandango is of later origin, the holcro later still. The (Miurch, 
while spai'ing the hull tight, has always set the seal of its 
reprohation upon tluin, hut in vain; with more or less pruning 
they survive, and gifve unahatcd evidence of vitality'. There 
is, however, one enemy approaching, whom they will scarce he 
aide to resist — the s])irit of money making. If the clamnu- 
hand of this spectre grasp them, their reign is over, and they 
must he content with an occasional appearance on tiie stage. 
The foundation of every Andalusian dance is love in s(ime 
shape or other, and the plot is so arranged as to exhihit, in its 
fullest power, the triumphs of this irresistible passion. For the 
most part the maiden is coyish, hesitates, resists, flees, relents, 
— dis)ilaying throughout all the attractions of which she is mis- 
tress. The lover ])ursues with ])alpitating heart ; hajijiiness is 
within his grasj). animation is suspended — hut no I he is doomed 
to disa])])ointment. The startkd fawn hounds away. Again is 
the pursuit renewed, again is the ciii* "' hliss dasheil from his 
eagei' li|>s, until at length, unahle longer to resist the intensity 
of fascination, she sui-renders I the world has ceased to exist and 
time is no more I Oiie can easily coniiireluMid that such a ])er- 
formance upon the stage, crampeil hy the rules of art and the 
criticism of a strange audience, is very dilferent from the natural 
effusion of Joy and grace, which is its foundation, wiien danced 
in the familiar circle. Nothing can he farther from the i-egular 
ballet, with its artificial emotions and stereot^'jied smile, than 
the movement of the same actors surroundiMl hy a group of 
sym])athi/,ing acquaintances. Its chai'acteristics are not activ- 
ity and skill, hut pure, unatlectcd grace, and a com])lete identifi- 
cation with the spii'it of the I'omance. Vor this reason strangei's 
find Spanish dances of very ditlicult acquisition. I made an 



THE FUNCION. — TIIK VARIOUS DANCES. 203. 

effort at the bolero myself, I fear with mediocre success, thoiii;-h 
my master was pleased to say that I was the best foreign pujiil 
he ever had, the English being (oo awkward and the French 
too studied. 

Once during my novitiate, an acquaintance — an empleado, as 
he was proud of recalling to me — took it into his head to cele- 
brate some fiimily festival with a fKiicion, and extended an 
invitation to me. On my ari-ival 1 found the company already 
assembled. As my friend did not serve her majesty in a very 
exalted capacity, there were no dukes or counts present, yet, 
judging only by their de]iortment, a stranger would not have 
ascertained the fact. The individual who took charge of me 
Avas. as I learnt, a distinguished barber, and consequently a 
personage of importance. Another very agreeable and stylish 
gentlemen was chief artiste at a confectionary. The perform- 
ers were, for the most part, relatives and friends of the family) 
each accompanied by one mama at the least. We took our 
seats around three sides of the apartment waiting for the sig- 
nal. Soon, the tuning of the guitar and the preparatory click 
of the castagnette hushed us into silence, for the dance is a seri- 
ous matter, and it is here strictl}- true as well as witty, " qu'on 
n'ecoute que le ballets Spanish popular music has evidently 
little affinity with sustained melodies of Italy and Germany, but 
rather resembles that of Naples. It is almost alwa^'s in the 
minor key, and for that reason, perha])s, more impressive, 
reminding one somewhat of the Highland ballads. There is 
something about it, an undercurrent of a mournful, unreposing 
character, by no means exhilarating when first heard. You 
soon perceive that it is in accordance with the serious, earn- 
est vein which runs through the life of the nation. Their man- 
ner of striking the face of the guitar, front time to time, with 
the ]ialm of the hand or the thuml) — (joJpeando — heightens this 
imjiression. It is thus a suitable accompaniment to a Spanish 
dance. 

The tuning over, business commenced. We first had inan- 
chcfjiis, and boleros, and jaleos in abundance. Then came a 
cliarining dance — E! torero y la MalKjueiia. The fair one enters, 
covered with a large mantilla, in the olden style, and wielding a 
fan. The torero follows, concealed up to his eyes in the ample 
folds of his cloak, lie in vain attemjits to s]»y out the lad}', 
who avoids his glances by the aid of the mantilla, all the while 



204 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

skilfully onticiii;; liiin on with Iut fan, as with a inai^not. This 
coqiic'ttin;^ i'* coDtiiiuod for a lime, until the click of a eastag- 
nctte is heard. iShe stops at the sound, her face is exposed, 
the torero approaches, cloak and mantilla are handed to the 
bystanders, and the couple bound forward in the undulations of 
the fandango. After this we had the world-renowned Ole, 
the ])erfection of its style. The performer has no companion, 
neither is she bound b}- any rules of art. No one can succeed 
who relies u))ori au^hl but ins]>iration. Science and education 
avail nothin;^. Compared with this, the others are the Hrst 
rudiments of speech beside the wild oratory of an Ai-al) chief- 
tain. Every part of the dancer contributes to j>roduce the 
gcnei-al eilect. The arms, the body, the feet, the flashing ej'o 
combine to work the audieuce np to a phrensy. and (lie influ- 
ence she thus acquires over their feelings can be derivdl from 
no other source than the magnetism which i)hiloso])hers have 
so often conjectured, hut have failed to comprehend or explain. 
But the most charming of all was the Vito, if I remember 
rightly. For this the guitars were laid aside, the music con- 
sisting in the clapping of hands in tri])le time by the whole 
company, intermingled with snatches of a wild, jdaiuiive mel- 
ody. Oni! girl alone danced. She is supposed to be the l>elle 
of the village in the midst of her bciiux. Commencing witli a 
handkerchief wound about her waist, she dances around the 
circle once or twice, and, as she becomes inspirited, unties it 
and uses it as an additional means of forming those waving 
lines of beauty which artists have recognized. The j)erson to 
whom she throws the handkerehief is the happy indiviilual ot' 
her choice, and he is in duly bound to receive it on hi.s knees. 
The jioint consists in dancing before each of her admirers, until, 
bewildered with the iiitoxiealing inlluenei-. and in certain ex- 
pectation that tiie guenlon has already left her liand, he falls 
before her, when she with a c()«|uettish smile of triumph glides 
awa}' to torture and disappoint another. The luckless wight is 
greeted with shouts of laughter, otlierwise no sound is heard 
save the nnisic. The use made of the handkerchief will be 
significant to students of Oriental nuiiniers. Sevi'ral had been 
otlered up to the ])ride of the dant-er and tiie amusement of the 
coinj)any, when my turn at ii-iigtii came. J never before 
understood the fascination of the hird-charming rattlesnake. 
The ettect was positively painful; 1 could see nothing, think of 



CJIPSY DANCES. 205 

nothing btit the creature before nie. Xot particular]}' prettj', 
she had become a divinit}', girdled in mazy circles with pris- 
matic hues of beauty, and appeared to undergo that species of 
transfiguration which is recoi'ded of sonie great orators. There 
was no folly I would not have committed at the moment; and 
when, in compliment to my being a stranger, she finally threw 
the handlcerchief into mj* lap, I felt disposed to burst into 
tears or to scream, as though some great pressure had been 
removed froiii the soul. Tradition tells that the Church, hav- 
ing once determined to suppress the fandango, concluded to 
grant the criminal a trial before a court of reverend Judges, 
arrayed in gown and cassock, previous to final condemnation. 
At the appointed day, the advocates of the accused appeared 
to plead his cause with castagnette and slipper. As the argu- 
ment proceeded tlK3 Judges became restless, their stern phj'si- 
ognomies relaxed, nervous twitchings manifested themselves, 
until, unable longer to resist the contagion, they joined the 
merry throng, and a unanimous verdict of acquittal was en- 
tered. If the incident be not true, it is well imagined, and 
might have happened without violence to probability. Cato 
himself would have relented before such an appeal. When the 
handkerchief was thrown into my lap, 1 may, therefore, be 
excused for having looked verv fi)olish. It required some min- 
utes to recover entirely. AYith this dance the funcion ended. 
We smoked a paper of cigarettes, drank a glass of orangeade 
and retired; Figaro and myself bearing each other company as 
far as the Cathedral. 

Across the Guadalquivir, in the faubourg La Triana. it is 
usual to get up a funcion de gitanas — a gipsy dance — for the 
entertainment of travellers, of course with a consideration. 
Dirty, unwashed wretches, the}' do perform beautifully These 
dances are. consequentl}', supposed by most strangers to be 
peculiar to the gipsies, which is not the case, for every dance 
danced by gipsies is not, therefore, a gips}- dance. There 
are such, in the strictest sense of the word, but few would care 
to see them repeated after one experience. Sjianish dances 
bear the mark of preceding ages in the certain amount of free- 
dom allowal^le in a regular funcion, but banished from the stage 
or private life. Our ideas of delicacy and propriety belong 
essentially to the present century, an<l whether there were not 
more real virtue under the old coarseness, than modern refine- 



206 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

mcnt, remains still a (piestion. As these dances are at present 
pruned down, I certainly saw nothinj; to condonin here more 
than in those countries in lOiirope, whence we draw our dances 
of society. Surely it would bo diflicult to i!na<;ine anytliing 
so ridiculously indi'licate as the jjjraceless hauliuifs and hug- 
fjinj^s of the half civilized Slavonic gyrations, which wr have 
naturalized anionij us. Terpsichore could never have presided 
over such movements. The dances of Andalusia are the poetry 
and ideality of motion, and ihi' effect is ])reei.soly similar to 
that of a gallery of ancient sculpture — the indelicacy is in the 
mintl of the beholder. Of coui'sc, the manner of their ])er- 
formancc depends a great deal upon the performers themselves, 
and so does the regular ballet. Like everything else in the 
country, the}' are intensclj' national, characterized by the na- 
tional virtues as well as the national defects, warm, poetical, 
enthusiastic, superlative in both. All Spaniards have a great 
indisposition to allow the sanctity of their persons to be in- 
vaded, even in a friendly way. A stab is more easily* forgotten 
than a blow. There is ver3' little personal contact among 
relatives in ordinary life, and the same feeling is carried into 
this amusement. I do not remember ever to have seen a Span- 
ish dance in which the ]»erforniers toucheil each other; an<l the 
disapprobation with which foreigners turn iVoni the fandango, 
cannot approach the disgust an old fashioned Sj)aniard would 
feel for the raise a deux temps. Of the greater licentious ten- 
dency of the latter, I have lilile doubt, 'flie jiar^'uts of a 
young gipsj', who Avill witness with a])i»lause and pride the 
ver}' questionable, or rather unquestionable evolutions of their 
kinswoman, would, like herself, resist any unwarranted free- 
dom suggested by such a j)resumption, with as much astonish- 
ment as fury. The number of dances is infinite, as every 
person is at libert}' to improvise a now one when under the 
insj)iration of the Muse. Some have penetrated, as summer 
travellers, across the P^'^renees — such as the Cachucha, el Za])at- 
eado, the Bolero, the Jota Aragonesa. The names of those 
that remain at home is Tjegion. There is no diliiculty in get- 
ting up a funcion in any village, however poor. A click of the 
castagnettes and the whole world is alive. The fii-st sound 
behind the curtain of a theatre hushes everyone into atten- 
tion. The contagion is very talching, too. Foreigners are 
soon bitten with the mania, and the most refreshing chapter in 



RELKUOUS AND SOCIAL. 207 

Allison, or even a niuuber of the Congressional Globe, with an 
aecount of the last light, would be powerless to withhold one 
from tlie circle. AVho can measure the happiness which this 
innocent amusement pours into the tasteless cup of the poor? 
Among the nations which enjoy the credit of having made the 
greatest advances in civilization, all natural pleasures, spring- 
ing spontaneously from everyday life, as green leaves from the 
liough, are banished. Have the}'' been rendered the happier 
thereby? Are civilization and innocent, unpremeditated relaxa- 
tion inconsistent ? These are grave questions, scarcely in our 
power to answer, as there seems to be a current in events 
wliich we not only cannot control, but whose direction we can- 
not even ascertain. 

Dancing in Spain was formerly not contined to social life. 
In imitation of, or rather in similarity to the customs of the 
Hebrews, it entered into religion, and on certain occasions, a 
party in full costume, with castagnettes, danced before the altar 
as did David before the ark. The time has certainly gone by 
for such a manifestation of devotion, though it survives in a 
sect in our own country. The national dances have also disap- 
peared from polite society, at least the}'^ are danced only in pri- 
vate. I believe the young girls learn them ; indeed I have 
known ladies of rank to devote much pains to their acquisition, 
but not for the ball room. Xo schooling could possibly be so 
effectual for the purpose of cultivating and developing the far- 
famed Andalusian grace. Certainl}- the Andaluzas alone can 
dance them as they should be danced, and were there nothing 
else in Seville, it would almost be worth a trip across the At- 
lantic to attend a rcij-ular ftincion. 



CuAPTEu xir. 

JU' L I. I- 1 (i II TS. 

Historical — Plaza de Toro? — Majo and Miija — The Cuadrilla — Description of the 
Corrida — The Xovillos— ^Emliollados — Breeds and Qualities of the Bull.-' — Pro- 
prefsg of the Science — Its morality; its effect upon the audience; upon the econo- 
my — Tlie Bull in Spain — E.\i>ense. 

Sevilk' lieing the home and hcatJqiuxrters of the fancy — tlie 
aficion — this is the ])r()]itjr ])lac'e to say a word upon the suhject 
of bull fii^jhting, wliieh no travcllei- in Spain could venture to 
omit. Pomk-i-ous tomes have been written to discuss the origin 
of this aniusoment. Some few facts tire reasontibly certain. 
There is little grouml for sn])])osinir that the Komiins, or the 
ancient Spaniards, or even the Maiiritanians were ticcpiainted 
with the Cijiridade Toros, althoiiii;h tiie i»ractice (jf pitting wild 
beasts against gladiators, or each other, was in gretit vogue 
throughout the em]»ire, as is attested iiy the magnificent ruins 
yut surviving in the different j)rovinces; tind in cattle countries 
people may have played with Imlls foi- the amusement of the 
po])ulact', as in Thrace lor e.\ani])le. But we tirst tind tiie 
voi-itahK' hidl tight among the Andalusian Moors, and it was 
the favorite diversion of the 

Cuhalleros Oranndinos 
Aun(|ue morns liijosdalgo, 

who regarded it with ideas Xi^^ry difteretit from those wliich 
sustained the old ghuliatorial sj)orts. "With the mob of the 
Eternal City it was a mere scene of slaughter, a contest too 
often between wretched captives who embraced this faint 
chance of escaping an otherwise inevitable death. With the 
Aiidalusian Moslems, it was a theatre for the display of maidy 
grace and prowess, and its actors the youthful galUmts of the 
court. But even with them it must have been of late origin. 
I am not aware of any allusion to it under the dynasty of the 



IITSTORIOAI;. — FIESTAS RKALES. 20!) 

Beni Omc3'ali. War was still too serious and frequent a reality 
to admit of playing with its counterfeit. The only relaxations 
were litei-ature and architecture. As in the progress of events, 
the Molianiniedan thirst for conquest became slaked, and the 
pursuit of litei'ature seemed to decline, these warlike amuse- 
nuMils sprung up. From them the taste jiassed to theChris- 
tians, who couUl not quietly permit them to excel in a sport that 
elicited such ajiplause from the fairer portion of creation. The 
Cid is said to have been one of the first Castillians who entered 
the lists. It is exceedingly probable that the .Spaniards de- 
rived the thing frotn the Moors and the paraphernalia from the 
Romans, for the Plaza de Toros at present is a perfect repre- 
sentation of the amphitheatre. In old times the streets enter-, 
ing the public square were barricaded, and the knights, mounted 
on their best steeds, contended with the raging animals; their 
skill consisted then in not merely" harassing the bull or saving 
the rider's own life, but also that of his horse, a much more noble 
object than the present. This was kept up at all events down 
to the war of the Succession, as is proved by the descriptions 
of travellers at that time, and even in this century the Corrida 
in small towns, which ai'c without the luxur}' of a regular 
Plaza, takes place in the public square barricaded as formerly. 
In Seville, the present Plaza de la Constitution was the thea- 
tre. Corridas, in the ancient style, now take place at the " Fies- 
tas reales," which are celebrated at a coronation in the Plaza 
Mayor, at Madrid, with great pomp and luxury, the borses 
being from the royal stables, and the combatants, gentlemen. 
But with these exceptions the old plan has gone almost entirely 
out of fashion, and the toreros (bull fighters) are as much 
trained artists as actors in a theatre. Sometimes aficionados 
(amateurs) from among the 3'oung gentry get up a corrida, 
which is then far more entertaining, as all their relatives turn 
out in a mass, and with redoubled interest in the performance. 
On such occasions the bulls are young, and are reduced to the 
level of their unprofessional opponents. The critic, moreover, 
can detect the want of that immensely developed strength in 
the wrist, necessary to keep the bull and the horse apart in the 
crush. 

As bull fights, like horse races, resemble each other in their 
general traits, I shall describe one for all, without particular 
regard to the clu'onoU)gical order. I was in very good com- 
15 



210 SPAIN ANP THK SPANIARDS. 

pany that day, for as it was an unusual occasion — I forgot \)vq- 
cisoly what — (licre was a goiuM-al turn out, oven of those who 
were not in the liahit of attending sucli exhihitions. The nar- 
row streets were strung with vehicles, many coming from a 

considerahle distance, and tilled with men and women in tho 

# 

purest national costumes. Vendors of fans, fruit, orchata and 
segars, surrounded the building, cr3ing their wares at the ut- 
most. We made our wa}' with some dillicult}' through the 
tlirong, and took our scats in a pnho dc sombro (hox on the 
shady side ) lielonging to the family, for the boxes are placed 
pretty much upon the same footing as those in the theatre. It 
was a curious sight. The vast amphitheatre was crowded to 
rejtlelion. Circles of fluttering fans, variegated drosses and 
flowers rose in tiers above each other, all ros])len<lent in the 
ra3's of a Seville sun, and uft'ering to view a far more engaging 
scene than an}' theatre. The boxes wei'o occupied by the 
beauty and chivalry of the land, and graced too by the pre- 
sence of a member of the royal family. The arena itself ])re- 
sented the aspect of an exchange, such was the interested and 
eager api>earanco of the men who moved about. Even the 
neighboring housetops were covered b^-such as could notattbrd 
the expense of entering the amphitheatre. The Andalusian 
costume flourished in perfection, for this is a full dress occasion 
— knee breeches, laced gaiters, opening to show a tine stocking, 
silk ffija or sash wound around the waist, neat fitting emliroid- 
ered jacket, covereil with tassels and glittering ornaments, 
with a pocket hamlkerchief in each poeket, I'ancy neckerchief 
passing through a ring, the whole surmonnte<l by the eaUnns 
hat. A long slender stick in the right hand fiiiislus the com- 
plete riKiJo. A Seville itiajo does not exactly ctn'rcspond to 
•'dandy" in our tongue. There is nothing ridiculous about 
him — quite the contrary. Jle must of course be tlii' best dress- 
ed man on the ground, stunning in his attire; ho must also 
be the best horseman, the best handler of the knife, a dignified, 
gcniieinanly bully, inst'iisibU- to leai", and to I'ouiid oil" all, a 
gallant man with the ladies. 'J'hen his position and authority 
are undisputed. Jle reigns supreme, and moves about in the 
throng, conscious that the e^^es of envj-ing youth are fixed upon 
him. The 7naja is the female majo, minus his worse qualities, 
and is altogether of a higher type than the manola of Madrid. 
She is as fond of dress and res])len(len( in her a[)i)arel as the 



ALC5UAZILS. 211 

majo. Tlicrcwith is united the unavoidable grace of her native 
land, and she is also Salada .' mxuj SaJada '. No one can make 
a speech to her so witty, that she cannot- return a still wittier 
answer. Yet appeal to those women, in whatever rank of life, 
'and the genuine, unadulterated kindness of the Andalusian 
'heart will pour forth. 

The Plaza de Toros at Seville is one of the largest in the 
kingdom, some two hundred and fifty or three hundred feet in 
diameter. The arena is surrounded by a barrier some six feet 
high. This is, in turn, encircled by a gangway a yard or so in 
width, and then rise the seats in successive tiers. After these 
are the boxes. The arrangements, the entrances, and even 
the manner of designating the places, are precisely as in the 
Coliseum, except that the silken awning is replaced by the still 
<leeper azure of an Andalusian sky. Measured I\y the stand- 
ard of wages, the prices are high; the places in the shade (de 
sombra) costing most ; then those which are in the shade part 
of the time and part in the sun (de sol }• sombra); lastly, the 
sunnj^ side, where the sovereigns roast in a temperature that 
would cause a sunstroke elsewhere, without seeming to sutfer 
evil consequences from the exposure. 

The goddess of Silence had been banished far away; a uni- 
versal hum rose from all sides. The " human voice divine" 
vainly struggled for a place amid the clicking of fans, and the 
screams of the water sellers (whom I except from any suspi- 
cion of divinity), crjnng at their- loudest, "Agud-d-dh! Agud- 
d-dh! math frethca que la nie-e-ebe! qu'wn quiere agud-d-dh?" 
(Water! AVater! cooler than snow! who wants water 5*) Just 
as the appointed hour struck, a platoon of infantry, in tuU uni- 
form, entered and took their seats. These serve the double 
purpose of repressing any riot that might occur, and of killing 
the bull, should he l»ecome dangerous to the audience. In the 
meantime, the dragoons had cleared the ring of stragglers, 
dogs, fruit sellers and dead heads. The corrcgidor then 
entered the box of state, the little flag was laid before him, 
and l)usiness commenced. Two alguazils now made their ap- 
]icarancc, mounted on beautiful coal black Andalusian steeds, 
and dressed in the costume of Philip IPs time, with slashed 
sleeves and waving plumes, to demand from the corrcgidor 
the key of the Toril, or place where the bull is confined. 
These functionaries are not popular, and are sometimes even 



I'l'i SPAIN AND TIIK SI'AMARDS. 

jfered by the disivspectful mob. to wliic-b, however, they 
appear .supremely iiulilVerent. So soon as the object of their 
mission was accomplished, another door opened, and the iiuui- 
rilla. (»r company, nnulc its appearance, i^littering in their 
ti^Iil fitting <;arnu'nts. The two esjiadas, or swordsmen, 
niarched in front; next come the cluilos, two and two. and 
last the jiicadors, foll<)we<l by the mule teams. The costume 
of the espada is the ancient dress of Spain, exce])t that the 
materials are of the richest and costliest description. Jle 
wears a satin Jacket and vest, embroidered with ijold and 
adornetl with numerous tassels; a silken sash encircles his 
waist; knee breeches, with silken stockinu;s, enclose his Icujs. 
The hair is gathered sometimes into a knot, with a gaudy 
rosette, and sometimes enclosed in a net-worked bag. That of 
the chulos is similar. The picadors are more sub.stantially 
clad, with the addition of an iron casing for the right leg, anil 
a broad brimmed planlation lial. They are armed with a 
substantial pike, some nine feet in length, having a triangular 
p^ramidical jjoinl of an iiieh inserteil at tlie end, Miiieh is 
sufficient to prick the bull, and turn liini oil. without inllicling 
sericjus injury. The hero of the bull light, next to the bull 
himself, is the espada; he is the star, the Corypheus of this 
dance of death. 'J'he cuadrilla is attai'luMl to him, ti'avels 
about as a part of his train, and l»ears his name. On the pres- 
ent occasion we were to be rejoiced by the juvsence of the 
best espada in Sj)ain, alter the unapproachable Montes, assisted 
by some one, whose name 1 have tbrgotten, and whose per- 
lormance was little inferior to that of the great master, so far 
as neatness of execution was cijncerned. The business of the 
espada does not commence until the third and last act of the 
phi}-, when, as in the Greek tragetly, tiie luro succund)s to 
the decree of an inevitable fate. Jlis is the crowning stroke. 
For weapons otfensive and defensive, he has a Toledo sword, 
whence his designation, and a muleta (a little re<l flag upon a 
staff); but these, tiny as ihey seem beside the riotous strength 
and fury of his adversary, when guided by the c()(d coui'age of 
man. cannot fail of oblainiiig the victory. The chulos are 
entirely unai'ined, except with the capa ; their object being not 
to resist the bull, but to pla}- with him and to aid the other 
]>crlonners, either by drawing him into a suitable position, or 
by enticing hint (dl" in case of danger. Their best defence is 



THK FIRST BULL. 213 

supposed to reside in their legs. The respective qaalitieations 
are, therefore, agility for the chulo, strength and consummate 
horsemansliip for the pica(k)r, skill and dexterity for the es- 
pada. Impertiirbaltle presence of mind and self-possession, and 
the absence of anything like a braggadocio courage, are indis- 
pensable to all. The relative rank of these parties, if measured 
by the standard of their pay, is the espada, the banderillero, 
the picador, and the chulo. 

Having made their salutation to the powers that be, the per- 
formers dispersed to their several posts; the chulos, Avith their 
long cloaks (capas), or rather scarfs of bright colored silk, 
scattered themselves promiscuously over the half of the arena 
op])Osite to the door of the Toril; the three picadors took their 
positions in succession on the left of the Toril, a few feet in 
advance of the barrier, and facing to the centre of the ring. 
The espadas and the mule teams disappeared hastily, followed 
by the alguazil, so soon as he had thrown the key to the gate 
keeper. For a few seconds, a deathlike silence ensued; a pin 
might have been heard to fall, such is the intense anxiety felt 
to see how the bull will conduct himself on his first a]»])ear- 
ancc; an anxiety participated in b}^ the performers as wvU as 
the audience, for his dejiortment after the first surprise is the 
best index to his character, and it is, consequent 1}', very min- 
utely observed. The door opened, and out he burst with a ter- 
rific snort — an immense, powei'ful, rt'd skinned monster, with 
a massive chest and an enomnous pair of horns. He belonged 
to the class of daro or sencillo, who are frank, and free from sly 
tricks, and run directly at the object — the least dangerous of 
all. Astounded at the blast of trumpets, the shouts and Avav- 
iug of handkerchiefs, which greeted his entry, and blinded by 
the fierce sunlight, he paused for a moment near the centre of 
the arena, glared defiantly and angrily around and plunged at 
the first horse. The picador received him steadily on the end 
of his pike, and Avas fortunate enough to turn him off. The 
bull passed on to the second, who was not so lucky, but went 
down, without, however, serious injury; the third suffered the 
same fate. The bull took no further notice of them, but 
rushed on. lie was in what is called the Irranfodo stage, 
plunging at everything within reach, but n<tt jtursuing his 
advantage. A chulo next caught bis eye. With a bellow that 
seemed to shake the earth, the furious creature bounded to- 



214 SPAIN AM) TIIK Sl'AMAHKS. 

ward liim. The cliulo ran for dear life; in vain did he seek 
to distract tlio animal's attention by waving the scarf behind 
liini, and serpentining in his course; it was some distance still 
to the barrier, and the enraged beast was gaining every step. 
The capa and the clmln's handkerchief, successively dropped, 
failed to arrest the ]>ursuit, and as he leiii)ed with the speed of 
a bird over the barrier, the horns of his formidable adversar}' 
entered the planks below him. liaftieil in this atti'mi»l. the 
bull trotted toward the centre. One of the j)icadors made a 
challenge. Jjashiiig his sides with his tail, and tearing up the 
earth with his hoof, he roarid back an indignant iletiance. 
Suddenly lowering his head he made a tremendous rush, and, 
breaking in the guard, drove his horn deep into the poor 
horse's side, who fell dead with scarcely a groan. The pica- 
dor, caught beneath his body, lay perfectly still, w liich was his 
only chance. By this time, the chulos had run up with tlicir 
cloaks, like a flock of martins, and tolled the bull off to an- 
other place. The dismounted picador was relieved from his 
situation, mounted a fresh horse, the saddle and bi'idle were 
taken olf the dead one, and all went on merrily. The same 
picador approached the bull a second time, but with no better 
success; down he went again. This time, however, he was off 
with a sci-atch. Two more hoi'ses were killed, anil one badly^ 
woumled. when the bull began to shrink I'rom these bootless 
encounters. Jlr had received several severe wi)unds, and a 
large red streak showed one of a foot in length across the 
shoulder. 

Tlu' trnni]»ct sounded for the si'cond ai't. The pii-adoi's re- 
tired from the scene, contenting themsi-lves with riding around 
the tabids, and the banderillcros entered, who are generally 
takrn from aiiioiig llie chulos, but tin- ojieratioii i-eipiires a 
givat (leal niorr skill and self-possession than is necessary for 
a mere cIiuId. It consists in sticking a pair of barbed darts, a 
lb)t and a ball' or two fei't long, oi-namented with c )lorcd 
wi'caths of ])aj)er, or some similar substance, into the ImiII's 
neck, one on each side, at r(|ual distances. When well dune it 
is one of the most graceful operatitms of the ring, and ap|iears 
to be vi'ry dangerous, though they say it is not so to a skilful 
person. Tlic bull looked at the first banderillero i-ather with 
an expressiini of curiosity than olbciwise, as if wondering what 
nnmner of man ho niijiht be. The banderillero stood his 



THE FIRST BULL. 215 

ground, making a kind of ox])ansive niovenient witli his arms, 
like tlie wings of an artiticial bird. He was an active, supj)le 
little fellow, quite a match for his weighty opponent. To solve 
the mastery, the bull made a rush ; the bandcrillero stood 
lightly balanced on his toes a moment; the bull lowered his 
head for the final toss ; the bandcrillero, leaning forward, 
planted the darts exactly, and leaped safely to the left, amid 
the thunders of (he audience. " Bravo, Pcpe !" " huen par !" (a 
good i)air) continued for a minute or so; handkerchiefs Avere 
waved, and several hats throvrn into the arena — a favorite 
method of manifesting gratification in Andalusia. IIoav they 
ever managed to get the proper hat back to the proper person 
on such occasions was the mystery to me. It must be said, 
however, that they were shockingly- antirpie specimens, M'orthy 
of CVninaught. Once 1 saw a collection of hats, thrown into 
the arena, fare rather badly; for the bull, hapiiening to ]niss 
along in no very good humor, took his spite out against these 
innocent coverings, and some of ihem were reduced to such 
a state, that, if found upon the head of the owner in the neigh- 
borhood of Donny brook Fair, they would have l>een proof posi- 
tive of a gay time and "illigant" amusement. But to return 
to the bull. Four successive pairs of banderillas were planted 
in fine style, all of which enraged him greath'. The trumpet 
now sounded the third and last act, and the cspada, who had 
been observing the scene, and probably studying the bull's 
character from behind the tablas, leaped into the arena with a 
muleta in his left hand, and a long Toledo sword lying over it. 
He went to the box of the corregidor, and, taking off his hat, 
repeated the oath, which is to the effect that he will do his 
duty faithfully and honorabl3^ It winds up Avith a flourish of 
the hand, and the hat is then thrown away. The matador is 
the general; the cluilos are his aidcs-de-camj) or adjutants, and 
play subordinate parts under his direction, and their aid is fre- 
quently necessary in ct)untcracting the peculiar tendencies of 
the Imll, as the matador is necessaril}'' exposed in giving the 
stroke with ujtlifted arm. lie approached the bull, and held 
the muleta wilh his right hand. The bull rushed at it. It was 
quickly lifted over his head as he passed under, seemingly much 
surprised at the sudden disappearance of his enemy. The jiase» 
de muleta 'wero repeated several times until the matador became 
satisfied. lie then shifted the mxdita to liis left hand, the long 



21G SPAIN ANH THE SI'AXIARDS. 

sword dnn^lod in his ri;4:ht. The Imll mado aiiolhor rusli. Tlio 
sword entered his neck, separating the spintil cord, and he fell 
instantly dead. The matador then wijied his wcajion npon the 
muhlti, howed to the corregidor, and retired amid a fresh 
shower (tf hals. The band struck np a lively air. Teams of 
gaily caparis<»ne(l mules enter, one for every dead animal, which 
were dragged out at a gallop; the hctrscs to be sold to the glue 
manufacturer, if there be one, and the bull to make beef for 
the p<K»r. The fans now renewed their activity; the water 
sellers recommenced (heir vocil'crations. Fresh saml was scat- 
tered over the hhtod in the arena, and (lie previous combat was 
already half lorgotten, when the ti-um}»et sounded lor the entry 
of a second Itull. 

At first, he positively refused to tight, notwithstanding all 
the insults and im])recations that were lavished upon him, his 
owners and his ancestors. The immense mass of heads became 
furiousl}' agitated, and the arena resounded with exclamations 
of every kind. The bull was called a coward and a mean ra.s- 
cal ; the Impresario denounced as a rogue. Above all resounded 
the cry oi' perros (dogs); but no dogs came. In their stead, 
banderilltis de fuego were ordered. These are banderillas with 
some exj)losive, detonating material within, which causes the 
bull to bound about like a I'ocket. A pair of them were i)laced 
on him, and woke up his lage most cffeetuall}'. lie proved to 
be a hiirri citujo of the worst species, and was very dangerous. 
All bulls whose sight is defective are dangerous; because, not 
seeing clearly, they do not distinguish between (he lure or 
engafio and the individual, but generally make for the man as 
the larger body. This one gave a great deal of trouble ; but 
tliero is one fate for all bulls that inter the arena, and his was 
no exception. The thiril bull offered no new feature. 

I had attended the aptirfddo in the morning, and, eidightencd 
by the remarks of (he fancy around, bad fornu'il a sort of 
opinion as to the virtues of the various animals that were to 
appear. The result of my cogitations was imparted to an 
elderly accpniintance in the next box. who had attended ever 
so many fancions in his life — somewhere up among the thou- 
sands. We conse(piently waited with some interest to see the 
gate of the Toril opened. A middle sized, but powerfully built 
black aiwmal, with a m<;st fei-ocious aspect, of the class called 
revoltosos, bounded out. A mass of shaggy hair hung between 



THE FOURTH BULL. 217 

his eyes, makiiii;- liiiu look still wilder. Without making tho 
usual pause, he made at once for the first picador ; demolished 
hiiu in a twinkling; the second ditto. The third horse ho 
ranmuMl up against the harrier, nearly crushing to death the 
rider, who was saved hy l)eing drawn over it by his frieiuls 
on the outside. Tie then distributed Ids favors at large among 
the chulos. The ai)plause of the audience was frantic. M}^ old 
friend could scarcely refrain from embracing me, exclaiming : 
" Buf'ii toro, amigo ; rcnhul que es buen toro," (a good bull, my 
friend; really a good bull.) a gratifying criticism to the hero if 
he only could have heard it. The hull continued to sustain his 
i-eputation. One of the chulos, in nuiking a sucrte a la Navarra, 
managed to triji, and was only saved by the.capa fjilling upon 
the bull's horns and blinding him. Twice did the bull jump 
the l)arrier, the first time without harm done, for the gates 
tiiat o]ien upon the arena are so constructed as to close the 
])assage behind the barrier, so that the bull must needs return 
whence he came. The second time, however, a sentinel and a 
water seller were caught behiiul. The former got past the gate 
in time. The latter, being somewhat burthened, was a little too 
late, and had no escape but by the arena. He got rid of his 
water apparatus in the most approved style, and an exhiljition 
of speed was afforded us worthy of the Derby; no serpentining, 
but a regular straight streak. The bull, following close behind, 
spoilt his stock in trade for that evening. One of the horses 
received a frightful wound. I watched the ladies of our party 
to see what effect it would produce upon them. Aw expression 
«if intense and irrepressible disgust overshadowed their faces, 
Avhich they covered with their fans. The horse, however, was 
removed, and all went on as before. One of the ])icadors 
had aroused m}^ dislike b}' seeming to push his horse on the 
bull's horns, and I had been sccretl}^ Avishing that he might be 
])unishcd for his cruelty. My wishes were gratified. The bull 
ru8he<l at him. The horse sustained himself, hut the picador 
fell as if struck with lightning. I did not see what had touched 
him, but there lie lay, motionless. The excitement and agita- 
tion of the audience were fearful. In their anxiety, they rose 
from the seats as one man, and some ol' the ladies came near 
fainting. I confess that my first emotion was that of satisfac- 
tion. He had received his reward in kind. But, as four of his 
companions lifted the poor devil up, and carried him out of the 



21X SPAIN AM) TlIK SPANIARDS. 

tliealre of his liuiiil>Io triuinjilis, I could not but think liow 
nearly man is allied to the beasts of the field. This unknown 
wivtch. whose motive^ were probably as ijood, and his courage 
as great as pronijded Alexander or Cwsar, is converted by a sud- 
den stroke, a material blow, into an inanimate mass of clay, a 
mere dog's carcase. Can such a i-reature be endowed with immor- 
tality y Are not those internal whisperings whicii tell us of a 
divine sjiark of life within, and a world beyond, where we are 
to be immortal, the deceitful suggestions of ])ride]:' I looked at 
my fair c<unpanions, i-adiant with beauty, wliich compassion for 
the poor bull tighter had rendered almost celestial. My doubts 
were n-movcd, and 1 felt that the voice of nature can never lie. 
It would be tedious to enuniernli' all the trium])hs of this 
bull. Five horses fell beneath his strokes; a jn-oportionate num- 
ber were wounded; one picador desjicratel}- bruisc<l ; another 
cari'ied out for dead ; a ciiulo within an inch of the othci- world, 
and a water seller frightened thi-ee-fourths out of his -wits, 
not to speak of the loss of his cooler. At length the trumpet 
sounded ; the glittering matador sprang into the arena with 
alacrity, as if anxious to meet a foe so woi-tln' of his steel. The 
bull fought to the last. Twice did he receive estocadas ; the 
second time he sent the sword flying ujt among the seats. lie 
finally retireil to his qiicrenriii (as any place in the ring that 
the liulls ]»rei'er is called, and they fre(piently luanifesl such a 
l)i'et(.'rencej near the barrier, and though almost t'xhausted. 
with the bloody foam dripping from his mouth and his swollen 
tongut' lolling out, the tiery glare of his eyes slidwed tlu' si ill 
unsubdued spirit within. Xo enticement could seduce him I'rom 
his (jinrc/tcid ; he was thoroughl}' uphiitado (leadi'neil ). It was 
necessaiy to kill him a vuela pies, a dangerous opei-alion so 
near the bari'icr, as by a suthK-n tui-n the matador might be 
caught and crushed. \ chulo took his position in front of the 
bull, a little to the I'iglit ; the nialadoi- lowei'e(l the iHulcta 
neai'ly to the gi'ouud ; the hull fixed his eyes upon it ; his neck 
became thus exposi'd ; a rush t'oi'ward, a sj)ring to the left, and 
the sword handle alone was visible ludiind (he shoulder. The 
blood gu.shed from Ihe dying animal's uioulh ; he made a feeble 
cflbrt to tui'n ii]ion his adversary, and sunk (piivering on the 
earth. The jx'nt'lli'i'O si)i-ang over the barrier, and with a sharp 
dagger, a mlaericordla, inserted behind the back of the head, 
put a termination to his struggles. He presented a pitiable 



NOVILLOS. 219 

sight when dragged out; ii few minutes ago so jji-ouil and 
strong, now, slirunk, as though consumed hy some Avasting dis- 
ease. 

As the afternoon was drawing to a ch)se, it was proposed 
that Ave sliould retire, and we turned our backs upon the arena. 
In the distance, over the intervening houses, could be seen the 
towering (liralfhi ; the sunset h'ght tlirew the color of molten 
gold over it, and the massive Cathedral at its base, reposing in 
silent grandeur with marble thoughts directed above. In what 
contrast to the vai'iegated throng of animated beings ai'ound, 
intent upon the evening's bloody sport. Confused murmurs 
had already begun to rise; it Avas evident that the time had 
not been economized, and that the angclus would strike before 
the appearance of the last bull. As the populace have been, 
from time immemorial, rulers at these entertainments, their will 
is law, and the}' are by no means backward in the expression 
of it. The corregidor comes in for the greater part of the 
cursing, which on such occasions is most freely bestowed. We 
left tliem to settle their accounts together and retired. I will 
mention, in pasf<ing, that the pica<lor was not killed, but only 
stunned, as we learnt next day. 

During the winter and the intense heat of midsummer the 
bulls are not in fighting condition ; in the one they are be- 
numbed by the cold and in the other debilitated by the heat 
and the want of pasturage. Their place is sup]>lied with 
novillos, or young bulls, four years old, which are considered 
playthings in Spain, and no real artist would consent to draw 
his sword against such sucklings. As I have described the 
best bull fight I ever attended, it will not be amiss to describe 
the worst, what the Spaniards call a Gallegada of novillos, 
because the performers are either awkward fellows picked up, 
as it were, from the water carriers (gallegos), who do nf»t make 
a regular profession of it, or else mere beginners. There was 
the usual parade and ceremony, with the addition of a monkey 
perched upon a stake in the centre of the arena. Jocko's dis- 
like of the liwli and the bull's dislike oi'.Iockoadd some e])isodes 
to the usual course of events. The jticadors apjiarentl}- did 
well, because the novillo has not sufficient strength to drive his 
blows home, and was still too much of a boy to be indifferent to 
the prickings of the sjiear. Jiut he made up u])on the chulos, 
knocking down at least a dozen, for they generally ran directly 



220 Sl'.VIN AM) THK SPANIARDS. 

before liiin. It wai< thus a nu're (|iiesiif»n of spoeil. and many a 
rent garment attested the superiority of tlie hull's \og,s. The 
first c'S]»a»hi was tlie worst I had over seon, and I woukl liavo 
thouglit liinj the worst in the worhl, if I had not soon the 
second. Tliis f«.'lh»w liad a square lilock lirad. with closely 
eropprd hair ol" a lilackisli tinv;e. It was wondi-rful why ho 
had enti'ivd the husiness at all, as he seemed to have a mortal 
a|ti»rehension of his foe. Holding the sword much asa])oy does 
a gun on his first going out. he would advance hesitatingly, make 
a lunge, miss ot course, and then give up. The hull would 
seize him, an<l rip his clothes from Dan to Beersheha. Once he 
wa.s thrown up into the air five or six feet ; of course no harm 
done, as it is almost impossihle to hurt a Spaniar<l of the 
lower class, they are blessed with such unconscionably tough 
bodies. I ex])ressed in}' wonder that some damage was not 
done. They exclaimeil, " Oh I it is only a fonr-j'ear-old I only a 
novillo I" As an isolated fact this was doubtless true, but I 
did not undci'stand the logical setpieiice in the argument. It 
seemed to me that the horn of even a I'oiir-yi'ar-old would be 
a ver^' unpleasant aetiuaintance to scrape. The tight still went 
on. Once it was necessary for the Kiiriiiif — who was below for 
the jHirjtosc of sujicrinteiKling, like Hob Aci'e's second — to ])ush 
the espa<la on to the bull ; he finally i"an outi'ight, amid screams 
of laughter from the audience. This was worse than usual. 
(jJenei-ally speaking, some five or si.\ horses are killed even at a 
Con-ida ile Novillos. and these are the entertainments that most 
travellers witness. The eei'emoines and the externals arc 
nearly the same, but in the spirit of ilie ])erfbrniance there is 
about the same resemblance Itetween the ■ novillos" and the 
" toros" as there is between a militia muster anil a chai-go of 
Zouaves. 

In cold weather there is another I'avoi'ile :inuisemcnt of the 
ring, viz: i\\ii emhollados, ov youu}^ bulls with iialls of wood on 
theii- horns. Everyone is at liberty' to Jump in on these occa- 
sions, as it is a free fight, and a great many are counted out 
before till! entertainment is over. They pull him by the tail, 
and he repays the debt, with interest, in the same (piarter; 
nothing is left in arrear on either side. I once saw a fellow 
get ahinueil ainl I'un dii'ectly from the bull, who followed, pass- 
ing a horn directly uiuler each arm ; the runner instinctively 
grasped the horns and was carried several times anjund the 



BREEDS AND QUALITIES OF THE BULL. 221 

arena by the now equally friii;htene(l bull, who knew not what 
to make of the strange proceeding. After a certain length of 
time several oxen are turned into tiie ring, in Avhose midst the 
tii'ed animal takes refuge. The einhoUados withilrawn, a clown 
enters, clothed in some lire ])roof jacket, which is liung over 
with packs of crackers and small Roman candles. Thus armed, 
he plunges about in the crowd like a fiery serpent. This is 
eonsideretl great fun. 

Much care is taken in selecting bulls for the arena, and the 
characteristics of the various breeds are well known. I think 
it is the Baiiuelos breed that have a long black piece of flesh, 
like a proboscis, growing over the snout, which gives them a 
curious appearance. Some others, also, have distinctive marks. 
The races are kept pure to preserve the reputation of the herd, 
as the owner feels as much interest in the performance as the 
bystanders, and these mere external peculiarities are perpetu- 
ated through successive generations. The breCd of the Duke 
of Veraguas is said, at Madrid, to be the best. Travellers are 
sometimes merry over the i'act that the representative of the 
great ('olumbus should take pride in breeding bulls for the 
amphitheatre. But the descendants of the great Columbus 
cannot be eternally discovering worUls; they are men like the 
rest of us. The foil}' consists in attempting to make greatness 
hereditary. Besides, the bull is considered in Spain as noble 
as the race horse is in England or America, and those who 
have ever seen him in his untamed glory, his neck clothetl with 
thunder, his tail lashing his sides, and the dust fl3'ing behind 
his indignant feet, will admit that there are few more grand 
or terrific objects. Surely, the ])r()udest of English gentlemen 
woi^Jd bo glad to add to his title that of breeding the best race 
horse in the kingdom, and there is nothing ludicrous about 
the corresponding taste in the Spaniard. Next to the descent 
is the requisite of suitable age, which should be between five 
and seven, when they are in their prime. The hair and skin 
are good external indices to the mettle and character of the 
bull. The former should be fine, and a plenty of it, glistening 
to the light, and equally distributed. The latter sot\ and 
supple to the touch. The color is generally uniform. 1 have 
never seen a piebald or light shaded animal in the arena. They 
are generally black or dusky red. The Andalusian from the 
valley of the Guadalquivir, the compact Manchegan and the 



SPAIN ANI> TlIK Sl'AXIAUnS. 



W^ 



aetiv*.' N:ivarrese have cacli their respective merits. Those 
from .laraina. kinsmen of the hero of the Moorish balhid, still 
preserve their reputation. Forei<j;n hulls are l>y no means so 
suitable for the purpose as the natives. The flesh predominates 
too much over the nerves; and thoui^h larger, they are inferior 
both in activity and endurance, and even in courajjje, besides 
being spoilt l»y contact with man, wliich renders iIumu cunning 
and dangerous. 

The whole knowledge of bull fighting is now reiluced to a 
science, and there was even a College of Tauromachy estab- 
lished ill Seville, by l-'erdinaiifl, iiiider the government patron- 
age, from wliich issued many distinguished artists. The bulls 
are classed according to their dispositions, and the art of 
eomlniting is modified to suit each class. From time to time 
contributions are made to the art. The vuela pies for bander- 
rillcros and espadas was invented by Costillares, who gave the 
role of the espadas a development it never had received before. 
Candido did the same for the chulos, llomero for the bande- 
rilleros. Jlillo, who was killed in the beginning of the century, 
reduced his experience to writing and transformed the whole 
science. Perhaps the most distinguished of them all was 
Francisco Montes, whose marvellous exploits are still the sub- 
ject of narrative. No one ever equalled him in the magnetic 
power which the human eye exercises over beasts. JIc would 
mark a cii'clc upon the ground witliiii wliich the Imll was to be 
killed, an<l rarely failed in carr^-ing (Hit his boast. The science 
has a technical language, more elegant than our race course 
dialect, because it has been the subject of learned treatises. Of 
course there is also a slang which is as difficult of attainment 
as the Jiasque. 

Spaniards are very sensitive about criticisms u[t(ju their 
favorite amusement. If j'ou associate Avith one any length of 
time he is vei-y apt to ask your opinion on the subject It is a 
shibboleth. Jfyon like them, it shows that you ai-e a iSpaniard 
at heart, "one of us." And they are indignant against en- 
lighted travellers who complacently thank heaven for not 
having made them like these bull fighting barbarians. The 
slaughter of the horses 1 detest as an unnecessary cruelty to 
one of the noblest of animals, which might be easily obviated 
b}" fining the ])icadors for every wound their horses receive, 
and rewarding them for every stroke they turn oft". Spaniards 
defend this part of the entertainment by stating they are the 



n 



THE MORALITY OF THE BULL FKUIT. 223 



veriest hacks, wlio, in otlier countries, would be sent to the 
glue butchery, which is true. As for tlie men and the bulls, I 
confess I have no scruples. The men are paid enormously and 
have every pleasure possible. They are vovy rarel}^ killed, 
and there is always a chapel and a priest in the buildinjT to 
give the last unction to such as require it, besides a h<ispital 
for the wounded. Far more lose their lives in the mountains 
of Asturia, in the chase, or waste away in the manufacture of 
articles of pure luxury, than die in all the bull rings of Spain. 
"We might as well think of crying over the exposure of a sol- 
dier's life, Avho is fro(incn(h' dragged against his will to fight 
battles in which he has not the slightest interest. When for- 
eigners cease to wage wars of territorial aggrandizement, their 
virtuous indignation against the Corrida de Toros will be 
worthy of notice. The bull has still less reason to complain. 
Surrounded with the pleasures of barbaric domesticity, he 
spends his life in the midst of luxuriant pastures, Avhcre he is 
rarel}' disturbed b}' the face of man. Ever}' bull must die at 
last, and it is a mere balancing of enjoyments to say that it is 
better to work in yokes until he is old, and then be fattened 
and killed in the butcher's stall, than to lead the Jolly life of a 
monarch, roaming his native fields, and die in the bull ring, 
preserving his freedom to the very end. About the abstract 
cruelt}', there is something more to be said. It is undoubtedly 
wrong in the abstract to take the life of an}- animal without 
some sufficient reason; but as everyone judges of the suffi- 
ciency of the reason for himself, it becomes a practical question 
of comparison. We considei- the ]>aiu])criiig ot a luxurious ap- 
petite amply sufficient excuse for the wholesale slaughter of 
pate-de-fois geese ; and the most reverend bishop in the land 
would hesitate to interpose his crook between an innocent 
lamb and the blood-tliirsty butcher. We go with eagerness to 
the chase, not for the prosaic purpose of jjrocuring a haunch of 
venison, but to enjoj' the fun, to see the frightened deer course 
before the hounds, and bring him down at a hand gallop. How 
many of us take compassion at the sight of his tearful eyes? 
And do ducks and fish, or even the writhing worm that squirms 
upon the hook, escape their fate ? There are some people who 
fish for fish — practical geniuses — but the great majority fish 
simply for the sport. Philosophically and morally speaking, 
there is as much cruelly in the one as the' other. But the bull 
is k large creature, the bird or deer a small one, killing the one 



in SPAIN ANI> TIIK SI'ANIAHl>:>. 

ii> cruelty; killiiii; llio utlior, sport, .lust as a larifo contiueror 
is to be jilactMJ upon a pedestal — a smnll one (vuhjo, robher) to be 
suspended from a «jjallows. From the mouth of a pioua Brah- 
min tlu" rejd'oach would be justifiable; but when we consider 
that (loi; tiichtinij and boxini^ are favorite amusements in the 
most enlii^htened portions of the woi-ld, attracting vast crowds 
from all (piarters, even across the Atlantic, we can well under- 
stand the indignation with which the Spaniards regard what 
they consider a vaporing hypocrisy. 

Nor does the practice of travellers C(jiiici<le with their \)V0- 
fessions, for however loud may be their outcries at tiie first 
exhibition, they seldom ai>stain from the second. The fact of 
their reiterated visits shows that there must be some altracv 
lion apart from the destruction of the animals, and so engross- 
ing as to deaden the painful impression which the latter pro- 
duces. The <lilferent characters of the bulls; the skill of the 
Torero; the fertility of his resources; the exhibition of calm 
valor; the triuni))h of human intelligence over brute force — tiiese 
are the great attractions which entice them to the spectacle. 
They forget, or do not heed the fact, that the death of the ani- 
mals is the price of this gratification. Neither do we in accept- 
ing an invitation to a convivial entertainment, reflect ujjon the 
number of jilieasants and snipe that are to be slaughtered for 
our i)alates. 1 should be sorry to see the Corrida de Toros intro- 
duced into my own country, because it is not an institution, 
Just as I would look with little pleasure upon the establishment 
of a democratic rei)uldic in Kiirope. But that is verv different 
from conclenmiiig the Itiill light in Spain, or a republic in 
America. Kach ot us digests, assimilates and thrives u])OU 
poison. A vast allowance must be made for the idiosyncrasies 
of nations as well as individuals. Iniiuinerable institutions 
productive of benefit to one race or civilization, it transplanted, 
would give rise to unspeakable evils. 

Another objection against Imll lighting is the ellect it is sup- 
posed to have ujton the audience. Un(piestionalily the intense 
excitement of the s])ectacle, and the furious passions which it 
calls into life, with liie sigiit of Idood, are calculated to yivo- 
duce a very great effect; but all this is, comparatively, lost in 
admiration for the skill, the cool courage, the triumph of man 
over mere In-ute force, of which the Plaza de Toros is the thea- 
tre. 1 dely any one to see the matador clad in tissue, standing 
face to face with the monster, without feeling that there is a 



ATTENDANCE OF LADIES. 225 

grandeur in the scene far beyond the mere contest of two ani- 
mate creatures. It inculcates, moreover, the great lesson of 
frccdon\ — self-reliance and individuality — and tlie continuance 
of this spirit is the best safeguard against despotism. The 
government may be as oppressive as it ])leases upon the court 
circles, and misrule the country in its foreign relations, but let 
it continue to keep its hands otF the Spanish peo])le; for so long 
as these (pialities continue to be practically admired and viv- 
idl}' exemplified before the e^-es of the populace, any attempt 
to estalilish one of these intermeddling domestic tyrannies that 
seem so fashionable in Euro])e Just now, will be met l)y a 
thousand knives from every mountain pass in the Peninsula. 
It is, moreover, eminently a national amusement, and a firm 
rock against the invasion, the inconsiderate adoption of foreign 
modes of thinking and acting, which is fast reducing the world 
to a tiresome uniformity. The mantilla reigns here supreme, 
and the nuijo is considered eminently suitalde. There is ne- 
cessity for some such institution even in Spain, for a considera- 
ble class, fron\ believing that there was nothing good out of 
their country, have come to think that there is nothing good in 
it, and denounce every national peculiarity as a relic of bar- 
barism, fearful lest the Pyrenees should be regarded the west- 
ern boundary of Europe. 

Ladies seldom attend the Plaza de Toros, but they do upon 
grand occasions, such as that I have mentioned, not so much, 
however, to view the contest, as to see and be seen themselves, 
Just as with us people crowd to the opera, who could not dis- 
tinguish Yankee Hoodie from ^lozart's Pe<piiem. The}' arc 
greatly shocked with the disgusting portion of the spectacle, 
and proportionably delighted Avith every display of manly 
}>rowess. Spanish ladies are courageous themselves, and ad- 
luire \\\v <|uality in otlicrs. It may seem strange that they 
ever enteretl such a place in the beginning; but, in truth, they 
are taken there when small children. It is the only amuse- 
ment in most provincial towns, and the effect produced by the 
arrival of a Cuadrilla, is similar to the excitement of a trav- 
elling circus in the olden time. The whole town is in commo- 
tion; gail}' -dressed cavaliers, in the costume of the middle ages, 
prance al)out on jSciy steeds; the sound of tambourines and 
castagnettes re-echoes in all the streets ; work is laid aside ; it 
is a Corrida de Toros! If the children are good, they are 
Iti 



226 SPAIN Asn THK spAMAnns. 

allowed (o po; so that the Corrida de Toros is associated in their 
minds, with holidays, fine dresses, cakes, and a multitude of 
other infantile Joys. "When they ^row up, they hear them- 
selves slvled harbarians by ignorant and unreflecting book 
makers, who, perhaps, have a mind to every species of siu 
except this. As far as my knowledge goes, the only recoUMk' 
tion^ that Sjianish ladies bear away, are those of the i:;i!1:int 
feats of horsemanship and the daring confronting of danger. 
They always cover their faces with the fan at the bloody por- 
tion of the tragedy. I have not found them less com]i::'*<iun- 
ate, gentle, lovely or lovalde. afterwards than l»efore. and I 
can only say that if tln-y are injured by attending the specta- 
cle, it is wisely so ordained by Providence to reduce them to 
the level of ordinary mortals — otherwise some of them would 
be unfitted for the earth. 

Pctlitical economists have siipitosed that bull fights interfered 
with the increase of cattle by the great destruction of animals; 
but all of us who live in a racing country can testify to the 
contrary, and experience has jirovcd in Spain that nothing 
would be more ruinous in tlii> respect than their al>olition. 
Only a portion are reserved for the Plaza, and those the very 
best of the best breeds. They are tried when young, and if 
they show any backwardness in facing the spear, are immedi- 
atclv destined to ])eacefnl pursuits, so that the number of sale- 
able cattle of good stock is really increased. From time to 
time bull fights have been suppressed, or, at least, an attempt 
has been made to supi)ress them. (Jodo3''s was the last; and 
it n>ay be that detestation of him caused the Toros to be a 
greater favorite than evei*. Tlic taste at ])i-i'scnt is certainly 
becoming stronger, and I loun<l that bull rings hud increased, 
since my last visit, fai* more raj)i(lly than cluircbi's. No gov- 
ernment in Spain could suppress tluni m<>\v, any UKirc than it 
could aliolish the right of going ai-nu'«l. 

The jirogress of civilization and tlie gi-eater diirusidii of 
well being seem to have filled tlic Pla/.as, and attracted men's 
minds irresistibly tow.ird this manly sport, so little in accord- 
ance with the effeminate industiy wliidi lias taken possession 
of the human race elsewhere, as if to counteract the universal 
tendency of events. As a general rule, the bull fighters are 
from the lowest ranks of society, but, of late, I have been told 
that persons of much respectability have been unable to with- 
Btand the attraction, and have entered the profession. One 



STANDING OF TIFE EriJi IN SPAIN. EXPENSES. Tl ^ 

partioularly, was mentioned, a person, by birth and fortune, 
entitled to take a place in society. I think he was a native of 
Old Castile. Ilis true name I have forgotten; he was famil- 
\(xv\y known b}* a soubriquet derived from liis lowncss of stat- 
ure, el rJiico, or some such apjudlation. Tn truth, the bull, and 
everytliing connected with him, has a prominent place in the 
thoughts of Spaniards of all ages and classes. He is a matter 
of affectionate sport to them. Once, in a miserable little vil- 
lage, where T broke down, and was compelled to pass the day, 
a young calf took a freak into his head of running at the chil- 
•drcn. and knocked down some half a dozen. Instead of inter- 
fering, the fathers and mothers laughed heartily, as though it 
Avere a capital joke. They are entirely Avithout fear of the 
whole species under anj- circumstances. If they pass one on 
the road, thej' shake their cloaks at him and taunt liim. If 
they meet him in the street they give his tail a pull. In the 
villages, for want of the great tragedj^, he is led through 
the streets with a slack rope, so as to allow him to run at the 
passers b}-; and it was formerly a famous joke in Tarifa to 
turn one loose in the town, to the amusing consternation of 
travellers. The Corrida de Toros occupies, more or less, the 
minds of every age and occupation. It has a place in feasts of 
the Church aixl feasts of the State. It is imitated in the nur- 
sorj, and danced on the stage. The adverse criticism of trav- 
ellers, and of their own countrymen residing abroad, may 
gradually inspire a conventional distaste for it in the higher 
circles as something unfashionable, but at present thej^ fall, 
and will, for a long time, continue to fall without sigm'ficance 
upon the ears of the great body of the Spanish nation. So, 
" pan y Toros." 

The Corrida de Toros is an exjiensive amusement, and 
always undertaken under the patronage of the government, 
seldom b}' private enterprise. The places are high, compared 
with the price of labor. I subjoin, by way of an example, the 
following list, taken at random from the Madrid hand bills. 
The value of a real vellon is five cents of our nione}'. 

Sun. Sun and Shade. Shade. 



TKsninos. . 



Qradas 



Biirrcrafi y tabloncillos. . . . 6 6 10 

Asicntiis .«in iiunicracion.. . 4 4 6 

Dt'lantcrng y talilonciUos. . 10 14 16 

Centr</.«. . . .' 8 10 12 

AvT>»»An»<. J I><;lanfcTas y tabloncilloB. . 12 16 22 

( Ccntro.s .S 12 14 

PAl.ros con (lie/, enlradag 120 140 200 

Mcscta del toril — Primcra fila, 10; Sccunda, 8; Tabloncilloe, 6; Ccntros, 4. 




Chaptkk XIII 



!•: N VI U () X S .— I[ I S T () K I (' A L . 



Environs — .Sau Juun de Alfariiebe — Custillojn — Italicii — Tin- Guzman!< — Alcalu — 
Early History — " Spain " — " Antinlusia " — " Seville " — Al Mutadeii — Discovery 
of America — Prosperity <if Seville. 

The uiK'ieiits, with a due aitpreciutioii of tlu' j)leasuros ol" 
life, placed the Elysiaii fiokls on the banks of the ijrcat river of 
Aiuialusia; and Tliarsis, the i;ran<lsuii of .laphet, is claimed by 
till' Sjianiaffls ti) have colonizccl the islands near its mouth. At 
present tliey have become fertile wastes, the abodes of vast 
herds of cattle, seldom invaded by any except sportsmen and 
henlsmen, wild as the cattle they ijuard, who are said to rival 
the Baleiirians in tlieir skill with the sliii::;. It is their only 
defence against the enrai^ed animal when separated fiH)m the 
rest of the herd, for thouy;h insensible to wounds elsewhere, the 
elightest stroke with a stone upon tlu- horn, is said to render 
them (piite manaujealile. All the lowei- valh-y of the CJuadal- 
quivir is thus surrendei'cd to nature, but the immediate neigh- 
borhood of Seville is charming, though entirely devoid of what 
constitutes in temperate climates the delights of the environs 
of a great city — neatly painted cottages, honeysuckles climb- 
ing over arches and gates, and velvety turf Of all this there 
is nothing, not only here but elsewhere in Andalusia. In its 
place is the extended valley of thi' (Juadal([iiivii', luxuriating in 
oranges and olives, wild thyme, lavender, and a thousand name- 
less herbs, whose sweet ])erfumes till the ail", as they lie crushed 
beneath your horse's hoof. During the llowering season of the 
orange, Seville a])i)ears oni' gorgeous bou(]uet, an enchanted 
Paradise, with lamps of gold hung in a "night of green." The 
country to the south-west is still called by its Moorish name of 
Axarafe — the hilly region — renowned for its fertility, and cele- 
brated in their poems as the diadem of Seville. Some few 



SAN JUAN DK ALFARACIIE. — CORTEZ. 229 

miles from La Triana, the landscape is bounded by a spur of 
the Sierra Morena, extending toward the Cluadabiuivir. Its 
slopes, covered wifli olive plantations, and its summit crowned 
with villnges and half deserted convents, mii>;ht well justify 
the appellation of " The Mountain of Mere}'," which it is sup- 
posed to have borne in the time of the Moors. The road Ihat 
branches to the left leads through an orange gi'ove to the vil- 
lage of San Juan de Alfarache, formerly a miserable collection 
of gip!*y cabins, but which have now disappeared, giving place 
to neat, clean houses. AVhether it be the site of the famous 
Osset, the Julia Constantia of the Romans, is more tlum I can 
undertake to decide. Faraj in the Arabic signifying " to split 
or divide." the name of the present village is supposed to be 
derived fi-DHi the cleft in the Cuesta. Ascending that and 
winding around the parapet, the path conducts to the little 
church whose terrace offers one of the most exquisite views 
that can Ite imagined. It comprehends the whole of the Vega 
of Seville to the Sierra Morena and the hills of Carmona, 
through which flows the Guadalquivir, in graceful curves, direct- 
h' toAvard the foot of the cliff. At this season the fields were 
bare, and clouds of dust arose from time to time obscuring the 
horizon. But in winter or spring, when the setting sun throws 
its jiurplc light over the cit}^ and the fretted cathedral, embow- 
ered in green and golden orange groves and surrounded by 
verdant fields, I know nothing in Europe to surpass the beauty 
of the pros])ect. It is the Xvwq ganlen of the Hesperides, whose 
golden apjdes might worthily employ the labors of a demi-god. 
The walk back may be diversified by keeping along the river 
bank nearh' as far as the Triana and crossing over in a skiff to 
Las Lelicias. A curling wreath of smoke from the ]iorcelain 
manufactory of Pickman & Co., was at i^resent rather an incon- 
gruous element in the picture, but the great success of this ex- 
])eriment, in furnishing Si)ain with home manufactures, may 
Justify in some measure the outrage done to the landscape. 

Fartlier to the north-west, upon the sanic rangcof hills, is the 
town of C'astilleja do la Cuesta, which also has a fine view, but 
is more interesting to Americans as the residence and death 
place of Fernan Cortcz, whose house is pointed out. Beyond 
this there is nothing to attract one to Castilleja, though the 
ride is a pleasant one. Some distance to the right in the plain 
are the ruins of the ancient city of Italica, itself built upon 



230 ^^I•AI^ AMI TiiK si'amakh.s. 

the ruins (if a ^till more uncicnl Iberian or i'unic city by Scipio, 
as a retreat for his veterans. Celebrity is conferred upon it by 
the sini^ular felieily of baviui^ ifiveii birth to throe of ti)o great- 
est and best of the JJonian emperors — Trajan, llailriau and 
Theodosius. 

Sola uovuiu Liilii."! vcctigal nil>uriii rclms 
Coutiilit Aiigui-tos. 

As if satisfied with ba\ in-; conferred so great a boon upon the 
workl Italica ceased to exist, and little is left of its former 
/grandeur excejtt the ruins of tlie amj)hitheatre, which has serv- 
ed as a quarry to (Joths, Moors and Spaniards. It resembles 
others in Italy and France. The crumblini; seats and subterra- 
nean dens for the wild beasts are toleral)ly distinct, but by its 
size alone would you be able to form some idea of the impor- 
tance of the city. That the decline of Italica was owing to the 
founding of Seville is scarcely credible, as the latter existed in 
the time of the PhaMiicians, and the Koman a(pieduct shows it 
to have been a ]»laco of note before Italica had lost its yire-emi- 
ncnce. Sevilk'. h(»wevi,'r, was a favorite of Ca?sar and of nature 
too, fur a ca])ricious change of course in the (Juadalquivir is said 
to have accomplislied the tinal ruin of its rival. The traveller 
is often strucU witii tlir uttci- disa]»ii<.'arance of S|tauish cities, 
which are kn(^wn to have l>een tlourishing centres of influence 
since the jieriod of authentic modern history. The famous 
cities of Azzahra, of Azzahira, of Calatrava, the heailiiuartors 
of the commandcry of tiiat name, of Alareos, of Bilbilis, have 
vanished without leaving one stone uj)on another to mark the 
site of their existence, and were it not for the soliil l?t)mau 
relics, Italica WJ>uld lie known ou]y by tradition. A few olives 
and the cool fountain are the only evidences of life. In its 
place has sj)rung up the Sj)anisii village of Santi Ponce, distin- 
guished for its fairs, the delight of majos and majas, one of 
which was memorabl}' honored by the presence in full maja 
costume of the future Kmi)ress of the French, who in her youth 
used to do a great many things that might as well have been 
left undone. 

The histor}' of Don Alonso Perez de (Juzman and tlie siege 
of Taril'a is familiar to readers of Sjuinish history. The Ho- 
Mian courage and Ujrtitudc with which he sacriticiMl his son 
rathei- than surrender that key of the kingdom to its enemies, 
received their reward in the heroic, romantic fame which has 



ALCALA DE (iUADAlRA. SPANISH BREAD. 231 

thrown a lialo aroniul him, and elevated his famil}' to a distinc- 
tion among the princes of the earth which few liave attained. 
Scarcely a chapter in the history of his countrj^ can be written 
without mentionin«i; some one of this illustrious house. Nor 
are its glories confined to Spain. The neighboring kingdom of 
Portugal owes a second birth to one of its fair scions. At 
present, the great Dukedom of Medina Sidonia, with all its 
immense ])Ossessions, are merged by marriage into another 
family- ; but soon three of the thrones of Europe Avill be occu- 
pied by the descendants of three of its beautiful daughters, — 
Leonora, Luisa and Eugenia, — who felicitously appeared upon 
the stage at a change of dynasty in ever}' respective instance, 
and added no little to the stability of the Governments in 
Avhich two of them were required to participate. Tlie old hero, 
with a proper regard for the welfare of his soul in the next 
world, founded, near these ruins, the convent of San Isidro del 
Campo. in which the bodies of himself and his wife lie interred. 
A large portion of the building has been destroj'ed by the 
ravages of war, but enough remains to shelter the last resting 
place of the great founder, and to recall to the wayfai'cr one of 
the most striking and chivalrous incidents in history. 

On the o])posite side of Seville, a couple of hours' ride 
toward Carmona, is the city of Alcala de Guadaira or de los 
Panaderos (the Bakers), a most picturesque spot, with a fine 
old castle overhangin.g the stream. Leaving Seville in the 
afternoon, the entry into this cool valley is delicious, and an 
artist would never become weary of its romantic scenes. The 
former I'oad to Cordova passed through it; but now an especial 
visit is necessary, which well repays the trouble. Owing to 
some peculiarity in the water, probabl}',. the bi'ead made here 
is considei'cd the best in Spain, and is carried into Seville early 
in the morning. Those who have eaten it any length of time 
will not dissent from the general opinion. With the exception 
of that from the Banat of Temeswar, there is no flour in Eu- 
rope to compare with the Spanish; and I have seen it stated 
somewhere, that Ilarouu al Kashid would eat no other. The 
bread is ditferently made from that of Paris, being much more 
compact and Avhiter, and, at first, has not the taste which is so 
pleasant in the latter, but it grows upon acquaintance, and is 
exceedingly wholesome. A loaf, with a cup of S])anish choco- 
late, is a breakfast for a king. The ancient name of Alcala 



232 SPAIN AND THE SPAMAnDS. 

was nionippe, said to siijnify "the City of Springs," which 
abound, and wlioso lini])id waters wore carried to Seville by the 
aqueduct Los Cailcts de Carincuia, a Koiuan work, repaired by 
the Moors. Tlie ])resent name signifies " the Castle oC the river 
Aira," and both are ajtpropriate. 

In some respects, the early histoiy of Spain is less satislae- 
torv than that of any other country- in Eur<»pe. Possessing no 
written language that has survive<l to our da}-, at least none 
that is intelligible, it must be sought, for the most part, in the 
records of the (Jreeks and Komans, aided by a few disjointed 
fragments of Punic, and tlu' scanty relics of the ])revious age, 
still existing in the names of localities. These throw glimpses of 
light bade to a jteriod lar anterior to the col<;nization of other 
Euroj)can countries, Itut so faint as to stimulate rather than 
satisfy curiosity. Critics have struggled to trace a connection 
with various tribes on the i)lateau of Central Asia — by a com- 
parison of customs and habits, as described by Strabo — with 
how little success every one must acknowledge who lias inves- 
tigated the subject. Among the different ])roblenis, none offer 
more than the origin of the names of Seville, Andalusia and 
Spain. At the same tinie, there arc few more attractive sub- 
jects of speculation ; for, under the guise of a mere philological 
disjiute, they carry us back into the very recesses of antiquity. 
The only literature of the Western World, <>\\ at all events, the 
only writings which have survived to us. with a few insignifi- 
cant exceptions, are the Ilebrew, the (Ircck, tin- Latin, and to 
them m;iy be added tlie Arabic, every one of which has l>een 
spoken in Spain, giving different names for the same locality, 
sometimes differing in signification, at othei-s merely offering a 
confusion of sound. Of the latter, the derivation of the Span- 
ish word " .s/cr/v/," a mountain chain, is a fair example, lioth 
etymology and tlii' ajipcarance of the mountains themselves, 
would justify the derivation Ci-oin (he Latin " i<ci'rii," a saw, 
to be f(Mind in the old Italian and I'omance, as the Mon- 
serrat (i.e., .Mons Serratus) ol' Catalonia. Othei- philologists, 
among Ihcm, (he learned (Jyangos, dci-ive it, with e(pial jdausi- 
bilit}', tVoiii llie Arabic " Sehra," an uncultivated region, allied 
to Sahara, as the Sierra Morena of Anilalusia, which was called 
by the Romans, not "Serra," Imt "Mons" Mai-ianus. I ven- 
ture to prefer the former; l>u(, among such doctors, who 
shall decide":' Perhaps both languages have been correctly 
appealed to. 



DERIVATION OF TIIK WORD. 233 

First, with rcu-ard to ^Spnin itself. Tho Gvoek word was 
Hesperia, tlic land of the Eveiiini;- Star; the Latin, Ilispania, 
whence, evidently, the modern name. Tlic word '-Iberia" was 
probably — as savans are said to have discovered by the aid of 
investi-^ation into the lan<;-nage of people of whom the (Jreeks 
were ii;-norant — a simple corruption from Aber or Elter, mean- 
ing "a river" in the dialect of one of the tides of po^^ulation 
which swept over Europe in its earliest ai^es, leavinc; this root 
everywhere. By the (Jreeks, it was ignorant!)' extended to 
tlie country itself AVhat was the aboriginal designation of 
tho peninsula, or whether it had one designation, is utterly 
unknown. Wilhelm von Humboldt and others iiave advanced 
theories, and sustained them, with an immensity of erudition; 
but the world is far from being convince<l. J[un\boldt's theory 
is, that the Basques were the original inhabitants, which posi- 
tion he fortifies by the names of places scattered over the 
peninsula that can be traced to no other language but the 
Basque. ]Ie then maintains that the Basques were the Iberi- 
ans. Iiut the}- certainly do not so call llieinselves in their own 
tongue. Xor can the words Iberia and Iberians be traced 
anterior to Seylax. On the other hand, the Celtic scholars 
thinlc tliat tliey find equally as conclusive evidence of Gallic 
predominance in such words as Asturia — as-thur; Artal)or — 
ar-ot-aber; Celtiltei* — Celt-abor; Celtiaca — Celt-ac'h. And na- 
tional pride, too, enters into tlie investigation, inasmuch as 
Ca;sar saj'S that the Gauls were called Celts in their own 
tongue, and the H'rcnch consider themselves the embodificatfon 
of the race, of which the}' form a part, so that each succeeding 
critic leads us further from a harmonious conclusion. But wo 
do know that the Phcenicians had settlements, or, at least, com- 
merce with S])ain before the da^'s of the Greeks and l»omans, 
as is proved by the Old Testament and by the Greek navigators 
themselves; and the interesting column described b}' Procopius, 
if not a forgery, which there is no good reason for su])posing, 
shows that one emigration took ])lace in consequence of the 
invasion of "the r(;bber," Joshua, the son of Nave (Xun). The 
traditions of the Spanish Jews, a<lopted, in part, by the native 
historians, point likewise to an early exochis from the same 
quarter, winch coidd only have been accomjjlishe'l by the 
southern route. To the Kast, then, must we tui'n, and imagi- 
nation lias run riot Avith fabulous kings — Ilispanus, Ilispalis, 



234 SPAIN AM» THK M'AMAUiKS. 

ami a Iohjl; list, \vhoso roii^ns have Itoon illiistrali-d l»y the 
j^lowiiiij c'l()(iueiK-o of Mariana. Ac-cordiiiii; to tliose historians, 
llispania comes lron\ llispanus. AUlrcte hil)ors to derive it 
from the ^od Pan, jjrerixinj^ first an S, which was not unusual 
in Latin. an<l then preHxinji; an initial vowel, because, forsooth, 
the Latin, liUe the modern S|)anisli and Italian, ahhors an 8 
impure. Why. tluii. ilid they i)reH.\ it? The true ex|»lana- 
tion i.s hoth simjder and more natural. The Phtenieian W(»rd 
SjKJii, *^>v Stijj/tdii, is said by the learned io signify a "rabbit," 
and also "secret," "hidden." Now, the Roman hi>lorians 
almost always speak of the country under the name of llis- 
]>ania. not Iberia, and their medals and coins, of which two arc 
given liy Florez, struck under the Emperor Hadrian — a Span- 
iard himself — represent Spain under the figure of a woman, 
with a rabbit at her feet, and the countr3' was, moreovei-. fre- 
quently designated "cuniculosa." The peninsula was famous 
in ancient times for its abounding iu these creatures. They 
formed a large item of export to Eome, and modern travellers, 
including Glil Bias, can vouch that {\\c animal, or his feline 
rej)resentative, is still a favorite ilish in the Spanish cuisine. 
In this instance, therefore, the critical acumen of investigators 
seems to have attained (piite a satisfactory conclusion. 

But the IMiaMiicians found the ct)untiy' occupied, and who 
were these occuj)ants J* The literaiy world seems Lo have 
settled into the belief that Europe was peopled b}' successive 
emigi'ations from Asia, ])assing up the valley of the Danube 
and descending into the peninsulas, ami that these emigi-ai ions 
sprang from one source, which we call ('aucasian. It has, 
however, been suggested, with much show of reason, that the 
aboriginal iiopulalion of the south-west, though Caticasian, 
entered Europe across the Straits of Gibraltar, afier making 
the southern circuit of the Mediterranean. Those straits were 
once niuch narrowei' than now; even the rate of their widening 
has been ascertained iiy a collocation of historical statements; 
an<l the tradition of their having been opened, at some remote 
pei-iod, by a god, fanciful though it l>e in its ])articnlars, is evi- 
dence of the general truth of their having once lieen closed. 
After this followed, periiaps, an invasion from the north — the 
Celts or Iberians, if there were any such. Tlicii came the 
Phcenicians and Carthaginians from the south. Then again 
the llomans and Goths from the north. Then the Arabs from 



DERIVATION OF '' ANDALUSIA." 235 

the south, until the Spaninrds and Portuguese theuisolves be- 
came conquering nations, and extended their rule over Amei'- 
ica and a considerable portion of Africa, Europe and Asia. 
The Peninsula Avas thus the common meeting place or bat- 
tle Held of rival immigrations; all, perhaps, braiulies oi' one 
great race, and finding a common origin in Asia. From which 
of these eniigi-ations did the "doctissimi" Andalusians inherit 
their "grainaliea et antiquatatis nioiiuinenta conseripta ae pw- 
mata et metris inelusas leges a sex inillibus annorumy" From 
the North ? No northern nation has ever possessed such. Let- 
ters ami learning were transmitted from the East to the Asiatic 
Greeks. By ihem, in turn, to Greece proper, anil thence dif- 
fused over the northern tribes of Europe as they successively 
came within the sphere of its influence. From the Basques? 
Who the}' are, what they are, and whence they came, no one 
can sa}', but not a single ancient author mentions them other- 
wise than in the rudest state of semi-l»arbarism, nor have Ihc}- 
any written records. Did the Andalusians invent and bring 
forth a local civilization, which Avas doomed to perish fi-om the 
earth without influence upon, or connection with, the general 
progress of humanity? Such was, ap])arently, the case in 
Peru; but the received tra<iition of the Jueas derived their 
laws and leai-ning from an external source, and this seems to 
be universally true. The wildest fable never imagined an 
autochthonous civilization; the divine tire has always been 
])rocured from heaven either by gift or by stealth. If, there- 
foi'c, we pursue the analogies of histor}', guided by the few, the 
very few landmarks still existing, it would seem that Spain 
was inhabited by a race anterior to the Phccnicians, Celts and 
Iberians, a race somewhat enlightened, entering by the south 
and, sui:>scquently, yielding to the attacks of northern barba- 
rians — more than this, no one can venture with any confldence 
to assert. 

The derivation of " Andalusia," though by no means so remote, 
oflfers likewise great philological and historical ditflculties. It 
is indisputabi}' derived by us immediately from the Arabic, in 
which it was used to signify the whole of Spain, or at least the 
Mohammedan portion of it, and passed over to the Chi'istians, 
with the latter signification, at a time wlien the Moorish pos- 
session did not extend beyond tiie Sierra Morena. Casiri, and 
his opinion is adopted by the Padre Florez, traces it to the 



236 SPAIN AND TIIF. SPANIAnHS. 

AraMc Ilandalos, equivalent, as they say. to the (Jreek word 
Jlesperia ; and the (rcographus Nubiensis, whonj Florez quotes, 
pronounces it the same eountry that was styled hy the (rreeka 
liisjiania. But wh}' should the Arabs have omitted the initial 
II ha in a word of their own language, secmint^ to delight in 
these ifiitlural sounds? On the other hand, Al ^faUari quotes 
the works of Arabic authors, now lost, who derive it from a 
race of barbarians that settled there. Such is the ojiinion, too, 
of (iyangos, and to this must be added tiic fact that the Spanish 
chroniclers frequently' translate it " Vandalusia," and derive it 
from the Vandals. The Arabs having no V, might well sub- 
stitute in its place the sim])le breathing. lJut,i"e]»ly the former, 
the \'andMls remained too short a lime in Andalusia to impress 
their name ui)on the country, an<l in tact never did. which is 
true. The Arabs, however, meeting the remnants of tliose who 
ba<l ci-dssed from S]);iin to Africa, and being, moreover, very 
incurious about such things in the <;utset of tlieir career, might 
reasonal)ly suppose that the country whence the Vandals or 
Van(lalocii last came was Vamlalia or \'aiidalnsia, or, in their 
tongue, Andalus. Similar mistakes are of frequent occunvnce 
in the history of (tther countries, particularly in our own, as 
exemplifit'd by the Indian names. As cumulative proof it may 
be stated that the}' call Western Mauritania, not llandalus, 
but Al Magreb, the i-eai wortl, which sometimes is aiq)lied to 
the whole west, including Andalus. 

The name of Seville can be easily traced thi'ough the Isiibiliah 
of the Moors to the Ilispalis of the liomans, for which all sorts 
of fanciful derivations were given, among them that of " apalis" 
of San Isidro, whereas not only is Seville not built upon ])iles, 
but it would requii'i' no inconsiderable force to tli'ive one into its 
firm soil, though it has been sul)ject to inundation. The Plueni- 
cians again afford the key to this riddle, offei-ing. as they say, 
the word Spcld or Scphiia — a j)lain — which suits the situation 
of Seville exactly. Indeed, most of the riparian and maritime 
cities lying to the south and east were founded by, and derived 
their names from the Plnenicians. Tiaildir. the Hoiiian (Jades, 
and modei-n Cadiz, for instance, is said to signify, in Punic, 
" enchjsed," or as others sa^' " separate<l," being iipon an island. 
Moreover, the Book of Joshua mentions a King of Gedei-in the 
" old country." Carthagcna, Malaga, Cartheia have the same 
origin. It is a compliment to the discernment of these naviga- 



DERIVATION OF " SEVILLE." 237 

tors, that the points selected hy tliein sliouhl still he the com- 
mercial outlets of Spain. 

All this will perha]>s api)ear very incongruous in a hook of 
travels, hut it shows that Spanish intellect has heen by no 
means so profoundl}- asleep as has been generally supposed by 
us, since it is not a mere dispute about words, hut an eifort to 
search out the earl}- liistory of tlieir country, which lies con- 
cealed in those words. 

Over tlio gate of Jerez, leading to the Paseo, is the following 
inscription : 

Hercules me edifico, 
Julio Cesar me cerco, 

Dc rauros y torres siltas ; 
El rey Santo me gano 
Con Garci Perez dc Vargas. 

According to which, Hercules was tlie founder of Seville, and 
such is the unanimous assertion of tlie old Spanish historians. 
Foreigners are dis])osed to be mirthful over the matter, and 
pronounce Hercules a myth. If by Hercules is meant any 
one individual, who performed all the wonderful feats men- 
tioned in the MA'thology, the assertion is of course correct. But 
that ]Iercules was original!}' a Phoenician or Egyptian hero, 
and that there were man}' such, is equally true. In truth every 
great jiioneer was a sort of Hercules, and their several deeds, 
magnified by the credulity of a primitive age, were consolidated 
and contributed to swell the reputation of the demigod. Had 
it been the fortune of J)aniel Boone to flourish when the art of 
writing was unknown, and the colonization of wild regions a 
thing of slow progi'ess, the Kentucky bear would have stood 
by the side of the Nemean lion in the Avonder of jjosterity. That 
the (or a) Plucnician Hercules therefore founded Seville may or 
ma}' not be a fact, but there is nothing about the assertion 
impossible or improbable. Most of the legends of marvellous 
antiquit}'', which are spread through the localities of modern 
Euro]>c. arose in the middle ages, liut these traditions of Anda- 
lusia were current at a [leriod long anterior, when tradition 
was history, and it was supposed, even in the days of J'ome, as 
appears from a jirevious quotation, to have laws dating back 
six thousand years. 

Whoever founded Seville is entitled to the thanks of subse- 
quent ages, for at all times and under all people it has Iteen a 
favorite residence. Caesar distinguished it greatly and bestow- 



23K SPAIN AMI TirK SPAMARPS. 

cd upon it liin name — .lulia Roinula — and made such improve- 
ments as to be considered its second founder. Hoinu the only 
one of the <rreat l^)man cities upon the Athmtic slope, it was 
(•ilclir:itf.| for a phenomenon in nature unusual to them. 

Fulfil prcoipuis Parna^ia Ca^itulo sifrnis, 

K( colcliro Oooano nl<]tio nllcrniii aostiluiK llispiil. 

To the Vandals it was a cajiital, and likewise under the first 
Moorish conquerors. Its Bishop, Oi>pa8. a relative of AVittiza, 
plavi'd a i)rominent part in the treacluMy which resulted in the 
battle of (iiKKJalete ; and the wife of the last (Jolhic kin^ se- 
cured tlie clenioMcy of the conqueror by sacrificing her widow's 
Weeds to the son of the caliph's lieutenant. The lieni Omevah 
established the seat of their (Jovernment at Cordova. Upon the 
downfall of this dynasty Seville fell to the Beni Abbad. who 
were c*»mpared to the Abassi<les of Ba<;dad, for their «xi lu r- 
osity, virtues and misfortunes. The fate of the last ot ihc 
line — Al Mutadcd — illustrates the dogma of the prophet, that 
no one can escape the destinj' graven upon the eternal tablets. 
The Christian power having increased in proporti<»n to the 
decline of the Mohammedan, he found himself under the neces- 
sit}' of seeking aid f'*om abroad, and for that })urpose turned 
his eyes toward Yusef beim Taxfin, the great leader of the 
Almoravides. Jlis l»i'other kings warne<l him against tlie dan- 
ger of seeking an alliance with so jxiwi-rful a iViend. quoting 
the ])ithy proverb, "a kingdom without luii-> and one long 
sword do not find I'oom in the same scabbaixl ;" to which he 
rejilied with equal point, " better be a driver of camels than a 
di'ivei- of pigs;" that is, better Ik' :i servant of the .Mohamme- 
«lan and guard his camels, than of the Chi'isliiin with his 
unclean swine. Yusef came, and the battle of Zalaka, in which 
the tSevillian king behaved as became a gallant soldier, i-iluiked 
the pride and insolence of the infidt I. lU'fore the buttle, Al- 
fonso wrote a long letter to Vwsef in a grandilo([uont Style, 
boasting of his resources and depreciating his adversary. Abu 
Ik'kr, the secretary, composed a similar reply. "It is too 
long," said the old warrior; '* bring me Alfonso's letter," and 
he wrote thereon these simjjle words, "he who lives will see." 
Well might the Christian king tremble at its brevity. The 
war being over, Al Mutaded invited his guest to .Seville. When 
the beautiful city, with its gardens and palaces, and its spacious 
river, covered with the commerce of Africa and the Hast, burst 
M]ton the sight of the Almoravide, his heart was filled with 



DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. 230 

ciivy and treachery. A few months more, and Al ]\rutadcd 
implored tlie aid of tlic Christian ai:;ainst his former friend, hut 
in vain. Tlie latter part of his days were spent in easy cap- 
tivity in Africa, afar from the perfumed hanks of the Guadal- 
quivir. Of Al ]\Iutade<l's gallantr}-, a curious instance is nar- 
rated. One of his wives happening to see some countrywomen 
up to their ancles in mud selling milk, exclaimed, with the 
natural discontentedness of her sex, " I wish T could do as 
these women are doing." Whereupon Al Mutaded ordered the 
palace floor to be covered with a compound of musk and such 
like substances, mixed together with rose Avater, so that the 
Sidtana and her maids might paddle about to their content. 
His courage and literary taste were equal to his gallantrj^j and, 
notwithstanding some serious defects, Al Mutaded may rank 
among the greater of the Mohammedan Emirs. 

Tiie Almoravides were succeeded by the Almohades. At 
length, the edge of the sAvord Avas turned to the destroyer; 
and St. Ferdinand, on the 27th day of ^November, 1248, after a 
fifteen montlis' siege, planted the banner of Castile upon the 
Giralda. Mohammed, surnamed Al Hamra or "the Red," the 
founder of the kingdom of Granada and of its famous castle, 
who in his qualit}' of vassal to tile Christian king, had borne a 
prominent part in its capture, returned to his mountain home, 
saddened by his success against the last remnant but one of the 
great Moorish empire of the West. 

From that time until the conquest of Granada, Seville con- 
tinued to be the principal residence of the Spanish monarchs 
while engaged in the final contest. The extinction of Moham- 
medanism was simultaneous Avith another event, Avhich raised 
Seville to the summit of Avealth and distinction — the disco\*ery 
of America. Strange that Columbus, after being repulsed from 
eveiy other maritime court in Europe, should have laid the 
fruits of his inspiration at the feet of Spain, as if in fulfilment 
of the prophecy of Seneca, himself an Andalusian, avIio, in the 
Medea, sang, centuries before — 

Vcnicnt annis saecnla seris 
Quibu8 Occanus vincula vcrum 
Laxet, et ingens pat€at f^-llu?, 
Ti'lhy!><iuc noviis dctcpat orbe?, 
Ncc sit fcrrii? ultima Thnle. 

For many generations Seville enjoj'ed a monopoly of the 
American trade. Hence sailed tRe fleets which transported to 
the simple natives of the New World the wonders of Europe, 



240 8PAIN Axn Tin: Spaniards. 

and hillu-r thev nturncMl fn-iijlited with tlio silver and tfoUlon 
sinews wliieh sustained the ini<>;lity power ofCliarles anvl IMiilip, 
and enabled them to keep so hir<j;e a portion of Europe untler 
their influence. That Seville should have been a great centre 
of retineinent and luxury is natural. Its merchants became 
princes, and its noble houses, its (Juzmans and Ponces de Leon 
ranked with the kinirs of the earths. At the same time, the 
facility of accjuiring competence and position infused a new 
spirit into the lower classes, and tenipered the prejtonderance 
of hereditary power. Great as Seville was, the rejiorts ol its 
magnificence, and especially of its manufacturing devehtpmont, 
were much exaggerated. Capinany has reduced them within 
proi)er tlimensions. lie has iahored to show that Spain never 
was a great iiianulhcturiiig or coimnercial nation, ami tl\at the 
trade of Seville was, to a c(»nsideralile extent, in the hamls of* 
foreiirners. lie certainl}' has not been led astray by natiunal 
vaiii(\"; and those who follow in ids footsteps have improved 
upon iiim to such a degree as to denj' the country any indus- 
trial develoi»ment whatever. It is true anil natural that the 
peaceful arts should not have received extraordinary attention 
where the sound of the bugle was seldom hushed upon the 
boi'der, and tlie tramp of the war horse was sweeter music 
than the hum ol" the spinning wiieel. Jhit there was also an 
industrial class. Formerly in Jiurgos one ('ofnulia alone could 
not contain l»y law less than Iburteen thousand members, a 
number greater than the whole poiniiation of the city after its 
decline. We all have read, too, how, in the times of Edward VI 
and Elizabeth, the present ol'a jiair of silk stockings out of Spain 
was suflicient to set the whole circle of court ladies into a flutter 
of envious excitement, Just as, during the reign of their ancestors, 
the (laiiv renewal oflVesh straw ujion the tloor of a great noble- 
man's mansion was considered a mark of extraordinary bixury. 
And we know that every article of manufacturing skill used in 
England, tV(nn jxjwder to looking-glasses, was imported from 
Franei', Italy or Spain. In fact, Si)ain was to Europe of 
the sixteenth centur\- what l-'i'ance is now, the centre of fashion 
and elegance. The nanus of many <>f (he streets, such as Calle 
de los Francos and de (lenova, would demonstrate the presence 
of a large foreign po])ulation. But such is always the case. A 
very large proportion of the jjopulalion both of New Orleans 
and New Y(U"k were born ^ut of the limits of the United 
States, yet they are, none the less, great American cities. 



PROSPERITY OF SKVILLE. 241 

The effect of the discovery of America upon Seville was 
similar to that of the discovery of the California mines upon 
San Francisco. Crowds from every nation eagerly rushed to 
participate in the golden -wealth, and in (heir train came the 
arts of more industrious races. Considerahle part of this influx 
halted at Seville, for the regulations were very strict in pre- 
venting unauthorized persons from proceeding to the Indies. 
After the furor of energy had subsided, came, in usual turn, the 
reign of the elegant arts, the famous schools of painting and 
sculpture, and a literary- taste, which prove that the hanks of 
the (Juadalquivir were still the seat of Spanish refinement, 
though ihe Court resided elsewhere. Hither came all who 
were characterized bj* profundity of acquirement, elegance of 
sentiment, or a taste for the humanities. Nor these alone, 
but with them the miserable and unfortunate of every class, so 
that it was stjled ''refugio de pobres y amparo de desdichados." 
The absence of the frivolities, the phlegmatic dulness and 
t3'ranny of the Court was probably beneficial, foi- the effect 
of the influx of American wealth upon the Government, and 
the freedom of the nation at large, was bj'^ no means beneficial. 
It made the monarch independent of his subjects, and thus gave 
him a stand-point whence to wage war upon their liberties. 
The adventurers, too, scattered over an immense territory 
tliousands of miles from home, and surrounded by enemies, 
demanded a strong central power inconsistent with, and de- 
structive of individual independence at home. Madrid was the 
seat of this political government, but, in other respects, scarcely 
more than the capital of New Castile, enjoying about as much 
pre-eminence as is accorded by us to Washington city. Anda- 
lusia was b}- far the wealthiest province, and its Ca])tain- 
Grcneral almost indej^endent of the central jxnver. The consti- 
tutional regime, which succeeded P^erdinand. struck a great blow 
at the imi)oi'tancc of the provincial cities. The authority of 
the Ca])tain-(reneral was confined almost entii'ely to military 
maliris; the central government extended the sphere of its 
influence, and the minds of men became gradually turned 
toward the capital. And the completion of the railroad systera 
will have some effect in the same direction. So that Seville is 
no longer the capital of even the four kingdoms of Andalusia. 
It is a charming residence, but it is indebted therefor to advan- 
tages which no Government can confer, and none take awuy. 
17 



CiiArrKK XIV. 
SOCIAL I- I F K . 

Influcnco of Climiitc — Temperance — Doniciitic IlaMls — The Houses — Tertiilia — 
Spaiiii--h Ladios — Tlicir Cbaractcristic? — Ptyle of Beauty — Marriages — IntelliKcnco 
— Fauiily Relations — Historical — Influence of the Virgin — Of the Mohaiumedan 
Relifrion — Farewell. 

Before leaving Seville, I slioiild say something aVxnit llie 
people and the soeial life in Andalusia, of which it presents the 
fairest type, and to do so ])roperly, it is necessai-y to consider 
somewhat the jjhysical and the external conditions that influ- 
ence in<t)-e or less every ])eople in the formation of their hahits, 
and through them of their national chai'acter. The Hni* climate 
of the south of Spain causes a consideralile part of the day, and 
also of the night, to he passed in the opi-u air, whethei' within 
or without the dwelling, a circumstance that travellers do not 
sutliciiMitly hear in mind, and are hence fre(iuently deceived hy 
ajipt aiances (jf jiuMicity. wliitii tin-}' hastily misconstrue into 
want (if delicacy and jtrojur I'eticence. They remark an ah- 
sence of that si-nsitive shriMking from the ])uhlic view, that 
secrecy of inti'rnal life existing in cuidei- cliiiiatt's, hut which is 
no I'vidence of modesty theiT, nor is the ahsence ot" it evidence 
of the contrary here. Both are hahits of life, attrihutaltle to 
the peculiarities of llu' nature around llu-m. In no |iart ol' 
Andalusia is there any real winter. There may he a cold wind, 
a slight frost, and at times a handl'ul of snow in some localities; 
with enough variation in the seasons to hrace the frame and 
stimulate the intellect, hut no weathei- that would reiuler one 
of our rousing tires endurable. As lor colds, rluiiniatisms and 
aches, they are utterly unknown. The jiurity ol the sk}' is 
seldfjin marred by u cloud. It is said, with j)rohahle truth, that 
there has never been a day since the creation of the world, in 
which the sun wholly refused to shine upon Seville, and its 



I 



TEMPER ATK HABITS. 243 

climate possesses the further recommondation of healing all 
wounds hut those of tlie heart. To this should be added the 
elasticity of the atmosphere, which renders even the midsum- 
mer's heat exciting rather than debilitating, and the universal 
good health thai gives no excuse for dying. The vigoi'ous old 
age of the Andalusians is astonishing. Iiniumci'alih^ of the 
great historic characters have exceeded the limit of foui- score 
and ten in the full enjoyment of their faculties. The habit of 
living in the open air, and the freedom from those vast encas- 
ings of garments, which restrain all natural movement and 
convert human beings into walking bales of merchandize, have 
doubtless much to do with the Andalusian grace, so proverbial. 
\yhatever be the cause, they are graceful, active, nervous and 
capable of immense endurance. They are temperate to an ex- 
treme. Even in the Moorish days the Sevillians were renown- 
ed in this respect, and a historian mentions that contrary to the 
law of the Koran, it was not considered improper to drink wine 
in Seville, as indulgence never led to intoxication. Any modern 
Englishman or Dane, not to speak of "the old folks," would 
drink enough at a sitting to send a company of Spaniards to 
the asylum. The ordinary' beverage is water or other refresh- 
ing and harmless liquids, which are sold at the corners of the 
streets. In Seville temporary stands are erected in ever}' place 
where men congregate or pass, and furnish orchata, naranjada, 
agraz, and similar compounds, far more suitable to the climate 
and natural taste than the euphonious cocktail. The naranjada 
is made of orange., the agrazof unripe grape; but the most com- 
mon drink of all is pure water, with an azucarillo or pa nal, a 
porous, spongy stick of sugar, with a drop of lemon dissolved 
in it, which can be procured at all times. The shop is protect- 
ed li-om the sun by branches of orange or fig, and the water is 
kept cool in tiie alrari'aza^^, of which I spoke at Andnjar. 
Spaniards drink water upon all occasions and at all hours, 
morning, noon and night, particularly after chocolate, which is 
made thick, and is supposed to have bilious tendencies unless 
thus counteracted. Tiocalities are yjraised by the mention of 
their springs and fountains, not of their vuieyards, nor does the 
product of the latter form an endless sul»ject of talile talk. In 
this res])ect the whole country is alike. Of intoxication they 
have absolutely no experience, and nothing gives greater dis- 
gust than drunkenness or gluttony* A Spanish soldier will 



244 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

iniirc-li all day on a cuji of cliocolate and a crust of Itroad. 
Owinj; to tho dry climate, food is said to contain more nourisli- 
luent here than elsewhere. At all events, so it is that the}- are 
as tem|)erate in eating as in drinking, and as for the ladies, I 
think they live mostly on air. Society in the rest of Europe 
revidves around the talile. In Andalusia it must he sou^^ht on 
the I'aseo or in the Tertulia, and the idea would not naturally 
enter a iSpaniartl's head of sliowinj; his respect or friendship hy 
inviting you to dinner, thou<^h you may ]ierhaps he asketl to 
stay and try the " Jnrtunv <lu jnft." .Many foreigners cannot com- 
prehend liow it is that lliey dilivi r letters of introduction aud 
never once see the color of the host's n>alioi;any. To their 
entire freedom from jihysical suflering, and this ahstincnce 
from over indulgence in the jtieasures ol" the taMe. may per- 
haps l»e traced the cheerfulness of dis])osition, or rather the 
absence of peevishness and spleen which characterizes the An- 
dalusians. A Sj»aniard seldom comjdains. Notwitlistanding 
the violence of their emotions, suicide is never resorted to. 
Indeed, in this heautiful land, this Tierra de Dios, the usual 
causes for self-destruction can scarcely he said to exist, and tho 
only occasion which could justify such an act would he the eve 
of one's dei>artuiv. 

The Andalusians havi- not yet, as a general thing, adopted 
the late houi's of ^ladii<l. 'Jhe almost universal liahit in sum- 
mer, among the men. is to I'ise eai'ly and to hreak the fast 
with a CUJI of chocolate, taken in l>ed. This is the ilistiyuuo, 
lileraliv, the •' uiifast." After that is the promenade for 
pleasure ()r husines^, as the case may he. Formerly, tlu- prin- 
cijtal meal was taken ahout noon, hut customs vaiy in dilVerent 
classes of society, though the nature of the climate imposes a 
ci'i'lain similarity. The names of tho meals are derived from 
the I.atin: J///a/ r/o, the regular breakfast, is ti-aced to "mor- 
5Uii," though the article j)reti.\etl is susjjicious. It would thus 
signify " a bite," which i> in harmony with the habits of the 
Komans, wliose only foiiiial meal was the supper. So la meri- 
endd, the lunch, comes from meridianus; la comida, dinner, from 
comedttir ; la <rna, suj»pi r. is the same in b(jth languages. The 
siesta, in the hottest part (.f the day, is peculiarly Spanish, and 
woe to till' unlucky wight who distiiilis lliat sacred period. 
Doors and shutters are closed. The jnaster and misti'ess, the 
man servant and maid aeivant, tho cattle, and the stranger 



ARRANGEMENTS OF HOUSES. 245 

witliin their gates, jd'o Avrapped in profound slumber, and fow 
inducements, short of salvation, eould prevail u])()n them to 
forego this enjoyment. At three o'clock, the whole world 
wakes u}); the afternoon cathedral service commences; buyers 
and sellers smoke a cigarette, and start afresh, and the dogs 
and cats, after a ])r()f<)und yawn, and a good stretch of the hind 
leg, renew the never varying round of canine and feline exist- 
ence. As I have said, the jiromenade in winter on the banks 
of the Guadalquivir, and in summer on the Plaza Isabel, 
between nine and eleven o'clock in the evening, is also indis- 
pensable. 

But the charm of social life consists in the Tertulia or even- 
ing reception, for which the domestic architecture seems ex- 
actly calculated, though it is a more difficult task to decide 
whether the architecture has exercised more influence over 
their habits of life, or these over their ideas. of architecture. 
The ])lan of the houses is similar to that introduced or adopted 
by the Moors, and is eminently suited to the climate and the 
people. The outside rarely presents anything to adtnire — a 
white wall, with large grated balconied windows, in Avhich the 
occupants can sit and look up and down the narro\v street. In 
Avinter this is the favorite place for the ladies, and it is through 
these iron bars that lovers are permitted to whisper their vows. 
In an evening's walk one can see the faithful swains thus 
engaged in what is called pelar el pavo, nor are such interviews 
considered improper. The entry into the house is by a little 
ball or vestibule, some ten feet or more in width, and the depth 
of a room, with massive folding doors upon the street, which 
are seldon\ closed till past midnight. At the foot of the hall is 
an ornamented grating, giving admission to the Patio, the prin- 
cijtal part of the bouse — an open court, square or oblong, 
varying frf>m fifteen to fifty feet in size and paved with marble. 
In the centre stands a fountain, whose flowing waters help to 
lower the temperature. Around runs an open corridor with a 
colonnade, upon whi(di. the ground floor I'ooms open. The upper 
part of the house is similar in its arrangements, except that the 
corridor is generally closed, with windows giving on the Patio. 
There is still another court for the offices, and in grand estab- 
lishments several. It will be seen at once that the u])per por- 
tion is most exposed to the sun, and consequently the winter 
residence, and it is furnished accordingly. In .lanuary artificial 



246 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

wnrmtli is oocasidiially di'siraMe, evi'ii at Sovillc. In the total 
aksfiicf of firt'plaet's. a few coals arc placed upon a hrasero, 
and the company sit around lioldin«j out their hands to catch 
the little heat it evolves. The first time I took my ])lace in 
the circle around this caricature of a fire, it was ditlicult to 
refrain from smilinj^, as it j^ave us the complete air of a collec- 
tion of beautiful, half-frozen witches. As soon as the rainy 
season has ])assed and the warm weather commences, the 
family mcive down below, flowers and odoriferous shrubs are 
placed in (he Patio, the ])iano in one corner, the «jfuitar in 
another, an awninii; is drawn over it during the daytime to 
exclude the sun, and summer life commences. It is here that 
the hulies of the family sit in the cool of the evenini; to pursue 
tlieir occupations or to amuse themselves with music and 
company. Jti<:;id foi-malities and tlu-ii- attendant cares and 
anxieties are foi'bidden entranci-. In common with most 
warm-tempered people, their address is at first somewhat cere- 
monious, but the manners of the better class are eminently 
frank, if there be no cause for suspicion. 80 soon as a faint 
intimacy is established, the title and surname are dropped; it 
is simply Francisco or Manuel, and Paca or Pcpita, and how 
pretty oven the harshest a|)pellative sounds when thus spoken. 
Attectation, the vanity ot display, indirterence to or forj^etful- 
ness of the rights of the rest of the company, have no place. 
Everv<jne respects himself, and wiiile vindicating bis own 
equality, yields respect and equality to others, whatever may 
be the ditierence of titular distinction ; and any attempt at dis- 
play or effort to engross the conversation by a speecli or a 
lecture, however brilliant, would be considered in exceedingh' 
bad taste. Without this sense of assuri'd ]»osition there cannot 
exist llie jterfectiou of mannei-, for there will either be an 
assumption of superiority or an acknowledgment ot inferiority, 
and both ai'e equally fatal. Hence it is that .Vmerican genlle- 
imii. like tiie S|)anish (who are thoroughly I.'i|iiiMi(:iM among 
eacii othei'j, have always been considered the best models of 
good Ill-ceding, feeling within themselves that consciousness of 
personal dignity and e(|iiality, iieeding no effoi't to procure 
their recognition, which elsewliei-e must be found, it found at 
all. oidy in the highest ranks of ilu- aristocracy. A stranger, 
judging them by their lornial, i-xternal demeanor, is quite 



SPANISH LADIKS. 247 

unprepared for the cliarining freedoiu win'eh reiixiis iu the 
domestic circle 

Upon the deliver}' of your letter of introduction, a Spanish 
gentleman immediately presents you with his houso, Afi casa 
estd a su disposichn or esta easa es suya, without thereby intend- 
ing to make you a conveyance, and give you the right to insti- 
tute an action of ejectment, which would involve you in all the 
troubles of housekee])ing, but merely to inform you that you 
arc welcome in the evening, if you can find any one in. Do 
not think, hrwever, that he or the household are going to put 
themselves out in the slightest degree. Some families are at 
homo on stated evenings, and it generally happens that 3'ou 
find them in. but if you do not, why you can pass on to another 
acquaintance, and there is no offence meant and none taken. 
Nothing can surpass the fair}^ aspect of a family evening party, 
viewed from the grating The suspended lamps give just 
enough light to see the sparkling dro])s of the fountain, and to 
recognize the ladies, half hid among the flowers. With their 
beauty, so suited to a scene of the kind, they scarcely seem to 
be of this earth. You enter, are welcomed, pointed to a seat. 
If the ladies of the house be agreeable you are seldom the 
onl}' guest. The time flies by, chocolate, sweetmeats, perhajis 
ices, ])erhaps pure water, help it along. The watchman cries 
the hour in your hearing. Heavens I can it be so late ? You 
place yourself at the feet of your fair entertainers {me pongo d 
los pies dc vm. senorita). They kiss your hand {hem la iiumo a vm. 
cabcUero). You skip along the street as though supported on 
the air}- pinions of the wind. Y'ou dream of black eyes and 
glossy hair, of guitars and delicate fingers, of fairies seated in 
0])ening rose buds, waving their fans to you and enveloping 
3'our eyes with tiny lace veils. 

But my lady readers will exclaim, what is all this i-ha])sody 
about? You gf) into a house with a court; see some ladies 
with fans and guitars; 3'ou drink a little water, eat a cake, and 
come out raving about fairies and angels. We see nothing 
wonderful in all tliat. There must have been some very intel- 
lectual convei'sation ; pray, what were j'ou talking about? 
Alas I you cannot tell. You do not remember three words that 
were uttered. It was very witty, very graceful, very charm- 
ing; even the pauses were delicious, but exactly what it was 
you cannot recollect. It did not impress you as displaying 



24^ SPAIN ANP THK SPANIARDS. 

profound erudition. Indeed, the edueation of Spanisl) ladies is 
generally soniewliat ne<;K'cte<l. Tliey learn irom IxioUs little, 
except the rudiments, and of the outside world beyond the 
Pyrenees have exeecdini^ly confused ideas. A young Arago- 
nesa, who had Just left school with a prize, and was full of 
intelligence an<l patriotism, once asked me if Morocco and 
America were not near each (»thcr. There are nunu-rous ex- 
ceptions, hut reading, writing, a little arithmetic, geograjdiy, 
poetry, Spanish history, and the lives of the saints, with a tol- 
erahle knowledge of French and music, is all one necil usually 
expect. Of the whole list of '• ologics" they are entirely inno- 
cent. Your lady questioners turn away with indignation, and 
ask how a woman can he agreeahle who is ignorant of con- 
choh)gy, does not know sicnite from horid)lende, and could 
not solve a quadratic equation to save herself from eternal per- 
dition. For answer, 1 refei* tliem to tlie Fmperoi' of the 
Frendi, who laid the loftiest diadem in Christendom at the 
feet of one of Andalusia's daughters, and has seen no reason to 
repent the sacrifice. The truth is. that the whole chai-m of 
cither man or woman does not consist in the amount of the 
outside world which tlioy have managed to cram into the 
inside of their brains — a S3stem that should be styled imliication 
rather than education. You would be very much shocked, in 
walking thi'ougli a tlowery gi'ove at sunset, if your conipanion 
were to break away after some new s[)ecies of the Ilygoniedon 
Septentrionalis, or the jaw tooth of a decaying red-sandstono 
monster. I am huvv tluit no .\ii<laluza wmild.but in these mat- 
ters everA'one must follow his own taste. Were some benefi- 
cent divinit}' to ])resent the author with a ))encil dipped in the 
hues of the rainboM', he might undertake to ex])lain the mys- 
tery of tlu'ir ])owers of fascination ; without such supernatural 
aid lie would probably meet, at least deserve, the fate of Pro- 
metheus. The women of eveiy country have some peculiar 
attraction. To these alone is it resei-ved to unite all. Their 
inexpressible beauty has, doubtless, much t(» do with it. and it 
certainly- is beyond description. The most crazy dream of 
poetry in its wildest conceptions never surpassed this reality. 
The niei'e contour of the face is a small pni't. lor her beauty, 
like that of her country, is subjective, and consists rallier in 
the expression,. in the mingled softness and fire, the enthusiasm 
that sparkles forth. Those uiiiatboniable eyes are Ijut the 



STYLE OF BEAITY. — TUKTR SINCERITY. 240 

windows of the soul, and that inimitahle o-i-aco of person 
which enchants the heliolder. is only a part of the harmony of 
the universe that seeks in her a connecting:; link hetween our 
mortal cloaks and the mystic music ])ervadin£j:: ci'eati(»n. Wliile 
in repose, the expression of her face, in tendi'r symi»at1iy witli 
the soul, is pensive, even melancholy, hut. upon tiie ap]>roach of 
a friend, she returns to earth like the awakening of a morninj;- 
in s))rinii;. Every feature heams with attraction, and pi-ecious 
peai'ls drop from her rosy li])s. Who that has a heart to lose, 
could refuse to lay it at her feet 'i Ah ! Jjove was surely born 
in Spain. Artless and unsnspcctini;- in hei' thouu'lits, she re- 
ceives every expression of admiration without vanity, and 
seems to value it rather liecausc of the source whence it pro- 
ceeds, than as a tribute to her own charms. The simplicity of 
her manner is only to he equalled by the kindness of her heart. 
All this, united with an ardent temperament, renders her capa- 
ble of the noblest deeds of self-devotion, of which the maid of 
Zaragoza is no isolated example. The pji-eat peculia)'ity of 
Spanish women is their sincerity^ and open-heartedness. They 
will speak to 3'ou with ])raise of the ladies of other countries, 
admire their beauty and good qualities, but add no tieuen fran- 
qiieza como iiosofras (they are not frank as we are). Spain is 
no land of hypocrites. It is the absence of this frankness 
which makes Avomen nisce and tickle, defects thoroughly de- 
tested by both sexes. The character of a flirt, or whatever 
maybe the proper appellation — I mean a beauty — Avho (Udights 
in general admiration, and makes use of her charms to bewil- 
der the susce]»tible, without experiencing any emotion beyond 
that of gratified vanit}'. who, in a word, thinks only of herself 
and her triumphs — is as little understood as adn\ired. Xot that 
they are by any means indifferent to the good opinion of the 
other sex, for after all they are women : 

En ]iiiliiciii I.'j Piincc.«a, 
En la ciuda'l la Seiiora, 
En la nlilea la i)astora, 
Y en la Corte la Duqucsa, 
Madre ! a ningima le pesia. 
Que le (ligan que es perfela. 

And custom has rendered it not imi)erfinent to ex]iress admira- 
tion at the sight of a beaut}', if done in tlie delicately courteous 
manner usual in this scetiou. But this of itself is not sufticient. 



250 SPAIN AMI TIIK SPANIARDS. 

Indeed, fi'W Spanisli ladies have any amMlioii to act tin- part of 
belles; to l»e the ivei]>ients of a thousand little familiar gallan- 
tries wliich mean nothing, and pass away, and are forijotten, 
like mornin:;; shadows. Others may he satisfied with formal 
and ceremonious eourtesies. The homage they reijuire is such 
as should he paid to divinitj' on heiided knees, yet so irresistihlo 
iH the infatuation inspired hy these daughters of the sun, that 
the hel])less w<trsliip])er is too hap])y to obe}' their imperious 
commands. WIk-ii the system of gallants (curtijo was the 
Sjtanish word) prevailed in Europe, travellers wondered at the 
slavery it iinj>ose(l in Spain. The eoi-tejo was bound to be ever 
present. Jf a shawl, glove or fan was to be picked nji. he was 
always on hand, and any (lisjxisilion to be ro/riry/f discredited him 
in the eyes of the whole eonununity. Sincerity and C(»nstancy 
in the women correspond to obstinacy <jr tenacity in the men, 
for which they liave been famous since the days of Ilannilial. 
Si)aiiish women are ])assionate, and if they do fall in lyve it is 
a serious matter. Wiien they give their hearts, it is forever. 
Self is forgotten, and their wliole existence wrapped up in devo- 
tion to the object of their choice. Three-fourths of the misery, 
and no inconsid'crable portion of the crimes, of such frecpient 
occurrence in the I'eninsula, are attriluitablo to this cause. 
The lower classes still use tiie dagger to reveiigi' themselves 
upon a rival or a traitor, and il' tlie higher raid<s are less 
demonstrative, it is not because they feel less keenly. Hut can 
a woman inspire devotion wlio is incajialtle herself of jealousy ? 
You are seldom left in doulit as (o die position you occupy in 
her estimation. One conse(iueme is, tiial the system of mar- 
riage sales which reigns in Kngland and Finance has only mod- 
erate sway in Spain. In l''i"ance, 3'oung ladies have no iilierty 
whatever. It would be an insult to venture beyond the merest 
formal couilesies. They are taken from the convent, and 
remain in a most irksome state of I'csti'ainl until marriage — to 
which event they look forward as the door of Irecdom — and 
acce])t any suitable ixirti who has been selected Ijy their j)arents. 
In lOngland they iiave full Iilierty, but the same end is attained 
in a \i-vy dill'erent way. .Manni ami the daughter go out to the 
chase together, and any poor fellow who has a title or a fortune is 
hunted down remorselessly. The practical residts of this system 
seem to be better than that of the French, but in itself it is 
inlinitely more humiliating and disgusting. In Spain, a medium 



ELDERLY LADIES. — FILIAL AFFECTION. 251 

between the two prevails. They have far moi-e liberty tlian in 
Franee, fur le.ss than in England. Young people are allowed to 
say agreeable things to each other, and insinuating compli- 
ments fre([uently pass. But whatever be the restraint imposed, 
few Spanish ladies would sell themselves or allow themselves to 
be sold by their parents. Of course, in an old countiw where 
wealth is not easily accumulated, some regard must be had to 
that commodity. I^robably every woman would like to make 
what is considered a good match, and sometimes there as well 
as elsewhere 

The Knave of Diamonds tries his wilj' arts, 

And wins! (Oh ! shameful chance !) the Queen of Hearts. 

Hut it is. nevertheless, a tiMith that six marriages out of ten are 
made against the better judgment of the parents, though I 
cannot say that in the long run the ])arties seem any the hap- 
])ier therefor. Love often overrides prudential considerations. 
"At first sight they have changed eyes;" and, if the history of 
Dona Clara de Viedma and Don Luis is no longer re-enacted 
in all particulars, the spirit which dictated it still survives. 

After a certain age, women necessarily change the object of 
their lives. The disposition and the power to attract the hom- 
age of the other sex alike diminish, and more serious subjects 
fill their thoughts. Li those countries where the ])rincipal 
object of ever}" woman's existence is to get married, the match- 
ing off of daughters is the absorbing occupation of old age ; 
and so ])0werful an instinct has nature planted in the mother's 
breast for this purpose, that the ordinary feelings of delicacy 
are quite forgotten. Every humiliation is cheerfully submitted 
to which can conduce to the success of the cherished ]>ur))Ose. 
There is nothing of all tlii- in Spanish society. If ladies do 
not wish to marr}'. they can remain single or enter a convent, 
and both are honorable alternatives. Old maidism is not con- 
sidered such a dreadful condition as to lie avoided by the sacri- 
fice of everything that could render married life endurable to a 
Sjjaniaril. J'elieved from this great burthen of marrying off 
their daughters at every hazard, the mothei-s ai'c apt to devote 
their time to religion and charity, and nothing can be more 
charming than the family circle presided over by such an one. 
The sons and daughters are not made to feel that their longer 
presence in the mansion is irksome, and that it is time they go 



252 SPAIN ANl» TMK SPANIAUDS. 

Ibrth to scfk tlieirowii nosts. Tlio}- in turn repay this fostering 
love with the purest lilial afToction. Every traveller must have 
met. in liis limited experience, instances of tonchini^ devotion 
on the part <•<" widows' sons. The mother of my Madrid hostess 
was still living at .'"Seville, and one of her sons had riMuained 
single in order that he might the hetter discharge his duties to 
her. Such occurrences are still more common in the higher 
ranks. The cultivation of this reciprocity of generous feeling 
throws a charm over the homeliest face; and the absence of 
selfish purpose renders the com])any of elderly ladies far more 
agreeahle than what can he fcmnd in a state of society where 
females, who survive their attractions, take to opium, women's 
rights associations and l-'.xclci- Hall meetings, or, jterhaps. still 
indulge in ihe delusion of rouge and pow<ler. Of course, all 
this does not apply to Madrid, though there l>c more excei»tions 
there than is generalU' supposed. In too man}- lofty instances, 
the eve of metro])olitan lifi', like its morning, presents n<jught 
hut frivolity and dissipation. 

1 have said that Spniiisli woiiicn are imperfectly educatt'd, 
and I miirht add that they seldom travel heyontl the limits of 
their own ])rovincc. There are exceptions to both statements; 
siicli is, however, the general rule. Yet, the term "ignorant," 
in tlie signification it conveys with us, is entirely ina])])licahle, 
unless ignorance be defined the n\ere negation of acquired 
knowledge, and in that case the "ignorance" of Solomon would 
astonish a modern boarding school miss. In those countries 
where learning is forced ui)on everyone, tin- want of it, in cer- 
tain classes of society', is evidence of stupidity, and the two .ire 
considered synon3'mous. liiit the natural vivacity and bright- 
ness of the Andalusian inlellecl and llie cullivalion which it 
receives from conversation, make ani|iK' amenils for any defi- 
cienc}?^ of mere knowle(lge, ;nid the women still ret.ain unim- 
paired the charms with wliicli heavi'n originally endtiwiMl them. 
What paiticularly distinguishes the Andaluzas throughout 
S]»ain is the indescribable thing called (jiutciit. It is not siiujily 
wit noi' grace, but a comliination nl' both, wi'lded tj»gether 
with some celestial cement, I know not what. Vou never con- 
found the ";S''t/ Aiuhduza'' \\\\\\ that from any other province. 
It has lis distinct a chai'acter. and almost as great a fame, as 
the attic salt of antitpiity. Tlie most indifferent and insignifi- 
cant occurrence served up with this condiment becomes most 



GENIUS. ACCOMl'LISHMENTS. 253 

palatable, and all the ladies have it in the ])ui'est form. An- 
dalusia has been the home of genius from the days of Trajan 
and Seneca to our own. Either the localit}* or the climate 
seems to develop that fervid imagination, ■without some of 
which there is little talent even of the order called practical. 
The men do not make such good soldiers, for that very reason ; 
the restraint and ennid of a camp life is too irksome. ]iut as 
rulors, genei'als, orators, poets and j^ainlers, tliov have always 
shone pre-eminent. These same endowments distinguished 
them in the time of the Moors, and still more among the 
Romans : 

Alite gentcs quos foedcre Roma rcecpit 
Aut nruiis domuit, varios aiitantur in usus 
Itnjicrii, * "*' * * 

* * Fruges, ivraria. miles 

Undiquc conveuiunt, toto((ue ex orbc leguntur. 
IliBC gcncrat qui cuncta regaut; nee laude vjrorum 
Censcri contcnta fuit, nisi matribu.s iB(iue 
Vinoeret ct gcmiuo eertatim splendida scxii 
Flavillani. Marianiquc daret. iiulcliranuiui' Sercnnin. 

Xor are the lines of the Eonnm poet less applicable to mod- 
ern than to ancient times. Scarce one of the great men of the 
Spain of this centurj* tirst saw the light north of the Tagus, 
and among the rival claims of the other sex few Avill hesitate 
in awarding the golden apple. In addition to gifts of intellect, 
they possess all the Oriental grace of narrative. A lady once 
undertook to tell me an incident from one of the old Spanish 
chronicles. The bare facts I knew already better than she, as 
I had read them in the book itself, Avhich she evidently had 
not. But what a ditt'erence in the style of narrative! In my 
hands it would have been the text of the opera without the 
music; in hers, it was a poem set by Mendelssohn. They have 
a great deal of vivacity, yet they are by nc; means so given to 
gesticulation as the French, nor have they that sort of ficti- 
tious excitement unaccompanied by real ])assion. But they 
make great use <»f those natui-al gestures which are the ajtpro- 
priate aids of expression in persons who feel strongly. The 
fun is invarialdy appealed to; the elderly ones ot the old 
school invoke the saints on slight provocation, crossing them- 
selves all tiie while devoutly; and all ages have an inexhaust- 
ible fund of conversation, which, whether instructive or not, is 
amazingly agreeable. Their brilliant, llorid iujaginations, and 



254 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

the facility afforded Ity the assonante rliyino. render poetry an 
alnio8t universal ^ift. One acconijilislnnent they possess to 
perfection. I cannot say they learn it, for it seems to be born 
within fheni. I mean tlie <^iiitar. Ilavini^ no conception of 
the abstruse matiieinatical music that subordinates the voice to 
the instrument, they touch inimitably well this, which has 
verv little jiower, except as an accompaniment, and they have 
by nature an exquisite taste, which impels them to make every 
thinn subservient to the principal end. so that you are never 
teni])ted to forijct the music in the skill of tlu- in-rfornicr, or in 
admiration for some artistic fingerin*^. The music of an An- 
daluza seems, as it were, to have become a part of herself, and 
to be but another natural means of giving utterance to her 
thoughts and feelings. The men, in turn, all sing. I rather 
think the taste for serenading has died out in the large cities 
upon tlir liigiiways of travel, luit in smaller and remoter towns 
it is still the nightly occupation of the young gallants, who 
]>ass the evenings under the l)alcony of their mistress, and are 
I'c'warded l)y a conversation tlirougli tiie grating of tlu- win- 
dow. Kvery guitar player in S[)ain, however, is by no means 
a skilful performer; a great deal of what one hears is mere 
strumming. 

The influence of Murillo is still felt, though his excellence be 
not equalled, and it is said that if all the |iaintings in Seville 
were ])ut in a row, they would reach to Madrid. There is an 
astonishing disposition to appreciate the beauties of the art, 
even if there be a deficiency of scientific knowledge. Persons 
from whom you would little expect it can give a passably good 
opinion on the subject, and there is nothing more agreeable 
tiian to listen to a young Andaluza, wliilc she hesitatingly 
points out the excellencies of sonic favorite [»icture, and gives 
her reasons for the jn-eference. Her own nature seems to 
reflect upon the object, and slu' discovers far moiu' beauties 
than the artist ever conceived. In ])articuiar, do I remember 
one such conversation upon .Murillo's " (iiiardian Angel." which 
first elevated ine to an ajipi-cciat ion of its jxTfcclion. ( )n the 
other hand, they seem to me ileticient in the power of discov- 
ering defects, and both are necessary to correct criticism. 

An idea has obtained ciiTiilat ion alii-na<l to the effect that 
Spanish ladies, ])articulai'ly the Andaluzas, s[)end their days in 
idleness. Nothing, in my opinion, could be farther from the 



FAMILY RELATIONS. 255 

truth. Women here certtiinl_y do not perform the onerous and 
unsuitable tasks wliicli are imposed upon them in less gallant 
countries, nor do I think they should. Xaturc never intended 
the weaker sex to do the work of the world. But eveiy3'oung 
lady of the better class possesses a knowledge, more or less 
thorough, of the art of housekeeping; though it is true that the 
simplicity and temperate habits of the Spaniards render this 
a comparatively light dut3^ The dwellings in Seville are 
models of neatness, and not surpassed in Holland, and travel- 
lers, who have penetrated into their interior life, will sustain 
me in saying that the scene presented by the second Patio, so 
far ii'om being one of idleness, appears rather to be an imita- 
tion of the mansion of Penelope as di'awn by Homer. An 
Andaluza would be surprised to learn that there are countries 
in the world where it is considered little less than disgraceful 
for ladies of fashion to manage household aifairs. 

The family relations in Spain are very pleasant. Parental 
tyrann}'. and the consequent quarrels between father and son, 
are rare exceptions, nor is it thought neeessaiy that the heir 
and the ancestor should be of opposite opinions — i-ather the 
contrary. There is a most respectful deference of manner, but 
it partakes of the nature of friendship, and there is little exer- 
cise of authority for authority's sake. I think that this is the 
reason why the children have so much ease of manner, without 
being forward. The |»lan of separating them from the family 
circle just at the age when their characters are forming, is not 
fashionable, nor have young ladies' boarding schools yet been 
introduced. The girls are either taught by instructors who 
come to the house, or by tlieir relatives; the boys go to the 
local school. The son is thus the friend of the family, and 
feels that the ))atei"nal house is his home. In America, it is 
necessary to introduce boys early into life, because with us 
everyone musi be essentially the architect of his own fortunes. 
There is no such thing as a fixed position. The wheel of for- 
tune is continuallj- revolving, and he who remains quiet is sure 
to be crushed. But in Spain, as in most European countries, 
society is comparatively stationary. The contest cannot be- 
gin until the recruits have been educated and introducetl into 
the world by those who have already obtained a position. 
The noble spectacle is unknown of a young man, without the 
adventitious aids of wealth or birth, commencing at the lowest 



25G Sl'AlN AM» THK Sl'AMAUnS. 

round, aiul by virtue, talent an<l industry, in a score of j-cars 
attainini; a place among the honored of the land. 

The relation of husliand and wife is ]irohahly more hiati^fac- 
tor}- than is the average of the rest of Hurope. In the lower 
classes it certainly is, for elsewhere in Kurope virtue can 
scarcelv he said to exist among the inferior ranUs, and 1 can 
truthfully assert that in an evening's walk down the juincipal 
tljoroughfares of Loudon. I have heheld more infamy than in 
all Spain put together. But regarded froni our point of view, 
it is still had enough. Yet here, also, a ditt'erence of customs 
has given rise to a great misconception on the part of travellers, 
for cei'tain things are said, and certain things are done, inno- 
cent in themselves and in their effects, which elsewhere would 
he considered evidence of great impropriety. So, on the other 
hand, an unmarried lady's going out alone, or acce]>ting the arm 
of a gentleman, occurrences certainly not unusual in America, 
would almost ruin a reputation in S]>ain. A few years ago it 
would have been considered a dreadful thing lor a uocia to 
shake hands even with her cousin. Then, too, nothing is con- 
cealed. Whatever evil exists is visible. The fair fame of the 
country has suffered much from one class of travellers who, 
ignorant of the language and the people, have thought it worth 
while to digest the fables of the valets <le place, and still more 
from another class who have learned just enough of both to 
mislead them. Yet llirough the ainubic of one or tlie other of 
these arc our ideas of Spanish manners for the most part dis- 
tilled. Whatever laxity of morals may exist I trace to the 
j)articiilar circumstances of the last hundred years. Forniei'ly, 
Spain was distinguished above all other countries b}' the sanc- 
tity with which the marriage tie was regarded. Unfortunately, 
the present queen — i)laced l)y her jjosition at the head of 
society — has given a shocking exan\ple of want of pro[U'iely, 
iler father and mother before her, and her father's father and 
mother, were among the worst of the race; and the effect of a 
sovereign's influence, for good or for evil, is exemplilied, to our 
own knowledge, in the English court, which, IVoni being under 
Geoi-ge \\\ the most corrupt and licentious in Juirope, has 
become one of the most correct. Could the Dutchess of J\Iont- 
pensier be substituted for her sister, a complete restoration of 
the old Spanish manners might lie accomplished. All that I 
have said, however, applies rather to Madrid, where the queen's 



EVIL INFLUENCE OF TILE COURT. — HUSBAND TO BLAME. 257 

example is felt, and wliere the fashion of mercenary alliances, 
Avith their inevitable result, has been imported among other for- 
eign barbaiisms, rather than to the provinces. The most con- 
clusive testimony in favor of the Spanish fair is the esteem in 
"which they have been held when married into other countries. 
Blanelie of Castile, St. Isabel, and the present Empress of the 
French, will sustain my assertion. I remember a touching 
instance of marital aflfeetion which occurred even at Madrid 
during my sojourn. A man in tlie humbler walks of life was 
murdered in an affray. His wife was sent for. U})on entering 
the shop where the dead bod}' lay exposed, she uttered a pierc- 
ing shriek, and exclaiming, " During twenty j^ears Ave have 
never had an unkind word," fell dead by his side. I did not 
Avitness the scene, but it is a very natural one in Spain. When 
happily married they bring a full and overflowing measure of 
love, far beyond what an}- mortal has a right to expect, uniting 
the sterling (pnilities of the sex, sincerity, constancy, devotion, 
rev^erence, Avith those adornments whieh form the chann of 
life, and I have yet to learn that J uno is the less to be ad- 
mired or respected because encircled with the magic cestus. 

It would be unjust not to lay a considerable portion of the 
blanie for such derelictions, Avhen they do occur, upon the men, 
Avho in this connection have somewhat fallen from their former 
distinction, and in so falling have shaken one of the noblest 
pillars of the temple. It is no longer strictly true, as was said 
in the Eomaunt of the Spanish Ladye's Love, that 

Spaniards fraught with jealousy wo «ft do find, 

But Englisluncn throughout the world arc counted kind. 

Give them, however, their due. No Spanish peasant, not to say 
gentleman, Avould feel the pangs of wounded honor assuaged 
by the scandal of a public trial and a verdict for ten thousand 
pounds. Something is due to them for the past if not for the 
present, and Avhen the history of European civilization is truly 
written, it Avill be found that Avomen are indebted for their 
present elevated position more to the Peninsula than to any 
other portion of the globe. In the lower empire they Avere 
placed upon a footing of apparent equality, Avhich, by dej)riving 
them of the su})port that the strong and generous are ever 
ready to extend to the feeble, produced, in fact, the greatest 
inequality. Women being by nature not so well fitted as men 



2r)S SPAIN AM» THF, SPANIARDS. 

to cope with adversity in tlio i^ivat stni<:;gle upon earth, have, 
fortunatel}' for thoin, been furnished with powers ofrasciuatiou , 
and attraction which restore the bahanee. There is a natural I 
disposition, on the ])art of everyone, to protect those who are 
incapaViie of jtrotcctiiii; themselves, an<l hundreds will rush to 
the defence of a ciiild wlicre a ninu would pi-ohaMy he left to 
his own unaided exertions. The child will <;i'ow to he an adiill 
not oidy in a))])c'arance, but in reality, hut the woman must 
remain a woman, unless the powers beneath unsex her. The 
Romans, by giving her equality, thus, in truth, render her less 
equal than before; and the w<M'ld had sunk to one level of mate- 
rialism and selfishness when the Christian religion sounded 
forth the novel doctrine that the weak and humble were more 
lionoi-al)le, in the sight of the Creator, than the mighty poten- 
tates of earth. To attribute a considerable amount of virtue to 
the bai'barians, who overran the emjiire, has been a favorite 
error. Tlieir disposition to blooil and violence, and theii" 
intense sense of personal independence aiul dignity, prevented 
them from utterl3'yielding to the (iel)aucheries of Rome, but they 
surely evinced little ajipreciation of that spirit of cliarity, of 
gentleness, of forgiving love, which it was the ol>jecl of the 
Evangilc to preach. This, the true spirit of modern civilization, 
is due solely to the religion of our Saviour. Fortunately for 
us, the tendency of the thirtl and fourth centuries to fritter 
away its essence in fruitless discussions altoirt the nature of the 
Divine jiei-son, and, on the other hand, to convci't what was 
given us as a consolation here, and a hope hereafter, into a 
repulsive system of tei-ror, was corrected by the honors paid to 
the Virgin, each rej)resenting respectively the influences that 
were to effect the salvation of the race; liie one threatening 
des|)air and endless misery to the wicked ; the otlu'r jjromising 
hope and measureless bliss to the virtuous. For this purj)Ose it 
matters not whether the Vii-gin had a large family, or whether 
she were not simjyly a mortal, or whether she had ever existed. 
It was not a ([ucstion of fact but of belief Shrines were 
erected to an immaculate being, uncoutaminated by the vices 
and frailties of humanity, yet sympathizing with its wants and 
necessities; a being of ineffable softness and love, the most 
powerful intercessor with the terrific Judge, who was justly 
incensed against ]lis rebellious creatui*es — and this being was a 
woman. 1 have already stated that tlu' worship of the Virgin 



INFLUENCE OF MOHAMMEDANISM. 259 

was widely diffused throughout Spain, and almost peculiar to 
that countr}'^. It is very possible that the mere ceremonial, 
tho! gaudilj^'-dressed images, the processions, the wax votos 
hung up at her shrine were imitated after Pagan sources. Hut 
those wlio go further and compare the worship itself with that 
of Yenus 8alambo, Diana of the Ephesians, or Cybele, are as 
ignorant of the history of civilization as of religion. The fair- 
est of the daughters of Eve on earth, she was considered their 
pi-otectrcss in heaven, ever attentive to the plaintive cr}' of the 
afflicted and deserted. The impersonation of female excellence 
and pni'ity, she was the unapproachable model which all strove 
to imitate. The names of half the girls in Andalusia are still 

derived from her virtues or the several incidents of her life 

Dolores, Mercedes, Rosario, Concepcion ; and the memory of 
their guardian is constant!}' kept in mind by the custom of 
celebrating the feast of their baptismal saint, rather than the 
day of tlicir birth. 

The invasion of the Mohammedans exercised also a powerful 
effect upon the position of women in Spain from a very diller- 
ent point. The Mohammedan civilization was a strange mix- 
ture of Jewish and Christian precept, engrafted upon a stock 
which we are disposed to consider as originally and cssentiallj- 
Oriental, though it is verj- questionable whether the qualities and 
mannei's that we consider Oriental were not for the most part 
introduced into the East by the followers of the prophet. Bor- 
rowing the spirit of ceremonial observance from the Jews; from 
the Christians the doctrine of universal charitj^ and liberality, 
and alsf) its promise of a future Paradise for the good; from his 
own counti'vmen the manners and thoughts of every dav life 
he concocted a system which, as a worldly-wise scheme, was 
certainly a great improvement upon what then existed in a 
large part of the world. One striking feature of the Moham- 
medan civilization was the jealousy- with which women were 
regarded as something too precious to be looked u|>on with 
ordinary eyes. The Moors of Andalusia, owing to their supe- 
riority in war and the brilliancy of their intellectual cultiva- 
tion, exercised an immense influence over the neigliboring 
Christian nations, and were themselves essentiallv im))ressed 
in turn. Kight centuries of civil and military rivalry developed 
all that was nol)le and generous on both sides. Much greater 
freedom was allowed to the Mohammedan women in Andalusia 



200 Sl'AlN AND TlIK Sl'ANIAUDS. 

than in tlio East, an<l sonu-tliiiii:; iiioro was (leiiiainled tlian 
beauty. Poetry, music ami utlu'r afc<)inj)lisliiueiits are as 
inuc-li dwelt upon in the descrijitiDU of their favorites as the 
charms of j>erson. and their literary women till no small space 
in the liio«;raj>hieal dictionaries. To judge of the relation of 
the sexes in Moorish Spain by the habits of the Turks, a coarse 
Hensual race, or by those of their fallen brethren in the Bai'bar}" 
States, would mislead. The a])pearance of women in general 
society was of course unknown, but they bore their part in 
domestic entertainments. Tin- beauty and attractions of their 
Christian captives heightened the refined education of the Cor- 
dovese Court, and j)ntdnce<l in the men an elegance and respect- 
fulness of intercourse, and a purity of love which surprised 
their contemporaries (nit ot" the Peninsula. 

The position of women in Christian Sjiain was suiijected, 
therefore, to four very ciitleicnl inllueiices. The Teutonic ele- 
ment from the Noi'th would reduce them to the level of our 
Indian sipiaws, the servants of their lords; the tendency of the 
Roman was toward eiiualit}' ; the Moorish made lliem the 
Centre of love and gulianlry ; the worship of the \'irgin secured 
for them the res|)eel which virtue and purity are ever entitled 
to comniaml. Imagine, now, the home of n Christian knight, u 
Castro or an O.sorio in some fastness of Leon. Far from the 
remains of ancient cori'uption. his castle lilts its battlements in 
virtuous solitude. Instead ol' IVivolous inti'igues, his whole 
ener^cy is devoted Id maintaining (hr sanctity of iiis fireside 
an<l the honor of his religion. l>earing alol'l upon his banner 
the image of the spotless Virgin, he and his followei-s rush into 
the thickest of the battle. Pi'otected by her guiding hand, 
he returns crowned with laurels and enriched with the spoils 
of the infidel, and al lii.s castle gate is welcomed by the com- 
panion of his life, the liunible kin>\\oinaii u])on earth of her 
whose ])owerful protection in heaven has bi'ouglit him once 
more safely to his home. The combat of (Jarcilasso and the 
Moor, i\)V the honor of the Mother of tJod, is narrated of three 
ditterent persons, and, doulilK'ss, such contests in Iut bi'liall 
often occurred. Is it unnatural, then, that some jtortion of the 
adoration, considered so Justly due to the one, should have 
been bestowed on the others With the .Moors, the feeling 
toward the sex was i-ather a sj)ecies of gallantry, which, uniting 
in the Spaniard with the other and nobler sentiment, formed 



UNDER THE BOURTiONS. — AT MADRID. 2G1 

the highest type of tlie cavalier. The Spaniavd couhl not be 
said to love his mistress ; it was rather a \vorshi]i, an adoration 
as of a goddess. Xo ini]Mire tlioiiglits entered into the relation. 
A chivalric devotion, and an almost uneai'thl}' respect on the 
one side, were rewarded with a love and tidelit}' without hounds 
on the other. AVhoso would fully appreciate the superiority of 
Castillian civilization and manners in this connection, let him 
compare life as portrayed in the old Spanish ballads with that 
represented in the licentious Decameron of Italy, the Fabliaux 
and the songs of the Troubadors in France, or the Saxon 
grossness of Chaucer, and form his own opinion. 

At the close of the Moorish wars, with the capture of (iran- 
ada, the Spanish dominion began to extend itself over the 
continent, and with their dominion their ideas. For a century 
and a half, not only was the Spaniard feared as a subject of 
the greatest monarch in Europe, but what is more, he was 
respected as the most loyal and lofty toned oavalier, and the 
most elegant gentleman in the civili/A'd world. Then came 
the reaction. Piece by piece was lopped off from the deca3'ing 
empire. The race of he)- wai'i-iors became extinct. The later 
Bourbons Mere surrounded In' men whose hereditary- wealth 
and honors jilaced them above the necessity of exertion, and 
whose leisure was consumed in the frivolous pastimes of an 
imbecile court, at which they were compelled to reside. The 
age of Louis XY of France, and of the Georges of England, 
found admirers and imitators in Sjiain. Manly occupations fell 
into disuse, and ceased to excite even respect. P^ortune was 
to be courted, not on the battle field amid labor and danger, 
but in some miserable Palace Camarilla. Wliat should have 
been an amusement of leisure hours became the great business 
of life, and the destinies of the nation were wielded b}- the 
fashionalde actress. This was the gay circle of the metropolis. 
Ladies were, fortunatel}-, removed from its vortex, and ])re- 
served their former character unspotted, because fashion had 
rendered another class the centre of such attractions. So that 
society in Madrid, at the end of the last century, astonished 
rather by its absurdity than its immorality. The conduct of 
Ferdinand YII, after his restoration, drove the liberal party to 
seek sympathy Ijcyond the borders of S|)ain. and thus opened 
the door to the sensualism and materialism of the French rev- 
olution. The effect upon Madi'id society in many respects, 



262 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

partifularl\ in loosoniiii; the hands, luis lieon deploraltle. It 
is (iitticult ioi* llic serious, earnest Spaniard to beeoine a mere 
Boulevard trotter; hut the youui; men are dt)ini; their best, 
and the lierd of Polios hid fair, in time, to equal the kindred 
spirits of other lands. I repeat, however, that this, in the 
main, is contined to ^ladrid, and that ;fentlemen from the 
proviiiees pre.serve very much the eharacteristies of other days. 
Their iiitorcourse with the I'airer sex is marked by an i.nthu- 
Biastie devotion, a i^enuine admiration, aecomjniiiieil by an 
ahsenee of frivolity and a forgetfulness of self, which ri'uder 
their liuniility an acceptable ottering on the altar of bt-auty. 
AVoman is respected by them because she is woman. Like oui* 
own, no Spanish jxentleman would hesitate to yield her the 
inside of tlic walk, or the best seat in the dilii^ence; and no 
Spanish lady, urdike some of our own, would nei^lect to ac- 
knowledjuje even this ti'ifling courtesy by a smile which eould 
compensate for far greater sacrifices. Books of travel, founded 
uj)on data furnislied by the scandal of the c-ourt. are utterly 
' uni'cliable, an<l such a method of judging Spain would be as 
unfair as the course pursued by eertain strangers in putting 
ft)rwai-il Washington and New York as models of American 
manners or morals. Yet life at the capital has not been en- 
tirely without etiect upon the nation. The Spanish busbaiul 
of the nineteenth century is not the e(pnd ot' him of the six- 
teenth; antl what was said at the beginning of this episode is 
ti'ue, that thedi'cline in the virtuous tone of the marriage rela- 
tion, culminating in a few striking instances in Madrid, which 
have been, ignoi'antly, considered critirious of ."Spanish .•society 
in geiiei'al, is at ti'ibutable pi'incipally to the men. 

in till' estimate J have given of Andalusian society. I may 
be mistaken. Of course, there ai-e old women, and ugly, very 
ugly, women, and disagreeable women, and i'reipiently disa- 
greeable men; but, upon the whole, 1 have found the inter- 
coui'se nH>st |ileasanl. The opportunities enjoyi-cl by a travel- 
ler, and his means of lorniiiig a dispassionate JudgmenL, are 
naturally limited. Il is (lilliciili \\>v him to avoid hasty gen- 
eralizations from a fi-w portraits in his own exiierienee. It 
nniy be that at foi'ty. and iiniler ditlerenl cii'cumstances, my 
own conclusions woiiM have been otherwise, and tinith compels 
me to state that I have seen many Fren<li and Knglish, who 
have long resided in Andalusia, and whose opinions are very 



FARKWKhL TO SKVILLK. 2(33 

different from those wliicli 1 have expressed. The}" coniphiin 
that the societ}'" is Avearisome, though they admire tlio country. 
But it may admit of a question, Avliether these two nations ai-e 
capable of a])preciatin<;- the peculiar cliaracter of Spanish ladies. 
The earnestness, the enthusiasm with which thej' regard every 
object of interest are not suited to the gay and tlioughtless 
gallantries of the one, or the heavy phlegm of the other. The 
dream}' (lerman is a greater favorite, and I have never met 
one of that race who was not satisfied with Spain and its 
inlialiitaiits. Surely, there may be some enjoyment in social 
intercourse, though it consist not in hadiiuu/e iii a petit soupi')- 
or solid conversation around a smoking joint of roast beef 

The summei" had now passed away, and the houi' ol' dejiar- 
ture was approaching. My second visit to Seville liad sped like 
a dream. The almanac alone served to mark the days as the}' 
flew by. Upoii the iirst entry it is natural to feel some disaj)- 
pointment at the extci'nal appearance of a city that fills the 
world with its fame; but after a residence of sufficient duration 
to investigate its hidden treasures, to appreciate its unostenta- 
tious life, and become acquainted with its delightful society, 
most strangers will agree with the natives in exclaiming : 

Quii'ii no b:i visto u Sevilla 
No ha visto uiaravilla. 

It seems as if nature, exerting her utmost powers, had suc- 
ceeded in making a ])aradise where beauty an<l ha]>piness found 
an eternal abode. It was difficult to feci tliat llie time had 
come to say farewell, as i took my last walk on the bunks of 
tlie (iuadahpiivir. Its placid waters were resplendent witii the 
glories of the sunrise, as they had been morning after morning, 
to be succeeded by tlie milder beauties of a cloudless night. 
The graceful trees would continue modestly to gaze at their 
image in its mirror, the Cathedral to rear its noble form against 
the azure sky, but my place would be occupied by others, wan- 
derers like myself Why not eat of the lotos, and let life glide 
by in this fairy dream-land!'' Alas! it is not written in the 
book of fate that the measure of human felicity should be filled 
upon earth. Perhai)s Andalusia, too, lias its dark side, which 
a ])rolonged residence would bring into relief, for "Wo viel 
Licht ist, da giebt es starken Schatten." And visions of home, 
of sweet home, rise before rao. Adieu ! fair Seville. 



Chapter XV. 
C O K I ) () V A . 

Journey — The Astnrian — Foun<lation of the Emriirc — Its Glory — The Bcni Oincyah 
— (lovcrnmcnt — Subject Christians — The Alezi|uita — Sulise<|iicnt History — 
Az/.ahrn — Abil-er-Rahman III — AlmanFour — Lanient.ttion over its Full — 
Dislinjruished Men — Osius — Market — General Ai)pearauce of the City — Horses 
—The Sehoolhoys— Moiitilla Wine. 

The iiioriiiiiif was spi'iit in biddinj^ adieu to tli()so faiiy scenes 
which a preseiitincnt toKl ine I was never to hi-hold ai^ain, and, 
at tliree o'clock, the train to Cordova was ^lidiiii:; witli us up 
the river h:nik. One hy one the h)t"ty edifices disai)]ieared 
behind the hixuriant ve<i;etation. For a loni;- time, the (iiialda 
continued ah)ne to tower over the i)hiiii. It, too, at leni^th 
faded from si<i;ht, and Seville, the glory ami marvil of Anda- 
lusia, was gone. 

The sun was intensely bright, ami tlie heat corresponding. 
The ail-, near the parched earth of the hills, danced as if over a 
cauldron. On its mountain cliff to the east glittered tlu' city 
of Carmona, its long white walls s]);irUling like the Jewelletl 
crown of a magician. liliiminaled by the rays of the western 
sun, it continued to form a conspicuous point in the horizon 
until we reached Lora. .My only companion in the carriage 
was a young gentleman ol' (list inguislu'd family in Cordoba, 
who was returning from the watiM'ing place of S:in Lucar. 
The seas(Ui was now ovei-, and cvei-y train hore the visitors hack 
to their winter homes. It can hardly be said that such places 
are resorted to ])y .\ ndahisians for tlielii'nclil of their licalth. 
In this climate onr long catalogue of slow diseases is scarcely 
known. Consumptions, rheumatisms, dys])epsias, rebellious 
livers, have no ])lace, and even wounds (as I have said) heal 
with proverltial facilit}- in the valley of I lie ( iiiadahpiivir, which 
is fortunate where the knife is so freipu'Mtly « alleil into action. 
Its inlialiitanls enjoy I'obust, vigorous health until envious 



UP THE GUADALQUIVIR. 205 

Atropos grasp.s her scissors, when some violent inflammatory 
affection puts an end to their existence in the space of a M'oek. 
Tluinholclt mentions some conntry in Soutli America where the 
popiihition is loni;- lived, — no one ever really sick, yet no one ever 
i-eally well. Such is not the case in Andalusia. Health, both 
ph3-sical and mental, is the normal state, and the longevity of 
its ])opulation, particularly in favored localities, has been pro- 
verbial. The climate, too, of every ])ortion of it, except about 
the mouths of the rivers, is endurable throuo-hout the year. 
The fashion, however, of spending July and August at some 
bathing place is coming into vogue, and it is possible that in a 
few 3'ears they will imitate the remainder of mankind in rest- 
lessness. The famous Merino sheep (ti-ashiwurntes) set an exam- 
])le to Euro])e in this respect. As soon as the warm season com- 
mences they manifest an uneasiness, and will sometimes wander 
away of their own accord, and the excellence of their wool is 
the best evidence of the wisdom of these summer perei^rina- 
tions. My companion was full of the ])leasant incidents of the 
summer. We soon passed by a herd of bulls growing up for 
some future contest. This changed the subject. I have said 
before that 3'ou are invariably ashed 3'our ojiinion aliout bull 
fights. 1 gave mine to the elTect already stated, lie was 
willing to com])romise U'ith my horror of the horse killing, 
which I pronounced unnecessarv cruelty toward a noble aninuil 
that, blindfolded in the arena, was alike unable to defend itself 
or to escape. To this he could make no satisfactor}- reply, and 
was driven to excuse it upon the usual ground that the horses 
were ver}' old, and already worn out. But I have already 
given the pros and cons of the argument, and refrain from 
repetition of them. lie himself had at times appeared in the 
ring on some special occasions, when only gentlemen amateurs 
participate, it being quite the fashion among the young gentry 
to patronize bull fighters and bull fights as the true national 
jiastime. Finding that I had a taste for tlie amusement highly 
creditable to an outside barbai'ian, he gave me several wriidvles 
on the subject, which 1 carefuil}' treasured up. 

We ]iassed leisurely up the valle}'. halting a considerable 
time at the difterent stations, Palma. with its lofty church, 
Lora, Pcfiaflor, looking gracefull}- down upon the ohl Moorish 
mills in the river, the castled crag of Almodovai' to Coi'doba, 
where I parted from him, placing our houses mutually at each 



2C(> Kl'AI.N AM) Till. M'AMAUDS. 

other's tiisposjil, a very cln':i|) |HMeee<liii<j: oi» iiiy j)art. I was 
unrortuiiatoly out next day when he called, so tlial our ae- 
qiiaintaiit-e ended with this Spanisli courtesy. 

The Patio of the F<»n(hi was cn»wile<l when I arrived. A 
sturdy ohl Asturian, wh«) serveil mr at tahk', cxprcsse*! ^reat 
ConteiMpt lor the cause ol' the assonihhi^^e. Some |ierson ofthe 
iiei^hhorhoiid of no ^reat rej>ute, as lie said, had heen aj)- 
pointed to a hi<xh post under the {government, and was (hi his 
way to Ma«lrid to enter upon the discharj^e of his duties. Jlis 
friends ha<l met to see the rising sun mount the heavens, and 
perhaps to hasU a little in its invi^oratin;:: rays. In Asturia 
he was sure they would not how down hefore any man. Per- 
liu])s not ; hut then Asturia must he dirt'erent from the rest of 
the woi'ld. I fear his patriotism overcame the impartiality of 
his judgment. The administrador had at least one redeemiim 
thiiii; ahout him — a very «>;raceful daui^htei" — and that made 
amends for a i^reat many of his sins. Tiie party soon took 
their leave in the .Madrid dilisfencc. ami we wi're left to our 
slumlxTs. .Mini' wt-rc not very pleasant, as tiny \ver»' inler- 
rupteil continually diirini^ tin- niifht ly the entry of what 
seemed to he an ai'my of ctits, who chaunted eveiy species of 
music, fi-om ih'- (hijccl notes of the solitary sereiiader to dis- 
cordant s(jualls that would have lieen no discredit to the most 
ancient married coui»le in Christendom. Tlu' contents of the 
wash hasin had ^reat elfeet in restorini^ harmony so Ion*' as 
the ammunition lasteil; shoes were then called into recpiisition. 
hut the enemy appi-ared to have a jtarlicular fancy for this 
skirmishing, and finally ended tlie (•oiite>t ly postin:^ a couple 
ol" sentinels t»n the window sill, wiiile the main hody took up 
position on the litili- roof hclow. .V 1 ilayliL^ht 1 was i;lad to 
leave tin- field to llicm ami start oil' on a walk around the 
city. 

Corilova has liccn a city of note from tlu' earliest histoi'ic 
times. Stralio points out it and Cadiz as especially woi'thy of 
remark, the principal inhahitants of (he surroundin<j; country 
heiiif^ attracted to it on account of the chai-ms of its situation. 
A colony of patricians from Kome ^ave it i'e|)Utation in the 
social world, and devclojied its literary genius to an I'Xtent 
that ast<niished even the Mistress of the Knipire. I'ndt r the 
(lolhic dominion il was distin«^uished only in ecclesiastical 
annals, though Almaktiri enumerates it among the four resi- 



TIIK BENI OMEYAII. 267 

donees of their kiin;s. 13ut Puuic, Eoman and GothieCoi-dovu 
arc known only through history. For the traveller it dates 
from the time of the Beni Omeyah, who made it their sole 
ca])ital, and the i>;reat eentre whence learning and eivilization 
weiv dilTused over AYestei-n Europe. Ahd-er-Eahnian, the first 
of the name, after a thousand haii'-hreadth escapes by flood and 
field, having been invited by a portion of the Andalusian Arabs 
to assume the caliphate in Spain — and thus relieve them from 
the satraps of Daniascu.s and the anarch}' under which they 
had suffered for half a century — landed in the year 756 at 
Almunecar on the coast of Granada, and, after many long years 
of civil war, succeeded in crushing all opponents and tirmlj'^ 
establishing himself in Andalusia. The horrible manner in 
Avhieh his family, with this solitary exception, were extin- 
guished by Asseffah. has secured for them a larger i)ortion of 
historic sympath}' than the}" could ])erhaps justly claim; and it 
may be safely said that no one would have thought them 
worthy of continuing to reign had not this, their last hoj)e, 
caused the power, which had set in the east, to rise .so glo- 
riously again in the west, and thus redeemed the honor of his 
family. I know no other royal family which produced so 
many estimable individuals, or which has disj)layed such indis- 
putable talents for govei-ning, as the Beni Omeyah of Spain. 
Three of them of the same name — Abd-er-Rahman — were en- 
dowed with nearl}' every vii'tue one could desire in a sovereign. 
Courage and skill in war, sincere religion, patriotism and a 
refined taste for the elegant arts and for literature, have placed 
them in the front rank of princes. To them should be added 
Al Mansour, who may properly bo considered of the dynasty, 
though not descended from them by blood. Under the wise 
rule of those sovereigns, Andalusia became tiie first country in 
ihe civilized world. Mohammedan historians and travellers 
found their copious language scarcely adequate to the descrip- 
tion of its marvels. The banks of the Guadahpiivir wi're 
lined with stately palaces a distance of f(»ur juid twenty miles, 
and the wanderer from Bagdad could saunter along ten miles 
of artificial lights, at a time when Paris and L'tndon were mis- 
erable collections of hovels and ndry iancs. lA'arned doctors 
and elegant jtoets erowdecl to it from every quart cm* of the east. 
Its schools of ])hilosophy and medicine attracted students from 
all Christian Europe, who, returning, introduced a taste for the 



2GS SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

loni; f<»r<;otton litoratiiro of (lu» (Jrooks. and for the toachini; of 
tho i;rcal master who no loui^ lirld Kur«)])o in hondairc. The 
njil'l luit firm f^ovornmont of tho Heni Onu'vali socurcd trun- 
(|(iility at liomo and res]>ec't abroad. Three Imndrcd thousand 
rosneciahh' residences and eighty thousand shops in Cordova 
ahme attested the excellence of a government which could 
attract and maintain such a population. Nor were these ma- 
terial benefits the only jewels of their diadem. Justice and 
religious tolerance supported their throne, and rendered their 
rule more tolerable to the subject Christian ]ti)pulalioii than the 
persecutions of their own brethren of the faith in othei' lands. 
It is a striking testimony to their wisdom, that the .Moham- 
medan rulers were seldom, if ever, disturbed by insurrection 
among the subject Christians at home. All, of whatever re- 
ligion, enjoyed a certain limited amount of freedom, faithfully 
secured, and persecution for opinion's sake was almost un- 
known. The followers of the Prophet, with a profound insight 
into the ])Iiilosopliy of mankind, distinguished those who 
thought this world the be-all and end-all of humanity, and 
the earth sutficieiit unto itself, iVmn those who, clinging to 
a highei'. nobler being to rescue tiiem from the al>asement of 
materialism, rested their faith iiiioii a divine revelation — the 
Christian. Jews and .Magiaiis. I'or the former was death, for 
the latter ])eace and ])rote(lioii, u])on condition of trihute. 
Hermits and others of holy lile w^tc sineei'ely respected, as 
j)erforming the pre<'i'pts of the .Mohammedan I'eligioii. although 
devoid of the tiMie faith. \Vi- are all familiar with the Palace 
of ("hosroes and the windmill of I'otsilani. but though these 
instances of self-restraint on the jtai't of great soveivigns are 
in the highest degree creditable, they do not e<pial a some- 
what similai' <»M(' i-elate<l of Abd-er-Kahinnii I. After the con- 
(piest of Cordova by the Mohamnu'(lans. the pi'iiicipal church 
had been <livid('d in two jioitions. one for the Mohammedan 
fail!), the other for the Christians. This arrangement con- 
tinued to be satisfactory until Cordoba became the capital, and 
the increased nnnibci" of the faithful i'e(piired an t'ldargement 
of the moscpie. For a long time the Christians obstinately 
refused to sell their portion, and the negotiation was about to 
be broken off, when they finally agreed to accept the enoi-mous 
sum of one hundred thousand dinars and the ])rivilege of erect- 
ing a new church entirely dedicated to their own worship. 



MOHAMMEDAN (iOVERNMENT. 2G9 

This last conditioii was particularly ditlicuU to grant, as the 
Mohaiiunedaii jiolicy was to allow existiiii:; chui'ches to remain, 
but on no account to permit the erection of others. The 
Chi'istians, however, were inexoral)le, and carried their point. 
The wIkjIc church was pulled down, and upon its i'()undation 
erected the niagniticent Mosque which is still the wonder of 
Moorish iSpain. When we reflect that this occurred not a cen- 
tury after the conquest, and that the ([uestion was one of 
religion between opposing ci-eeds, the justice and self control of 
the Cordovan Kmir will a]>pear in a brighter light than his 
better known rivals, Frederic and Chosroes. Such instances of 
respect for private rights were frequent at Cordoba. At a sub- 
sequent date the Hagib Al Mansour, wishing to enlarge the 
mosque, summoned the owners of the adjoining houses to 
place what value the}' jileased u])on their property and yield it 
to the j)ublic. which they all did with the exce})tion of one old 
woman who refused })ositively, unless another house were pro- 
cured lor her with a palm tree exactly like the one in hei' yard. 
After much ditliculty. a house and ])ahn tree, answering the 
desei-ijUion, were purchased at an exorbitant ])rice, and the good 
woman's torn down. 

The government established by the Mohammedans in Spain 
was purely military^ for they seem to have had no disposition 
to i)ropagate their faith or to punish dissenters. The tax upon 
intidels amounted generalh' to a tilth. They were not allowed 
to prevent persons changing their faith, and were confined in 
the celebration of their observances to the interior of their 
churches; otherwise they lived without ai)i)rehensiun of inter- 
ference and in full enjoyment of their ])roperty. Mohamme- 
dans have a profound horror of the worship of images, yet the 
sanctity of the Christian churches was nevei- violated tliei'efor. 
They contented themselves with Ijeing the jtolitical and mili- 
tary aristocracy, leaving commerce and agriculture open to a 
fair competition, and allowing each jiatitni to be judged by its 
own laws and officers. Whatever relics of slavery might have 
survived the fall of the eiii])ire, or been introduced by the 
(ioths, disa])iieared. Jt was, thenceforth, confined to ca]»tives 
in war. (,'onversion to the faith worked of itself a manumis- 
sion, and as slavery was confined to dcnuestic servitude, tlic 
freedman frequenth' attained the highest ])osition in the confi- 
dence of' his former master. It is no wonder, therefore, that 



liTO SPAIN AM» TIIK Sl'AXIAHDS. 

tlif Kuhjcot ('l»risti:»iis of the common class wero contciiled 
with n lot far hettcr tl»an they wouhl have enjoyed in any 
Christian count rv of Kurojie. 

Ab<l-er-liahnian 1. thi- Knterer. as lie is called, was of a mel- 
ancholy teni])erami'nl, and in this I'espect his history has al- 
ways recalled to nu- Charles V and Sertorius, whom ho rescm- 
hled in artistic and literary taste, as well as in deep poetic 
feeling and high talent as a ruler. Plutarch mentions that 
when Sertorius was on the point of recommencing the struggle 
in Spain, ho encountered, at the mouth of the (iuadali|iiivir, 
8ome mariners just returning froni the Fortunate Isles, with 
glowing accounts of the peaceful delights of that favore<l spot, 
far removed from the clash of re-sounding arms, and the vain 
sti'ugglcs and toils of earthl}' greatness ; and that the hero long 
hesitated whether he should not forsweai- the world and its 
deceitful pleasures for happy obscurity in the Atlantic waste. 
So it is narrated of Ahd-er-JJahman. that once in Seville, or, as 
others say, in his garden, iiissafah. near Cordova, the sight of a 
solitary palm, iilie himst'if a strangei-, caused him to utter a 
pathetic lament, which passed from mouth to mouth through- 
out Andalusia, and has reachetl our day. The most exalted 
genius, such as tliat of Najioleon or Ca'sar, however much it 
may arouse our admiration, can never attract us as does the 
sonsihility of the heart, which, suddenly overpowering the 
great man, renders him once moi-e to tlie purity and innocence 
and even the weakness (jf childhood. All can esteem and covet 
earthi}' distinctions, and the foehlest are willing to sti'uggle ibr 
their possession. Imt the truly great alone can appreciate them 
at their real value, and voluntarily renountn' tlu'ir phantom 
delights, it is fortunati' lor mankind that many can admire, 
though few may imitate, the great Kmperor Charh'S in ex- 
changing the cr(nvn of the world and the a<loi'ing incense of 
millions, for the quiet of a secluded convent in the mountains 
of Kstremadura. 

Meditating upon the character of tlu' Arahian I'jnii-. 1 reac'hed 
the great mo.sque whose foumlation In had laid. It;- outside 
gives the traveller no warning of the beauties within. It pre- 
sents simi>ly a blank castellated wall, some forty feet in height, 
with scarcely any ornamentation. Hut entei-ing the Ptttio de 
Ion X(U'(niJos^ or Orange (Jourt, you are immediately translated 
to the East. Fountains and orange trees, with scattering 



TTIT'^ ^MKZQITTA. 271 

palms; a solitary water carrier tilling his cask; a coiqiie of 
priests promenading in front of the edifice; a few closely en- 
veloped females, hurrying to early mass, might make you s* op 
to reflect whether it be not really Damascus or .lerusalem, 
I'alher than Christian Andalusia. Tlie nineteen entrances that 
formerly adorned the front of the mosque are closed, except 
one, by whicii you enter into a fairy scene of the days of 
Haroun al Rashid. On every side extends a forest of columns, 
faintly illumiiuited by the early light struggling in. The deep 
silence which reigns around ; the long vistas with graceful 
arches; the ajiparent solitude of the place, recalled the ])ine 
forest at sunset. To describe such a structure is difficult, as I 
have always found to be the case in the architecture of the 
Moors. It is not intended to effect one grand distinct impres- 
sion, as that of the ancient Cxreek or the Gothic, but the aim 
of the artist seems rather to produce the confusion, the bewil- 
derment of perception which causes the soul to sink into a 
dreamy forgetfulness of all that lies witliout the enchanted 
walls, and is accomplished partly by a minuteness of detail 
which defies investigation. Having seen it once before and 
retained a very vivid im])ression of it in my niemor}-, 1 con- 
cluded that a guide would be unnecessary, but I soon became 
convinced that the effect was of the indistinct character I have 
mentioned, and even now. after having again gone over it care- 
fully with a guide. I am convinced that I shouM not be al»le to 
draw a reasonably correct plan. It is an involuntary tribute 
to the success of the artist. Even in its present condition the 
mosque is an object of unfeigned admiration to the world. 
What nmst it have been in its glory ? The accounts differ as to 
the number of columns; soine place it as high as fourteen hun- 
dred. Nineteen longitudinal and eight and thirty lateral aisles 
were resjilcndent with ten thousand lamps and more than two 
hundred chandeliers of exquisite workmanship. Wax and oil 
lights alternated with varying effect. Golden doors contrasted 
with a pavement of marble, mosaic, and even silver. Every 
successive sovereign sought his highest glory in adding to its 
magnificence; but it was reserved f(»r the famous llagib Al Man- 
sour to ])erform the work most aece])table to the worshippers 
of the I'liqihet. Kctui-ning from the celebrated expedition in 
which he had ravaged the uttermost parts of the Peninsula, 
and reduced the rising kingdoms of Leon and Navarre to tiie 



272 SPAIN .\M> TiiK si'AM.vnns. 

verge ol' annihilation, he eaused (he hells of the chiireh of St. 
Jago de ('onipostella to he transj)()rte(l ii])on the hacks of his 
captives to Cordova, and there hum; up to tlie glory of the One 
God, and to the confusion of all Trinitai"ians. Vast throngs of 
Christians ha<l heen hrought to work in the eontemplated 
cnlargi'inent of the mosque, a s|)eetaele ]>eculiarly edifying to 
the tnu" helii'vers. and meritorious on the jiart of their gen- 
eral. It is a rt'murkahle feature in the edifice that most of 
the columns are taken from ancient ruins, and placed witliout 
the slightest regard to the order of architecture to which they 
originally helonged ; IhiI this anoiiialy has no influence upon 
the general effect ot" the m(js(pie, ami would eseape the notice 
of a casual visitor. 

The ("iiristian choir, oi- i-atlirr cliurcli. luiilt in liic centre of 
the Mez(iuita, after the conquest, has hecn universally con- 
demned, and does sadly mar the integi-ity and uniformity of 
tiie Moorish plan. In itself it is very heautifid, hut emphati- 
cally the right thing in the wrong j>lace. The Ayuntamii'nto, 
or city council, is said to have protested against the right of 
the chapter to make the alteration, and to havi' ai)pealed to 
the Kmpei'or Charles, who, niisapprehemling the circumstan- 
ces, declini'd iiitrrli-ring. and tlir saci-ilege was effected. The 
Mohainme<lan mos<pu' airhilecture is essentially defective in 
the ahsence of sonu' one central point (»f artistic- inteirsl, the 
Kitdah answering that purpose indirteri'nt ly. Hul this though, 
in reality, a defect, is an essential pai't of the idea, and the 
entire scheiiu' would he lalsified, were tlu* halHed spii-it of the 
beholder to tin<l a ri'sting place. Nothing, therefoi'c, could lie 
more unfortunate and inharmoniotis than this atldition. The 
early Spanish I'econtpu-rors were not animated hy the rage for 
change and iiiiprovcnicnl wliicli seems lo lia\e come ovei* their 
descendants, under the influence of the i-enaissance. Jt must 
he said, too, that so long as the Moors retained a footing in the 
country they were respected and their works |)reserved and 
imitated, hut so soon as tlu' last stronghold surrendered, they 
fell into contemj)t, were styleil .Moriseos. and any show of 
appreciation for the evidiMices of their past powcT and genius 
Huhjected the utifortunate [)erson to the sus]>icion of the merci- 
less Intpusition. Though this pre)(nlico has disappeared from 
the eidightencMl classes, it still lingei's among the ignorant. 
But the government has become alive to the necessity of pre- 



VIKW FROM THE TOWER. 273 

serving what yet remains. The gem of tlie whole Mezqnita is 
the little octagon Chapel del Zancarron, formerly the sanctu- 
ary where was deposited the Koran, which is perfection itself, 
and has undergone little or no alteration The scenes around 
had completely carried me back to the days of the turl)an and 
the lance; nothing could be further from my thought than 
religion in an}' shape, and I had even forgotten that avc were 
in a cliurc'h, when, descending the steps of the chapel, 1 saw a 
young lady stop and kneel at one of the side altars. She was 
dressed in the Andalusian costume, and her face a perfect typO' 
of Andalusian beaut}'. Crossing her hands, she gazed uponi 
the altar piece with uplifted eyes, that beamed forth a devo- 
tion, unconscious of all around. How I envied her that period 
of prayer. AVhat earthly delight could compare with the ec- 
static purit}' of this communion in spirit with her Creator; and 
happy the soul in purgatory for whom it was offered. I re- 
mained in my place until her devotions were concluded, and 
she, with the duenna, had disappeared from sight amid the 
thousand columns. She had not even seen me, but Andalusian 
beauty has the effect of some tropical diseases — one severe 
attack undermines the constitution, rendering it incapable of 
resisting tlie slightest exposure, and a long absence in the 
chilly atmos])here of the north becomes absolutely necessary 
to restore the sj'stem to its previous inscMisibility. 

Leaving the body of the mosque, I crossed the Orange 
Court, and ascended the lofty tower built somewhat after the 
style of the Giralda at Seville, but by no means so elegant. 
The general features of the view I have given already. To 
the west, rose abruptly the advanced ridge of the Sien-a Mo- 
rena, its man}^ farm houses, villas and deserted hermitages, 
sparkling in the morning sun; to the east, the undulating 
table land, which stretched away to the Genii; between them 
flows the shining Guadalquivir, with its broad and fertile val- 
ley. The white castle of Almodovar stood like a senlry to 
guard the passage to Seville. Well might Strabo speak of the 
charms of the situation. The accounts of the Moorish histori- 
ans, corroborated l»y the reports of the ambassadors, who were 
sent thither from time to time by the Christian potentates, 
leave no room for douljting that this now comjtarativel}' de- 
serted plain was once covered M'ith every evidence of an unex- 
ampled material and intellectujil civilization, of which scarcely 
19 



274 SI'AIN .\M> Tin; SI'AMAUDS. 

a tract? is k-fL. What, however, surjirises most is tlie total 
(lisapnearance of tlie former city of Azzahira. Uiulor the sixth 
Siihaii of the Beni Omeyah, Alxl-er-Raliman II. the C'onlovese 
empire attained its acme of s|»k'n<lor. Tlu' mimorous victories 
of this sultun procured for him the title of Aimasii- Lediu 
Alhih, or Hefeiider of tlie Kaith, aii<l he first assumed the title 
of Hmir Al Mumeiiin, or Prinee of the Faithful, which none of 
his predecessors had ventured to do, contenting themsolves 
with the earthly power, and leavini^ the calii)hate, or lieuten- 
ancv of (iod, to their rivals on the hank of the Tigris. A suc- 
cessful reign of lifty years largely increased his dominion and 
filled his coffers with enormous treasures. A considerahle por- 
tion of Africa acknowledged his swa}'. His yearly revenues 
amounted to five million four hundred and eighty thousand 
gold dinars, from the taxes authorizetl hy the Koran and the 
Sunnuh; seven hundred and sixty-five thousand from the tax 
on markets and (Mher illegal exactions; then came one-fiflh of 
the spoil taken from the enemy, and, in addition to the whole, 
was the capitation tax ui»()n Cliristiaiis and .Icw-^. which 
equalled all the rest. \\"\{\\ this immense amount at his ilis- 
posal he was enahled to gratify his hereditary taste for liuild- 
in"". Am(»ug the various structui'cs iTcctcd liy him. tlie most 
celebratetl was the palace of A/.zahra, whose very site can no 
hunger he pointed out. That it lay hetween C'oi-dova and the 
iiioiiiitains, at the foot of a lofty i'miiieiice, is all we know. It 
is said to have owed its origin to his desii-c to gi-atify the 
favorite sultana of that iianic which, in the Aral)ic tongue, 
.siiinilics "flower," and is still preserved in Sjianish for the 
hloom of the orange tree. Authors vied in their descriptions 
of its marvellous heauty ; and [lerhaps ilir most conclusive evi- 
dence of its supereminence is the fact that they (Iwcll little 
ujion the charms of tlu' .\lliamhra, which yet is llie wonder 
and admiiation of our day. Ten thousand workmen and 
fifteen hundred camels were daily emjiloyed in its erection. 
Four thousand thnn' hundred and sixteen columns of green 
and i-ose colored marMe supported its roof'j sonu- tVoni Ivome; 
some from the country of the Franks; some presented by the 
Emperor ol' Constantinople; some from Africa, and the rest 
from .\^llalu^ia. Two ex<|uisite fountains, tlii' one of gilt 
bronze, the other ofgi'cen niai'liK-, astonished the beholder. In 
the centre of the larger of the two fioated a golden swan, made 



ABD-ER-RAIIMAN II. 275 

in Constantinople, above Avhieh hung suspended the famous 
pearl presented by the Emperor Leo. J3ut the wonder of all 
was the Hall of the Caliphs, whose roof was of solid gold and 
silver, and whose doors of ivory and ebon}", ornamented with 
precious stones, rested upon pillars of transparent crystal. In 
the centre Avas a huge basin, filled with quicksilver, the light 
from whose surface wlien in motion was sulficiont to blind the 
incautious. It was here that he received the ambassadors of 
the various Christian i)rinces wlio sought his alliance or his 
mediation. Nor was the mosque unworthy of the I'cst of the 
palace; though inferior in si/<e to that of Cordova, it was 
considered even more beautiful. The grounds, including the 
neighboring mountain, were covered with every species of 
fruit and flower that could gratify the eye or please the palate; 
and if nothing had remained but the terrace of black marble, 
travellers would have had no reason to depart unsatisfied. 
Men of all ranks, professions and religions, came from afar to 
behold this wonder of the earth. It was the Versailles of its 
da\'. In the latter portion of his life, Abd-er-Rahman resided 
here exclusively, and the court and the famous bod^'-guard of 
twelve thousand slaves, Zenctes and Andalusians, found ample 
room for their accommodation. Yet, the possessor of all this, 
in melancholy acknowledgment of the truth that "all is van- 
ity," wrote, in the secrecy of his cabinet, for those who might 
read after his death: "I have reigned fifty years, and my 
reign has always been peaceful or victorious. Loved by 
my subjects, feared bj- my enemies, respected by m}- allies 
and by the greatest princes of the earth, riches and honor, 
power and ])ieasure, all were at my command. No earthlj'- 
blessing was denied me. 1 have carefully counted the days in 
which I have enjoyed unalloyed happiness. I have found but 
fourteen." Gibbon had the bad taste to institute a comparison 
between himself and the sovereign of .Spain, and to proclaim 
to the gratified world that he had enjo^-ed more than fourteen 
such in the composition of his history alone. Alas I how few 
there are wlio comjtrehend grandeur of the soul I With more 
dignity does Almakari exclaim: '-Oh, man of understanding ! 
wonder and behold the small portion of real happiness the 
world affords even in the most enviable position. The Caliph 
Annasir, whose jjrosperity in mundane affairs, and whose 
Avidcly spread empire became proverbial, had only fourteen 



270 SPAIN AND THK SPANIARI»S. 

(lays of nii«listnrl>o<l onjoynuMit during a reign of fifty years, 
seven months, and tliree days. Praise be given to lli'n, tlie 
Lord of eternal glor}' and everlasting empire I There is no 
God Imt one! the Almighty, the (Jiver of empire to whomso- 
ever He pleases I" 

His son and successor. Alhakem, sustained the glory of the 
empire undiminished. During his reign, the Northmen or Nor- 
mans, now in the height of their power (A. D. 0(55), landed in 
the Peninsula. Tlie caliph hastened to the Court, ordering his 
admiral to fit out the fleet; hut it was unnecessary, as the in- 
vaders were defeatcil and repulsed at every point. This was 
the second attempt of the kind that had heen made, and the 
result is the best evidence of the comparative ]>ower of the 
Cordovese empire Alhakt'ia cxcclli'd all his pivdeeessoi's in 
his taste for learning. He had standing agencies throughout 
the world to procure for him rare and valuahle Ixxtks, regard- 
less of cost. Tin- i)alacc library coiitainrd such an immense 
collection, that the catalogue itself occupied forty-four volumes. 
Besides that, he himself wrote a voluminous history of An<la- 
lusia, which was highly praised for a merit very rare among 
Arabic historians. — sound criticism, — .^o that whatever he rela- 
ted was considered true. Unlike most literary rulers, his \)i\s- 
sion for literature and science involved no neglect of the more 
serious duties of statesmanship, and Spain was never so happ}' 
as under the government of the just and enlightened Alhakem. 

His successor, Hisham, was a true roi fdincdnt, but beside him 
stood one of the most remarkable men that Islam has produced, 
Mohammed ibn .\bi Amir, siinianicd Al Mansour, the real 
caliph, who was yet content with a position corresponding to 
that of the mayors of the palace in France. As the hero ot 
fifty successful campaigns, he probalily displayed as much mili- 
tary talent as was to be witnessed in Kuroi)e until the rise of 
modern warfare. Nor was it simph' in the tii'ld that he was 
great, but in every depart iiiciit of military organization and 
foresight, for to him might apply what was said b}' an Aiidalu- 
sian i)oet of another: " The general, in the morning of battle, 
awakens thousands, after which be himself goes to sleep." 
Like all great leaders, be knew how to mingle justice with dis- 
cipline, so that be was alike loved and feared by his trooj)s. A 
striking anecdote is related of his severity of discipline. In 
reviewing the cavalry, a strict silence was imperatively com- 



SUBSEQUKNT HISTORY. 277 

manded, and even tlie horses, as it is said, were taught to 
refrain from neighing. On a certain occasion of this sort, 
seeing sometliing glitter in the ranks, he was informed, upon 
inquiry, that it was the sabre of one of the soklicrs. In vain 
did the culprit protest that the scabbard had slipped oft' while 
he Avas pointing to a comrade. Al Mansour would admit no 
excuse for a disobedience of orders. Tlio oifciidor's head was 
struck oft", and paraded in front of the line on a pole. Doubt- 
less such severity was necessary to retain his collection of 
Christian slaves and Berbers, whom he first composed into a 
standing army in place of the militia upon which Mohammedan 
powers generally relied. When Al Mansour had become rich, 
he determined to build the city of Azzahira, partly as a palace, 
partly as a fortress in which to guard his treasures. It was 
situated to the east of Cordova, and pronounced by historians 
second onl}' to the palace of Azzahra. It, too, has left no trace 
behind. He is said to have transcribed the Koran with his own 
hand ; and, in order to be buried in the full odor of sanctity, 
was in the habit, during his campaigns against the infidel 
Christians, of causing his garments to be shaken at every halt, 
and the dust collected into a bag. His winding sheet, spun and 
woven b}^ his daughters from flax that had been grown upon 
the little paternal inheritance, formed always a jiart of his bag- 
gage. He was buried at Medina Cell 0)i his return from his last 
campaign, and with him may be said to liave perished the 
dominion of the Beni Omeyah. The toi preceding sovereigns 
of this line bad reigned an average of twenty-six years, nor had 
the throne been once acquired b}- violence. In the next twenty- 
four it was destined to change haiids fifteen times. Cordova, 
alternately a prey to rival tactions, was ruined. Sacked b}- the 
fanatical Berbers, scarce one stone was left upon another. The 
famous palaces of Azzahra and Azzahira disappeared from the 
face of the earth. "The necklace was broken, an<l its costly 
pearls scattered," to be picked up in succession by the Almo- 
ravidcs and the Almohades. At length the fated instrument of 
Providence appealed in the person of St. Ferdinand. It iiad 
been thought that the ancient capital of the Beni Ome3ah 
could offer a sufficient resistance; " but who can escape the fate 
which is engraved upon the tables of adamant by the hand of 
eternal Providence ?" A few short days of siege, and a special 
bull from Pome announced to the Christian world that Cor- 



278 SPAIN AM> THE SPAMARPS. 

dova, (he anciont, the rt'iiowncil, llie wn-altliy Cordova, the 
lionu' of Onius and KuloLjio, had hcen roseuoil from Payiiim 
hands. Nor were the iiiiHfortunes of Ishun doomed to cease 
here. Seville, too. after an ol»stinate resistance, fell before the 
eonquerin<; swords of St. .Ia<;o and St. Ferdinand. Four liun- 
dred tliousand ])referred exile rather than submission to the 
conqueror, and the roads to tiranada and ^lalai^a wore worn 
away by the hurrying tread of fugitives. And now were the 
hearts of the faithful throughout Andalusia liliod with grief 
and terror. Yea. into the farthest corners of the east, were 
the dreadful tidings borne. "Oh man I suffer not thyself to be 
led asti'ay by tlic charms of this life." 

"A frightful, an irremcdialtle blow has fallen upon Spain ; its 
sound has penetrated even to Aralua, and Mount Ohod and 
Mount Thalon are shaken with the echo thereof. Her i)rovin- 
ces and her cities are convorto<l into deserts. Ask now at 
Valencia where tliou slialt seek Murcia':' wlu-i-e Xativa' where 
laen ? 

" AVhcre will thou lind ( "oi-dox a. tlu- home of the intellectual? 
Where are all the learned wli(» once sparkled on her bosom f 
Where are Seville and her e.\(piisite environs!;' Where her 
river with waters so ]>ure, so abundant, so delightful '! As the 
lover weeps the absence of his l)elovetl, so does afflicted Islam 
weep. 

"Thou art content and free from cai-e ; tb}- countr\- still hath 
])leasui'es for theej but can any one have a country after the 
loss of Seville ? 

"Oh ye, who mount (be bonuding coui'sei", who on the tields 
where the sword delights its fury, fly with eagle's speed I 

"Oh ye. whose hands are armed with the gloved steel of 
Jmlia, who, in the dark wiiirhvimis of dust, glitter as the fire I 

'• Oh ye, who beyond the sea pass tranquil and pleasant days, 
who enjoy jtower and glory at homo ! 

" IIuvo ye not heard of the inhabitants of Spain y Anil yet 
messengers have gone to inform you of their sufferings I 

''Those are covered with shame who so latel}' were fiourish- 
ing and glorious. 

" Yesterday they were kings at home, now they are slaves 
in the country of the infidel ! 

''.Mil eouldst tiiou have seen their tears flow on the day 
when they were sold ! 



DISTINr.UISIIEI) MEN. 279 

"Merciful God I mu8t a mountain bo placed between the 
mother and her children ? Must the soul be separated from the 
body ? 

" And these young maidens, heautitul as the sun when, at his 
risinii;, he sows the earth Avith coral and rubies. 

"Oh horror I the barbarian drags them away to humiliation; 
their eyes are bathed in tears, and their senses desert them, 
drowned in misery." 

And now, in ]d:u'e of the elegant ]\[oor, comes the heavy 
tramj) of the steel-clad Christian, strong in chivalrous devotion 
to his faith, and in the assurance of victory. The Guzuians, 
the Ponces de Leon, the Toledos, the Cordovas press through 
her tottering gates on their march to cast tlie intidel dog from 
the sacred soil of Spain. Another religion and another civili- 
zation succeed. The defilements of the past are swept rudely 
away. Christianity resumes her ancient seat upon the banks 
of the Guadalquivir. But, in the meantime, rival cities have 
risen to eminence, and the glor^^ of Cordova is gone. Every 
thing, even the names of the streets, remind one of the day 
when the Great Ca])tain filled the wide world with the echo of 
his name. Yet nought tangible, except the venerable mosque, 
remains to attest the greatness of her who once sat upon the 
throne of civilization. The inhabitants have one hereditary 
boast left, of which the}' are disposed to avail themselves — the 
puiity of their descent, and the blue blood of Cordova has 
passed into an adage even in our own tongue. The city cer- 
tainly has been favored in a remarkable degree as the birth- 
place of eminent genius and talent, whether JRoman, Goth, 
Mohammedan or Sjianish. When the literai-y athletes of the 
Augustan age, having finished their course, laid down the lamp 
of learning, it was taken up by the children of the west, ('or- 
dova contributed the Senecas, Gallio and Lucan to a circle Avhich 
included also (^uintilian, Silius Italicus, Floras and Martial. 
The flame no longer Inirnt so brightly as when fed b}' Virgil 
and Horace, luit its light has penetrated far into the future. 
Tiie new^ religion sulisequently sought here its firmest support- 
ers The eru<lition of Averroes and his countrymen cast a lialo 
around the crescent, and the historians of Spanisli literature 
make honorable mention of their successors. 

]iut of all the distinguished men to whom Cordova gave l»irth, 
no one was more remarkable, or exercised a greater influence 



280 SPAIN AM) TIIK .SI'AMAKUS. 

upon his ai^c. than tho famous Osius. its bishoj) in the thirtl and 
iouith c-cMiturics of t'hrislianity; and Sjjain has the more reason 
to boast of this wortiiy heeausc his character presented many 
of the stron;^ traits which have distinguished Spaniards at all 
times. As was Htly remarked, he seems to have been born a 
man without .icoini; throULjh the preliminary feelilencss of child- 
hoo«l, for scarcely had he attained legal maturity when his 
fame began to extend itself, not only in the l^'llin^ula, but 
throni:;liout the Emj)ire. In youth he had the tjood fortune to 
bear witness to the faith under one ol" the last persecutions of 
exi)irini:; Pat:;anism. At thirty-eight he was elevated to the 
bishopric of his native city, and from that time forth no move- 
ment could be inaugurateil, no council lu-ld. no creed adopted, 
witliout the aid of the Cordovese saint. In the great contest 
against the Arian heresy, he was an acknowledged leader, and 
was called to preside over the assembled wisdom and i»iety of 
the world at the great Council of ^'ice, whose declaration of 
faith in its essential parts is attributed to him. Subsequently 
an lOmperor of the Arian belief having ascended the throne of 
Constantinople, his enemies clamored loudly for his destruction. 
"True," said they to the monarch, "We have cast the Koman 
Pontiff from his seat, and have banished many bishops; true, 
we have filled the world with terror, but all this is nothing, so 
long as Osius exists. If he remains in his bislioprie, it seems 
as though nothing had been accomplishetl, for his woi'd alone is 
capable of turning the whole woi-ld against us." 

lie was ordered to confoi-m to what was now tin- estnMisht'd 
faith. So far from complying, the unci)n4ueral'ie prehite re- 
plied to the Emperor in a letter worthy of being preserved 
through all time. Among the unwelcome truths which he 
dared proclaim to the iiii|)eriai I'ar. was one that would sound 
strange Irom a Bishop of Cordova at the ])resent day : '(iod 
has given to you the empire, to us the church, and as he who 
interferes with your government of worldly things, contravenes 
the Divine ordinance; so beware thou likewise of pretending 
to judge of sacred matters. Kender unto Ctvsar the things 
that are Cajsar's, and unto God the things that are Gotl's. It 
is not given to us to have power upDn earth, neither canst thou, 
who art Emperor, enjoy authority' in affairs of religion." It 
was. however, of no avail, and the intrej)id Osius, bowed down 
beneath the infirmities of a century, was banished to a rude 



THE MARKET. 281 

cit}' in the inliospitable centre of Europe. Death anticipated 
the triumph of his enemies, and at the extreme age of one hun- 
dred and one years he received the reward of the faithful. 

"It would be superfluous in me," says St. Athanasius, "to 
eulogize this illustrious chief of the martyrs, for the whole 
world knows Avhat he has sutt'ered for the faith. AVhat council 
has been held over wiiich he did not preside? What assembly 
of Bishops ever listened to the eloquence of his reasons with- 
out being convinced 't What church cannot remember, having 
at some time been assisted or defended by him? AVhat suffer- 
ing spirit ever addressed him without receiving consolation?" 
In the immense physical and mental vigor, the unconquerable 
tenacity of jmrpose and the enduring courage of Osius, we 
seem to have before us the ideal of Spanish character. 

But this old Moorish tower has seduced me into a long 
digfession, owing, perhaps, to the fact that there is little to 
delight the eye; for at the j)resent season the fields around are 
bare, and the beauty of the prospect thereby greatly impaired. 
To be seen in its glor}^, one should ascend the Sierra Morena, 
to the Convent of San Geronimo, some winter or spring even- 
ing, and then even the most indifferent will appreciate the 
"amenitas loci." Descending from the town, I wandered to 
the market, through the street of Gondomar, whose name is so 
familiar to the reader of English historj'. Among the edibles 
exposed for sale, were pine burrs and acorns; not our pine 
burrs nor our acorns, which would puzzle the digestion of a 
Spanish muleteer, or even the quondam cook at the Table 
Mountain, but the fruit of the stone i)ine and of the sweet oak, 
called bcllota. The former resembles the almond, and the latter, 
when roasted, is veiy passal)lc. The bellota is supposed to be 
the secret of the superior excellence of Andalusian and Estre- 
madiiran pork cutlets, with which every traveller is or should 
be familiar, as it is in Spain a sort of shildtoleth, and jiroves 
the consumer to be neitlier Jew nor Turk. It was formerly 
supposed that the fish, in passing from the Atlantic to the 
Mediterranean, fed uj>on them also, and hence derived their 
delicate flavor. After leaving the market, an hour more was 
consumed in strolling about the narrow, hilly streets. Cordova 
presents b}- no means the beautiful appearance of Seville. The 
outsides of the houses arc seldom attractive; but there are 
great people at Cordova, and very attractive ones, — at least 



2^2 SPAIN ANMi TIIK srAMARPS. 

wlien awav from liomo. ns I luivo nover ri'mained tluTO long 
onouLcIi lo fonn an opinion ol" the society \<\ actual oxj)erionc'e. 
I asked a jK-rson at the hotel if there were many res])eetable 
inhahitants. " Si, Si, SeHor I hay Condes y Diiques. y alirunos 
que vaien mas aunqne no teni^an litiilos, ])(iri|iie son rieos." 
(There are Counts and Dukes, and others, who are of more 
im])ortanec still, although they have no titles, because ihey are 
rich.) This is the cry throughout Europe. The almighty 
dollar : 

I very naturally, in Cordova, east my eyes about to lind u 
horse of the famous breed for which it was so celebrated. Not 
one did I see above mediocrity. Nothing has so completel}'' 
gone to ruin as the stud, that formerly sup])lied I'^urope with 
such noble steeds. IMic valley of the ( iua(lal()iiivir seemed to be 
j)eculiai'ly tavored in this respect. The best were said to come 
from the huiui of Ubeda, above Menjibar, but more care 'was 
taken with the royal Ilara at ( "ordova. and that belonging lo 
the Carthusians, near Xeres. The genealogy of everyone was 
inscribed in a book, ami copied over his stall, with a cai'c that 
must have been inherited from the Arabs. Tin re -m-v one or 
two great fairs still held annually, j)ai"ticularlN- at ^laireiia, near 
Seville, and the (Jovei'nment has tui'ned its serious attention to 
the subject, but as yet without marked success. The ival 
Andalusian, when you can lind one, is a charming animal, 
strongly built, broad cliesUd and Itrowd. willi long black mane 
an<l tail sweeping the ground, and moving with a sj)ringy, 
haughty grace, us if conscious of his suj)eriorit3'. With all their 
fire, thej' are exceedingh' docile and capable of warm attach- 
ment. It may be a fancv. but they seemed to be of a higher 
order of creatui'i' than the ivgular race boi-se. whose intelli- 
gence has more of the instinct ;iii(l less of the liiiiiiaii. W'liile 
first in Seville 1 bail one — whom I christened with the Mooi-ish 
name of Zaide — tpiite as intelligent as a dog, without any 
special etl'ort on my part lo ti-aiii liim. The ancients fabled 
the Spanish horses to have been begotten l»y the west wind, 
but 1 shoukl not judge, from their aj)pearance, that they were 
capable of great speed. They seemed to nu- rather intended 
for war steeds and chargers of noble caballeros, than mere 
coursers or draught beasts. The S])anish method of bitting and 
training is not at all to my taste, and fails entirely in develop- 
ing the powers and beauty of the animal. The dcclino of the 



CANDOR OF TIIK SCHOOL BOYS. 283 

breed muy be attributed parti}' to tlie rapidly increasii)<;- demand 
for mules, and more still to tbc War of Iiulependeiiee, which 
broke up all tlie old establishments. It will require great skill 
and some expense to restore it. 

As it was now growing hot, and 1 had seen all that was 
curious, even to the soi disant j)alin ti-ees of the calijih's garden, 
I returned to the hotel, and, in cumpan}^ with a Swede, sat 
down to breakfast, louring this meal we enjoyed the pleasure 
of having the mirror held up to natui*e by a gathering of 
school hojs Avho had stopped at the window on theii* way for 
the purpose of inspecting any outside barbarians that might be 
visible, and who were kind enough to give us, without charge, 
the full l)enetit of their criticism. A breathless silence prevailed 
as we took our seats, broken by occasional exclamations of 
" JiiVa .' Jlj'ra .'" (look I) as either of us would make a move- 
ment. Having been on my legs nearh' five hours. I felt some- 
what tired and, forgetful of tlie ]n'inciples ol" teetotal alistinence, 
m}' first movement had been to driidv ott' a bumper of Montilla. 
This produced a genei-al exelamation among the audience of 
" J/i'm / que va a eniborracharsc .'" (Look! he is going to get 
drunk !) Presently the omelette Avas brougiit. ^'A/iora e)npit'::a 
la tortilla" (now it is the omelette's turn), they exclaim, 
delighted at the in*ospecl of close action. From this their 
remarks extended themselves to our peisonal appeai-ance, 
winding up. with ^'quc bigutes!" (what mustachiosi) Now, sur- 
rounded as we were b}'^ the relics of Mohammedan civilization, 
an insult to one's beard could not Ije borne. AVith one accord, 
therefore, we clapped our hands, whieh is the semi-Oriental 
signal used in Spain for the waiter. ''Llainan a Pedro" (they 
are calling Peter), whispered the boys. Peter came, and, like 
an old soldier, seeing either from past ex|)erience or by the 
higher (piality of intuitive perception, what was the trouble, 
dispersed the enemy by one gallant charge with the brusli 
handle, and closed the shutter. My companion, no great ad- 
mirer of Spain, was indignant at such conduct, more ])articu- 
larly since his mustachios reached to his cars and nearly around 
liis head; I thought it rather amusing. Trampiility restored, 
we ate our breakfast and drank our Montilla wine in peace, 
and with infinite relish. Montilla is too strong for a regular 
drink in S])ain, but as a sort of agreeable semi-medicine, it 
Avould be invalualile. The taste is delicious; not too sweet; of 



284 KPAIN AMI TIIK STAMAUDS. 

much body; tonic without heating, and a stomadiic of tlic first 
water. Havini; expressed a desire to drink some of the best 
once in my li(e. as we had none in America, the Asturian had 
brou/j;ht me this Itottle.. which lie thought would fulfil my 
utmost ex])ectation8, and be was ri<ijht. I had often heard it 
praised as ecjual to the Amontillado, but what I had hitherto 
obtained must have been of a very inferictr (juality — not to bo 
comj)are(l with this bottle. 

The moi-nin;^ work over, we sat on the shady side of the 
Court, and lisiening to the murmui'ing of the fountain, and 
enjoying the soothing fumes of our cigars, Itmlc defiance to the 
noonday lieat. 



Chapter XVI. 
CORDOVA, BY MALAGA AND ALHAMA TO GEANADA. 

Depart with Arrieros — Goats — Ilifitoric Towns — Luccna — Anti'i|uera — Pcfia do 
los Enamorados — View from the Sierra — Down the Valley to Malaga — Grapes — 
The City — Inhabitants — Alameda — English Party — Spanish Curiosity — Sea 
Bathing — View from the Water — Visitors from the Springs — Journey to Gran- 
ada — Velez M.alaga — Spanish Riding — Horsemanship — The Bull — I am Assas- 
sinated — Alhania — The Posada — The Fair — Fandango— Morning Scenery — Shep- 
herd Dogs — The Sick Morisco — Hog Lotfery — Approach to Granada. 

Cordova being ti thing of tlie past rather than the ])resent, is 
not a town to arrest the mere traveller long, and having vis- 
ited it once before thoroughly, a day "was amply sufficient to 
revive my recollections. As luck would have it, an Arriero — 
un hombre de confianza — was returning to Malaga that day, 
and, by way of varying the style of conveyance, I conchided to 
take passage with him. A moderate unamI)itious looking 
horse was provided, and the son of the An-iero, a model of taci- 
turnity for an Andalusian, was attached to my person as a 
specitd guide, in order to relieve me from the necessity of 
remaining always with the tniin. So, as the sun began to 
decline, we took our departure for Malaga, across ti)e country, 
b}- a new route, at least to me. Crossing the famous Moorish 
bridge over the Guadalquivir, we followed for some distance 
the Seville road, ascending the hill that bounds the valley to 
the south-east. The view over the city ia certainly very fine, 
finer even than that from the opposite elevation, because, from 
this side the Si'erra Morena itself, with its groves and villas, 
forms a prominent object in the landscape. At its base extend- 
ed the valley; its grayish fields relieveil by occasional villages, 
conspicuous among them always tin? castle-rock of Almodovar. 
For some leagues the r«)ad was uninteresting, though Ave did 
pass from time to time most picturesque thatched tents, with a 
wild robl»er-looking family seeking shelter in them from tho 



286 SPAIN AM» THK SI'AN1AK1»S. 

sun, wliili' a donkey ami a coujilo of pif^f*. those never lailin«jj 
evidences of the Spaniard's orthodoxy, sought to aeeoniph'sh 
the same, and on the outside. The heat was indeed terrific, 
not to use a stronixi^i' expression. Xo dehility, no perspiration, 
but you felt as if on the point of crispini^ up, and it required 
all the aid of hanflkerehiefs and unihrellas to keep from shriv- 
ellini; to a niunmiy. Late in the atternoon we passed several 
lierds of ;j;oats, which merit remark on account of their beautj''. 
They were as tall as calves, of a reddish brown color, and 
resembled somewhat our deer in appearance. The ancient 
Iberians are said to have been fond of stoats. The taste is 
justitialile if they had such as these. Even Ksau might have 
found some excuse. The animal ceitainly ranks higher in 
Spain than in most other countries. The long summer and the 
want of suitable pasturage render cow's milk a rare luxury, 
and that of goat's is substituted in its j)iace. The former is, 
moreover, consi<lered bilious in this climate. Every moi-ning, 
carh', the herdsman may be seen driving his charge thi-ough 
the streets, stopping at the houses of his customers to deliver 
the article fresh from the teat. I found it ([uite agreeable to 
the taste, and then it is pure, for the ojieration of milking takes 
place before your eyes, and there is no opportunity of appeal- 
ing to the town pump, even if that science had been imported 
into these unsoj)histicale(i ivgions. Sometimes the goats es- 
cai)e into the mountains, where, after a generation, they be- 
come ])erfectly wild, and are hunted as game. 

This part of the country was for a long tinu' tlie march of 
the Moorish frontier, and its towns have i-ach a place in his- 
tory. All that lay upon the, route were well built for tiie pur- 
pose of sustaining an attack. Some of the noldest titles and 
proudest families rose into conse(pience by vii'tue of their valor 
disjilayed upon these fields. Aguila, Ferman XuHez. Cabra, 
Montilia. ai-e laniiliar to readers of Spanish history. Tiie lat- 
ter lies a mile or so to the left of the road, Imilt upon the long 
tongue of land which extends from the taijPe land into the 
valley. It seemed at a distance aiiniiralily calculated for a 
frontier station. This is the region of the famous wine of 
which I have spoken. The country between the (Juadal([iiivir 
and the (Jenil, over which wo were travelling is very broken. 
Every village was set upon a hill. And what is unusual in 
Europe, they were all full of children. Not a beggar appeared 



FINE HOUSES AT LUCENA. — ANTEQUEKA. 287 

on the route, owing-, porlwips, to its being so sekloni tnivciled. 
As wo had started late, the night was ever so tar advanced 
when we reached Lucena, and the latter part of the journey 
was performed in the dark, so if the country jiresents any 
beauties the}' were lost to me. The Posada being seldom vis- 
ited b}^ foreigners, was, in the primitive style, none llu; wor.se, 
however, for that, as we at least were not imposed ujwn in the 
cuisine; no boiled beef broiled up into steaks, but a real olla 
and huei'os con jamon. Opposite to the Posada was one of the 
handsomest private residences I had seen in Andalusia, tlirec 
stories high, with a magnificent marble court and beautiful 
fountains. It was just tinished, and had been dedicated to 
some saint in gratitude for a narrow escape on the ])art of the 
owner from an impending accident. The landlady asked me if 
we were so devout in America. I replied, that if we returned 
such cost!}' thanks in my country for every escape from peril, 
we would be soon reduced to poverty. My statement was 
received without incredulit}', as on this side of the water our 
daily food is supposed to consist of bowie knives and revolvers. 
The next day's ride was as uninteresting as its predecessor, as 
far as the Genii, whose cr3'stal waters we crossed at Benameji. 
Thence the I'oad led over a Sierra, unrolling pretty landscapes, 
down to the city of Antequera, where dusty, hot and travel- 
stained, we found a hearty welcome in a tidy inn, Avhich proved 
eminently satisfactory after a long, and I must confess, tire- 
some ride. Nature doubtless puts on a handsome garb, in 
spring or autumn, though I cannot speak from experience, as 
this was my only journey here. She certainly wore a very 
sombre russet at the ])rescnt time. A traveller in search of 
the picturesque woidd do I'ar better to ])ass by ivonda or Alcala 
la Real, either of which routes would satisfy his expectations. 
Nor can I i)oast of having found anything of noteworthy inter- 
est in the city itself, unless it be that, peering about in the 
stable to look after the cattle, I saw several little IJoman col- 
umns with Ionic capitals, wiiich had been pressed into service 
from some ruins, prol»ahly by the Moors, for the building was 
old enough to have dated from that period. The ancient 
castle on the hill was visited, and oflTercd a line prosjiect at 
sunset. This completes the list of sights, so far as my ob.ser- 
vation extended. 

A companionable, middle aged Spaniard, with a long gun. 



288 SPAIN AND THK SPANIARDS. 

li:ul lii'cn my coinjKUiioii liillu-rto, l»ut lie K-ft at An(o(|iU'ra for 
liis Ikhiic. aiul I was to coiitimio tlio jotinioy tlio next day with 
the Arrirros only. Wc started from Anteqiiora without wait- 
ing for the 1 est of the train, as early as mi^ht he. to avoid the 
heat, if that were possible. The road cornineneed immediately 
its steep ascent of the Sierra, which extends to TJonda, forming 
the mountain chain, to which even (Jihraltar and perhaps Centa 
belong, and which separates the Mediterranean littoral from 
the high lands of the interior. The view over the Journey we 
had j)erformed began to develop itself ra])idly. The fertile 
Vega surrounding the city, which had scarcely the appearance 
of a town of our century, was still in the shade of the eastern 
mountains. Beyond it, toward thi- valley of the Genii, ex- 
tendctl the broken country of Andalusia, its brown, dusty hue 
of the season, somewhat relieved by tlie salt lake, a unique 
featiire in the landscape. The road to (iranada wound around 
the loft}' Pena de los Enainorados, or Lovers' Leaj), which, in 
solitai'v grandeur, commands the approach to Loja. The tra- 
dition iclls (hat once tliei'c was a Christian slave in (Jranada of 
such excellent disposition and exemplary conduct as to win 
the heart of his master's family, including an only daughter 
But alas 1 what hope was there for the Moorish maiden save in 
flight"::' They embraced a fortunate opportunity, and another 
soul was about to be gathered into the fold of the holy church, 
when the raging father ap])eare(| in sight, followed by his 
armed retainers. Knowing the fate reserved for them —death, 
or what were worse than death itself, a separation in life — the 
despairing lovers refused to surrender themselves, and liy dint 
of stones, drove back the assailing party. At length archers 
were brought, when, seeing no longer hoi)e of escape, the faith- 
ful pair, locked in a dying embrace, fell crushed at the feet of 
the relentless pai'cnt. One grave i-eceived them, and the still 
unforgiving Moslem i-etiirnt'd lorloi-ii and heavy hearted to his 
cheerless home in (rranaila. 

Ante<piera is a place of considerable inii)orlance, as it is situ- 
ated at the enibrancliinent of (lie roads from i\[alaga, (ii-anada, 
Ronda and Osuiia, and numerous arc the trains of mules that 
tread its rocky streets. P>iii it occupied a much more ))romi- 
nent place in the world when it was a great outpost of the 
Mohammedan kingdom in the east oi" Andalusia, How often 
has the watchman from its castle tower seen the fierce battle 



PASS OF ESCABF.RUZALA. GRAPES. 280 

between cross and eroseent r:i<;-e beneath these walls I \)v\{ its 
fate was sealed in 1410. when it fell before the conquering 
sword of Fernando. No sooner had the Christian taken full 
possession, than a fierce contest arose as to wlio had been the 
first to scale its walls. j\lany were the claimants for this dis- 
tinguished honor, and great the rivalry. After much delibera- 
tion and examination of witnesses, the judge decided in favor 
of Juan Biscaino, who had died the soldier's death in the tower 
itself, and was now in the far off lanti beyond the tomb cnjo\''- 
ingtlic crown of martyrdom that fadeth not. 

After a couple of hours' steep ascent we reached the Pass of 
Escaberuzala, and I reclined upon a little pinnacle, surrounded 
by immense misshapen rocks, to enjoy the view. A cooling 
breeze swejit up from the sea. As it is only a few leagues to 
the coast, the descent is rapid and frequently pi'ccipitous. The 
pass was at the head, as it were, of a vast funnel ; on each side 
extended the spurs of the Sierra, hounding the valley, and 
separating gradualh' until they sunk ahru]itly down at the 
margin of the shore. The valley deserved the name, in so far 
as it lay betM'een two mountain ridges — but of smooth green 
meadow slojie thei'e was nothing. All was arid, distorted, 
wild in the extreme, but grand, and beautiful in its grandeur. 
Beyond extended the Mediterranean, presenting the curious 
pcr.s])cctive appearance which the sea always has when looked 
down upon from a great height. Far, fur away to the south 
could be dimly seen the mountain coast of Africa and the 
man}' peaks of Atlas struggling, as of yore, with the weight of 
the heavens. Imitating Isabella, I with truth exclaimed, " Mar- 
bellal Marbella!" A few Cortijos sparkling below were the 
onl}' evidences of life. Several ti-ains of burden mules passed 
b}-, the Arrieros singing occasional snatches of old border 
l)allads; and once a large vulture flew circling around, other- 
wise a dead silence reigned, undisturl)ed even by the humming 
of a beetle, and the iron landscajie seemed frozen into eternal 
immobility. I remaini'd a half hour imbibing the poetry of the 
situation, when the increasing heat recalled the long journey 
ahead, and slaking our thrist at a cold and dcliciously pure 
fountain that burst frum the rock, we commenced the descent. 
For many a weary mile we wound anu)ng the parched liill 
sides. Finall}' we entered the region of the grape, and thence, 
even to the gates of Malaga, our path was bordered by vine- 
20 



290 SPAIN AM) THE SPANIARDS. 

yards. ]>on(lant with (ho most luxuriant fruit I cvit bohold. 
SoHK" wi'ic at least ( I lour to say it ) an inch and a lialf in 
len<!;th, and so luscious as to he- alisolutriy tloyini^ to the taste. 
The ^rt'at w<»nder to nu* was whence the vines jirocured sufti- 
cient moisture even lor their sustenance. Water there was 
none. n(»r had any rain fallen for five months, and the air was 
as drv as the earth. The streams were exhausted, and families 
had even estaldished themselves under tin; little hrid«>;es. such 
is the unchan<;ing nature of the climate during the summer 
months. Deserting the road, a considerable part of the journey 
was performed in the bed of the river, which, with the thatched 
luits for the vine^'ard keepers and for the sale of commodities, 
resembled a street. In the rainy season the beds are quickly 
filled, and every rivulet assumes gigantic proportions as it 
sweeps down the mountain side ireighted with its load of stones 
and sand. I'he temiiei-alure of the coast of Malaga is hiijher 
lliaii that of tin- valley of the Guadalquivir or even of AlVica 
itself, for the Sierra wards off effectiially the winds from the 
north, and it may be truly as well as ])oetically said, that 
suMinier I'eigns throughout the year. Enormous cactuses, laden 
with i'ij)e Iruit, were evidences of a tropical luxuriance. A 
brisk breeze blowing up the valley all day had rendered the 
temperature cnduraliK'. yet we were not sorry on ascending a 
hill crest to see the city of .Malaga smiling in the midst of its 
gardens. Its environs gave proof of commercial j)i'Os])erity 
in numerous villas; and some tall, smoking chimneys hat.1 made 
their a))pearance since ni}- last visit. The approach to a com- 
mercial cit}' isgenerall}- m(;re enlivening than that to an inland 
capital. It seems as though llu' inhabitants of the former 
sou"-ht their pleasure in fleeing without the walls where their 
labor is done and their wealth amassi-d. In the latlei-, exactly 
the reverse hapi)ens, as wealth is brought and pleasure sought 
within. So that while the environs of the one arc brilliant 
with the overflowing of superfluous wealth, the travi-ller fre- 
quently enters the other without i)reliminary warning of his 
ajjproach to a great centre of retinement and luxury. The 
contrast in this respect between Malaga and Madrid is strik- 
ing. Crossing the dry bed of the Guadalmedina, or the river 
of the city, i was soon lodged in a hotel upon the Alameda, 
and lifide adii'U to my silent conductor. 

Malaga is one of the most flourishing cities in Spain, not- 



MARKETS. — SWEET WINES. — THE PEOI'LE. 201 

withstanding Mie shoalin<; of the liarhor by tlic detritus of tlic 
mountain torrents, whi(di impose the necessity of constant 
dredging. It naturall}' has a monopoly of the export of raisins 
and the various Malaga wines, the demand for whicli is increas- 
ing every year. In the hist ten years manufactures too have 
taken a considerable start, notwithstanding the etforts of their 
English friends to persuade them Ihat their only calling is 
agriculture, and that they should leave every other source of 
i\ational wealth to foreign countries. Malaga has also another 
merit with a traveller sutfering from the Solano, which was in 
full blast ; it has few paintings or other works of art, whether 
good or bad. The Cathedral is an immense structure, but 
detains you a very little while. The Alcazaba — the ancient 
Moorish castle — is a magniticent feature in the landscape, from 
the water, but it is scared}' worth tiie while to enter unless it 
be for the view. This completes the list, so that Malaga is to 
the sight-weary traveller a sort of holiday — a day of rest. At 
this season of the year, the great attraction was the grape 
market, which offered such treasures as are rarely seen else- 
where. The size of the fruit was in some instances sur])risin<r, 
almost as large as a small peai-, and its juice sweet as distilled 
honey. In fact, rather too much so for my taste. It is said, 
perhaps with truth, that a preference for acids over sweets is 
characteristic of habits which have departed from nature, just 
as old drunkards dislike champagne. Certainly, Spaniai'ds of 
both sexes preserve their natural taste in this respect, if a love 
of sweets be the criterion, and Andalusia must be the country 
of nature, for among all its productions there is scarcely one of 
an acid character. The grape vintage is the bus}- time here, 
rendering the city for the time quite an emporium. The peas- 
ants flock in from the country and foreign vessels crowd the 
harbor, giving it quite a brisk appearance. 

The society being commercial, is naturally more free and 
easy than that of Seville or C'ordova; but, perhaps for the very 
reasons that render it so, is regarded as second rate by the 
blue blood that dispf)rts on the l)anks of the Guadalquivir and 
the (Jenil. Even the majos of Seville regard with contemj)t 
the feel>le imitations <»f the coast. So far as out ward appcai'ance 
goes,- the ladies certainly are fiir inferior to the lii<>-|i born 
dames of Seville, Cordova or Hcija. Tbere is a want of that 
indcfinabh' high bred elegance wiiich seems to jireside over 



L".<2 



SPAIN AMI TIIK SrAMAUnS. 



llie sinalli'st rnovfiiu'iit of tlu'ir jirouil iu'i<:;lil»(»i-s. Nor do I 
tirid llic flimato as atjrooaltlo, tliou;fli a jn-Tjictiial sjn-ing does 
truly rei^n, and it is also said that there is not sutiicient variety 
in the seas<»ns to jirodiu-e lliat hracini^ of the system which is 
requisite to the jierCection of a climate. Ilenee, persons who 
reside a Ioiilj time at Mahiija are ajil to suH'er from a feebleness 
and distension of the veins. The Malaifueilas have, however, 
a very fine Alameda, in the centre of tlie city, iijxni which to 
display their charms, and tliere are few more a^rcialilc loiin<i;- 
in:; places, after dinner, on a summer's eve. 

Sitting there one afternoon, in the enjoyment of a scijar and 
the dolce far niente, ni}- attention was arrested hy the ajjjiear- 
ance of an old woman. a])pareiilly si.xty years of ai^e. much 
bent and sluivcllcd, but still vii;-orous. and not i-asiiy aiarniod. 
if one miiiht Judge by her gray eye. Jler costume was humble 
and faded, and in the excess of the English fashion, her dress 
coquettishl}- hclii up in fVoiit of her i-jgiit leg, wliilr a jiarasol 
])rotccted her ieatures from tiie sun, whidi. iiowevcr, was quite 
innocent of any amoi'ous intent, as it had alread}' descended 
be-low the house tops. A young girl and a boy accompanied 
licr. Every eye was lunicd upon liic parly. A straggling 
collection of bo^'s followed \\ ilb i.'\ idi'iit aniusiMiirnt . and stood 
around their seat in wonder. I ihougbi it a inisplaciMl carnival 
joke, and that some wags Imd dressed tbeinsilvcs up to ridicule 
the English fashions. It was certainly tlie best imitation in 
the worbl. It turned out, however, that they were really from 
Albion's clitls, and were much annoyed by the impertinent 
curiosity of tluir tormentors — so niueb so that they soon left 
the Alameda. Jt was only to bi-ing up reinforcements, for they 
])resently rea]t|»eai'ed, leaning on the arm of an old man, who 
was provided with a good stout stick, and iiad I'vidently come 
to vindicate the right of his lair hi'lii-meet to an unmolested 
])lace on the j)romenade. J di<l admire the old fellow's pluck, 
for it reipiircd more than a soldier's couiMge to face the fash- 
ionable world at the head of such a liarle(juin-lookii:g party 
It was amusing to see the ell'ect jiroduced by (leneral's stick 
and determined aspect, for the crowd kept at a most respectful 
distance, making ever}' possible allowance lor the length of hi8( 
arm. They took a seat by inc. The curiosity of the bystanders 
soon became satisfied, and it was now their turn Ibr revenge. 
They had just arrived, and the elif'ect which they jiroduced upon 



CURIOSITY OF SPANIARDS. — SKA BATH. 208 

the Malagnofias was not greator than the effeet prochiced hy 
tlie Mahiguefias upon them. ?]verythin<f excited Iheir wonder, 
and sometimes their merriment. Tlie climax was capped by 
the appearance of two uncommonly fat priests in low shoes and 
white stockings, with tlie in^mense Basilio hats, a yard long 
and turned up at the side, which still hold tlieir place in the 
Spanish clerieaLcostume. Thinking after this that they had 
had enjoj'mcnt enough for one day, the whole part}^ retired. 

Strangers are frequcntl}' much anno3^cd hy the observation 
which their foreign dress excites in Spain. But really it is very 
natural. They go hundreds and thousands of miles to see the 
Spaniards and their costume, and the S])aniards with equal 
curiosity stare at them. We think that an Andalusian majo, 
in his Figaro dress, is a fit object of wonder, and that a man 
who dons such a costume has no right to object to a considei'a- 
l>le amount of staring. But a Paris or London dandy is a far 
more incom])reliensible and amazingly di'essed object in the 
eyes of a Spaniard. Imagine one of them turned loose in some 
primitive town in Amei'ical ^I'he number of travellers in Spain 
is still comjiaratively few, and a simple stranger is of himself 
an object of curiosit}* ofl" the highways, luit the appearance of 
one of the ornaments of creation above mentioned is the signal 
for a general turnout of the population — men, women and 
children. I knew an Englishman at Madrid Avho was excess- 
ively teased on the Prado by this habit, but he was not born a 
martyr, and half his time was sjient in walking defiantly around 
jiersons who had manifested more curiosity than A\as seemly. 
His plan was a most successful one; it was as magical in effect 
upon the unmannerlj^ gapers as the "Perdoneme vin. por Dios" 
is upon a beggar, for few people are willing to risk a fight for 
tlie pleasure of being impertinent. The most dangerous thing 
of all, however, for a foreigner is to adopt the full Spanish cos- 
tume, for that requires a grace of movement, a springiness of 
stej» which twenty j-ears of strajis and suspenders is apt to 
impair if not destroy. 

As Malaga affords facilities for salt water bathing, I ])resscd 
into service a boy, one of the Gibraltar rock scorjtiftns attached 
(o the hotel, as a guide. According to his account lln' floating 
baths were magnificent. Mohammed himself could ask nothing 
better. The first was moored in the dock, and every now and 
then .some refuse stuff floated by. I made dcci<led objections to 



294 PPAIN AM> TIIK SPAMAIU)S. 

tlio locality; tlw otluM- was no In'ttor. The vaK-l expressed 
surprise lliat I (li<l not fin<l tlie Avator clean enough, as he and 
all the other ijentlenien at the hotel hathed there. I tohl him 
that there was nothing about which <^cntlemen differed so much 
as l»athin<r. hoth as to the quantity of the water and its quality, 
and I forthwith stepped into a hoat. In a few minutes I was 
in the hlue water of tlu' Meditcn-anean, beyond the entrance of 
the ))ort, enjoying a gull's eye view of the scenery. From this 
point one has the finest view of the city and its surroundings. 
On every side is the noble amphitheatre of mountains; their 
base covered with vineyai'cls and farm lionses; their summits 
arjil and barren, glistening in the noonday sun. Midway tip 
was Colmenar, and. like a faint tlireail, the road to I.oja, 
whence the views of the Vega of Malaga are so beaniilul. The 
foreground was filled up with the <-ity, tlanU^•(l 1>\- the moK-head 
and the Alcazaba. The huge Cathedral asserts its pre-eminence 
in the centre. Every traveller shoiild take this ])ros])ect, as it 
is certainly the finest thing in Malaga, and then it is such a 
jdeasure to be in the salt water of the ti-o])ics, knowing at the 
Bamc time that there is not a shark within five hundred miles. 

I had already once made the journc}' to Granada by Albania 
and returned by Loja, both of which arc well woi'th travelling, 
the former for its general interest, the latter on account of the 
lovely views of the Vega, as you descend in the evening the 
Sierra of ('olmcnar — not to be surpassed in Europe. I had 
therefore thought to go quietly snoozing in the diligence, but 
in the fall of the year one is apt to count without his host in 
this matter on all the front i«'rs of Sjiain. for the places are 
taken months aheail by ))ersons ntuniing from springs an<l 
bathing places. Such was the case now. The hotel was 
crowded with guests from Carratraca — afamcms mineral sjiring 
in the luountaiiis to tlie uoi-t ii-west — awaiting tlicir turn. Fail- 
ing in all my etl'orts to obtain a seat in the public conveyance, 
I made the best of a bad cause, arranged for two horses ; 
bespoke a hotd ; saw the alt'oijas or saddle bags tilled with what 
turned out to be one of the most aboniiuaiile meals 1 ever ate, 
and retired to rest. 

lieforc dajdight Diego and m3'sclf were off on the road which 
skirts the hills along the Mediterranean toward Vcicz ]\Ialaga. 
The way was strewed with an uninterrupted succession of 
donkeys heavily ladencd. As it was still quite dark, that is, as 



JOURNEY TO ORANADA. — VEGA OF VEEEZ. 295 

dark as it ever gets in the starry clime of Andalusia, we were 
always on the point of riini.inu:; sonve of the patient animals 
down ; and tlie burden of one of them coming in contact with 
my knee, taught me, to my sorrow, of what it consisted — boxes 
of those dried grapes which form the delight of all American 
children, here called by the classical name of pasa. The recol- 
lections of infancy had very little effect, however, in assuaging 
the pain of the concussion. As day broke, the donkey's and 
dust seemed to increase, perhaps because rendered visible. 
Every mountain path added its contingent to swell the throng. 
Sometimes the road descended to the level of the beach, then 
mounted again to cross the winter torrents, rios secos at this sea- 
son. Old watch towers (atalayas), built hy Moors and Chris- 
tians alike, many dating even from irannibal and Caisar, segun 
dicen, were strung along, some of them improved in the modern 
style of fortification, as outposts for the carabineei's of the 
custom house, of whom we met from time to time a ])atrol — 
good-looking men, well armed and well m()unte<l. For a long 
distance we kept the city in sight on our right; on our left 
rose the Sierra, crowned with vineyards and frequent farm 
houses, where the peasants were occupied in j)reparing the 
pasa. It seemed as if this occupation embraced all who were 
not engaged in driving the donkej's to the city. It was very 
pleasant to ride along the Mediterranean, in the cool of the 
morning, in the midst of the plenty and contentment which the 
vintage season ])roduces. They might well be contented, for 
of all the gifts of heaven to man, the vine is the most beneficent. 
Its culture is light, and in its train follow temperance, health 
and wealth, a wealth too of which they cannot be deprived, as 
it depends not so much upon the wit of man as upon the 
natural gifts of soil and climate. After proceeding three or 
four hours, we turned into the Vega of Velez Malaga, which is 
without doubt the most fertile spot in Eurojie. It seemed as 
though there was not room for the products of its soil. Our 
own staples held a conspicuous place; maize, sweet potatoes, 
generally eaten here as a preserve, sugar cane, besides the 
cereals apjn-opriate to a more temperate climate. The soil is 
composed entirelj' of the washings of the mountain streams for 
centuries, and is naturally fertile in the extreme; a<ld to this 
an abundant irrigation, with the heat of a .Sejtteniber sun, and 
its exuberant production is easily- understood. The town of 



296 SPAIN AND THE Sl'AMAUIiS. 

Vclez, with its wliiti- castK'. l»aekod !•>• tlio naked Sierra TcJ^'du, 
f'onnc'd a bouiilirul contrast to the rich green of the valley. 
Traversing a fool grove on the lianUs »»t'the river, wliere ninue- 
roiis families ha<l takrn up their summer residence, we entered 
the city and proceeded' to the Posada, where 1 to(d\ my siesta, 
as the rest of the Journey hid fair to he as hot as it was fatigu- 
ing. A euj) of chocolate and an (i;ii<-(irillo refreshed us, and a 
little before noon we started again 

The carriage road ceases at Veiez, and we ascended the 
spacious dry bed of the little stream, penetrating gradually 
into the mountain. For some tinu^ the aspect of the country 
continues the same — vineyards and long lilcs of donkeys seek- 
ing the shade of the gigantic aloes and cactus liedges. liy 
and by the productions of a tropical climate became rai-er; 
the road a mere mountain path, crossing precipit(>us ravines 
on Moorish bridges, and winding among hamlets that seen\ed 
to hang upon the side of the rock. Diego had been very 
talkative all the morning, so long as we could ride abreast; but 
as in single tile he was reduceil to his own meililations. which 
were few, sleep asserted her empire. I first discovered the fact 
by seeing his horse leave the i>ath and make straight for a 
house a little way olf, which he would liave entered, had not 
the shouts of the iistonislieil females within awakened the 
slumbering l)iego. Arrieros sleep anil sleep i>rolbun<lly a cou- 
sidei'alile j)art of iheii' Journeys. They tell of a merchant, 
with his train, who arrived, dozing upon a mule, at the village, 
upon the banks <;f the Tagus. by the usual road leading over 
the famous bridge of Alcantara, shortly after one arch of that, 
structure had bet-n blown up by the liritish, he himself being 
ignorant of the fict. The villagers eoulil not believe but that 
the bridge had been magically re])aired, and went back to see, 
when it was found thai a nai'row timber had been laid across 
the break for the goats. When the |»oor merchant saw the 
thread, the real bridge of the sword {W Kantar al Seif) upon 
which he had been caiM'ied two hundi-ed and tifly feet above 
the Ibaming torrent, his hair tui-neil white. Spanish hoi-ses 
can safely be trusted in this manuiT foi-, l)eing exceedingly sure 
fooled, they go as safely without a In-idle as with one, and the 
high peaked saddles assist tlu- rider in holdii\g on. Nature has 
Uiiidly disposed thai a horsi'iiian's ineinl>ei's succumb succes- 
sively in proportion to the necessity for their continued exer- 



THE PAPS OF THE TEJADA. THE BULL. 297 

tioH. First tlio muscles of tlie neck ; llien tlie arms ; tlien the 
back, and last of all the letjs; such 1 believe is the universal 
experience of horsemen. Diego maintained that liis scat was 
better adapted for the jmrpose than the European. Most An- 
dalusians while on a journc}' ride a la ginete, a custom derived 
from the Mooi-ish cavalry, who rode with very short stii'rups, 
and were armed with an (uhirgit or light shield and a lance. 
In the middle ages Si)anish cavalry were divided into ra^tellanos 
and ghutcs, the former armed in full with heavy lances and 
long stirrujis, the latter, as I have described, which was uni- 
versal among the Moors, '' ginete," meaning simply a horseman. 
Some of the late authors on cavalry tactics recommend a 
pai-tial return to this manner of riding. There is no doubt 
that the present method in the British army, copied by them 
from the continent, is traceable to the mail clad knights — the 
Castellanos of the Spanish tactics — who could scarcely bend 
their knees on horseback, and is unsuited to the present age. 
The other, however, is as great an extreme. Reasonably short 
stirru])s are of course desirable for a swordsman, but it seems 
to me that they involve a sacriHce of the solidity of the seat, 
and that an adarga and light lance would be poor matches 
for the mailed armor of an old knight or even the modern 
cuirassier; yet the exjierience of a thousand battle lields has 
proved that in an open hand to hand tight, activity and free- 
dom of movement moi-e than counterbalance the mere resist- 
ance of armor, and the Moors, once the best cavalry in the 
world, and now excellent horsemen, retain tlu'ir short stirrup. 
Diego, however, carried his ])oint about the slee])ing. 

The path now became stee])er. Flocks of sheep liegan to 
make their appearance as we neared the summit of the Sierra, 
and the view behind us assumed the grand proportions I have 
described in jiassing from Antequera to Malaga, with the ad- 
vantage this time of the evening sun and a clearer atmosphere, 
Avhich brouglit the opposite coast of Africa into full view. 
J)escending from the erest, wo entered aiul crossed diagonally 
a broad level valbn* that extended a considerable distance and 
was covered with green, which a]>i)eared doubly beautiful by 
contrast with tin- bare mountain side we had left. Numerous 
flocks and bercls wen* grazing, and one of the bulls made a 
show of attacking us, which would have been exceedingly 
inconvenient, as the skill of a bull figbltr does not come b}^ 



298 



SPAIN ANT) TIIF. .SPANIARDS. 



intuition, and tho in(enso liosit and hard day's ride had made a 
visible inipression upon our animals. ]iy pushing them into a 
trot we niana<;ed to put a preeipitous gulley between our 
valuable persons and his taurine majesty, who contented 
himseli' with roaring; and pawing the earth at us. lie was 
a very j^ood lookin/^ beast when seen acro-s that obstacle, but 
I eonli-'ss 1 was not sorry to lose siijht of him. Down in the 
plains tlu'sc embryo heroes of the bull riiiix sometimes lijive a 
great deal of trouble to passers by, ]i;irti(iilarly when tiiey 
stray away from the herd, as this one had done. 

We soon after entered a tortuous ravine leadini; over tho 
northern barrier of the valley. 1 bad loitered behiml, lost in 
those meditations which the evening bi-ings upon the traveller 
in strange pai'ts, when 1 was aroused from my reverie liy liie 
sudden springing from the road side of a most unamiable-look- 
ing man, with a sledge hanimer. who commenced addressing 
me in a strong dialect which I diil not very well comprehend. 
I stopped, and, loosening my dagger, entered into conversation. 
His appearance was not prei)ossessing, but 1 thought that if a 
good five inch Toledo, on horseback, was not equal to a sle<lge 
hammer on foot, it was time to stop travelling. He wished to 
know if I had passed a certain friend .of his prt)ceeiling to the 
fair at Aihaiiia. 1 had seen no such person, nor anything like 
liim. At this time a tui'n in the ravine brought Diego in view, 
who iiunie(liately came back at a gallop and ])revenled the 
denouement, whatevei' that was to be. lie scoIiKmI nie tor slop- 
ping; said that the fellow looked like a "mala gente" (bad 
people), which indeed he did; that the Sierra was full of them, 
particularly as to-iiiorrow was to be a fair, and called my at- 
tentifjii to a cross which stood near by, very apropos to ])oint 
his moral. These crosses or //uYf/j/ro Andaluz (Andalusian mir- 
acle) as they are called, ai-i' erected to mark the spot where 
per.son has been found mui'dered. It used to be a custom for 
every ])asser by to throw a stone upon the heap, antl to otter 
uj) a short ])rayer foi- the peace of his soul, but tiiis custom is 
going out of fashion. People are too bu.sy now-a-days. They 
are not always evidence of robbery, for love and jealousy come 
in for at least a half I am son-y to sa}' that this was ni}' 
nearest api)roach to the pleasure of being robbed and buried 
under a wayside cross; and half of the terrific, petrifying, hair- 
elongating i-ecitals that grace the books of travellers, have very 



ALIIAMA. — rOSADA. — THE FAIR. 299 

little moi'o fonndntioii. From tlio top of the crest the eity of 
Alhaina appeaixnl overspread with the roseate hue of sunset. 
To the north and east were the loft}' mountains of (Jranada 
and the man}- jieaks of the Sierra Nevada. On every side 
extended the spurs that sprino; from these ehnins. Gi-andly. 
did they repose in their solitude. Dismountiui;-, we led our 
horses down the steep descent, and after a half hour's walk, 
were in the precipitous strec^ts ot this romantic gate to the old 
kingdom of (Jranada. 

I proceeded directly to a house wIkm'c I had heen entertained 
on the previous visit witli good humor and clean sheets, if not 
with elegant fare in other respects. But the famil}" had moved 
away and the present occupants were not disposed to be hospi- 
table. After one or two other fruitless attempts, we nerved up 
our minds to try the Posadi — a place to be avoided in a crowd 
such as at present thronged the little city. Pushing my way 
through the kitchen and among the n\ules, I mounted to the 
first stor}^ to view the accommodations. Slender they were, 
but the liest — an uneven brick-paved room, Avith one chair and 
a porthole for a window, by which J took a seat until Diego 
had put away the cattle. This accomj)lished, he made his 
appearance with Juana, the daughter of the family, who united 
in her small person the weighty functions of chambermaid, 
cashier and housekeeper. Juana was titleen oi- thereabouts; 
not pretty, but brisk and talkative, and disposed to render 
herself agreeable as well as useful. I complained that the 
house contained nothing, not- even chinches. *'Si, si, las hay! 
hay todol ha}' toilo!" and she was not altogether wrong. A 
ricketty table was brought first; then a graixl consultation was 
held as to the sleeping apparatus. It was finally concluded to 
make a pallet upon the floor, as the best means of cheating 
thosie travellers' enemies tl^at lurk in the iiiding places of bed- 
"steads, and of which I have a wholesome horror. iS'ext, fuipper 
was brought up, in the best style of Albania cookery. 1 will 
not venture to say how much garlic and oil it contained, nor 
how palatable it was after the journey. I ate in state, sur- 
rounded by the landlady, Juana and Diego. The latter was in 
his element, delighted to have sometliing to do. lie informed 
me privately that he was glad we had faile<l in obtaining lodg- 
ings at the other houses, as he would not iiave felt himself at 
liberty to order about as he did here. The conversation turned 



oOO SPAIN AM) TlIK Sl'AMAKKS. 

upon the annual fair, wliicli was t> commence to-morrow and 
to last three days. The town was already thronc^od, and a 
liusy time was expected. Having received with due humility 
the compliments (»f the hostess upon my practical appreciation 
of her culinary skill (your mistress of the Posada likes to see 
j'ou eat heartily of her viands; it is always a strong point in 
your favor, and shows that you know what is good — a Spaniard 
of taste), 1 sallied forth to see the world. 

The situation of .Mliaina is superlt; cvidciilly intended hy 
nature to he what it was, a fortress tt)wii in the days iicfore the 
invention of gunpowder. On three sides it is ahnost impregna- 
lijc; one of tiicni is upon liie <l('cp cleft in (lie mountain ritlge, 
through which the ^[archan foams and lioijs — a scene of savage 
graMfiiMir. As the moonlight illuminated its recesses and 
brought its old Moorish mills and ruined walls into relief, it 
required little imagination to see the spirits of the warrior 
Marquis of Cadiz and his turhaned op])onents wandering over 
the theatre of their romantic exploits. The Plaza above was 
lined with booths, in front of which were collected numerous 
grou))S, buying, singing, or dancing, as the fancy took them, 
(xuitars were numerous, some of tlioni in the hands of no mean 
performers. I do not remember ever to have seen a finer book- 
ing set of men; of tlic medium height, well and actively made, 
and. what is lietter still, well behaved ; no drunkenness, no 
quarrelling, though it is very ]»roliable that many knives were 
drawn before the three days had passed. A Tier ranililiiig about 
sufliciently to satisfy' my curiosity, passing a word here and 
taking a jxiitdl thei-e. for s(K'iability reigns on such occasions, T 
returned to the i'osada. Tlu' soiiml of nieri'inu'nt saliiteil my 
I'ars on entering. The room below, wliicb sei'ved the threefold 
pui'jiose oi' kitchen, blacksmith shop and ])arlor, had been 
cleaned, and a fandango was in full blast, witii all the fire of 
the unc<»iM'U]»tcd Andalusian, .luana, the nbi(iuitous .luana, and 
a 3'oung gallant, by name .lorge, being the artists. Juana was 
fleeing fnnn bis enticements, Jorge pursued, Juana relented, 
Jorge was but too hapjw. .luana was startled again into flight, 
and so the miniature ballet continued, when at length Juana 
could resist no longer, and sui-rendered to her yiertinacious 
besieger. The audience vociferously expressed their gratifica- 
tion, and a bail storm of hats fell at the feet of the dancers, 
•luana then }>asseil around the circle, giving us the customary 



THE BATHS. 301 

embrace, a dreadfully faint one, the only artificial part of the 
performance. If the exhibition was without the linished ele- 
gance of the stai;'e, it had been much mow nat urally danced, 
and in the true spii-it. After leaving the room lielow, 1 sat for 
a long time by my window, looking out upon the various com- 
panies of cloaked screnaders that passed up and down the 
street upon their mission of love. The twanging of guitars and 
the clicking of castagnettes continued past midniglit, and it is 
probable that the dawn surprised many a reveller still abroad. 
All of our countrymen have read Irving's Chronicle of the 
Conquest of Granada, and consequently know how Albania 
was surprised and taken, and how profound an impression its 
loss made upon the Moors. They will remember also the dolo- 
rous ballad composed upon the occasion, commencing 

Paseabase el rc-y Mi)ro, 

which Li)rii Byron translated. Its effect upon tlie Moriscoes 
was such that like the IJanz des Vaches among the Swiss m 
foi-eign service, it was forbidden to be sung aftei- the conquest, 
and has never been printed. In 1S.')2 I wrote back to a descen- 
dant of the Moors, who had acted as my guide, to send me a 
copy, which he did, ap])roj)riatel3* surrounded with a mourning 
border and in a mourning envelope. 

Daylight the next morning found us descending the zigzag 
path that leads into the valley of the Marchan. On the oppo- 
site hill, beyond the ravine to the left, was the Calvario or 
Calvary, a universal ornament of Spanish tovv'ns. Some place 
in the city of peculiar sanctit_y is selected as the commencement 
of the via crucis — generally' a church; in Seville it is the House 
of Pilate; the several stations of the Passion are marked by a 
cross, and the spot of the Crucifixion by three. Some person 
was performing his devotions at one of them as we passed. 
AVas he asking an exemption from the temptations which the 
business of buying and selling offers to the unwary sinner? or 
was it that he might not fall into the hands of honest thieves, 
who lurk about in the j)i'accful garli of hoi-se tradcrsy It would 
almost require a special interposition of Piovidcnce to protect 
him from either danger, whether of clu-ating or lieing cheated 
on such an occasion. We did n(»t go out of our way to visit 
the baths of Albania, as 1 liad seen them once before The 
word alhama means "bath" in Araliic. and very little im])rovc- 



.'>02 si'AiN AMI Tin; SPAM Aims. 

inont lias Itccn iiiaiio in the accommodations since the days of 
the Moors. Their successors have retained the substance as 
well as the name unchanixcd. Tlie water is said to be highly 
benert<-ial, but lew resort thitlicr except invalids, as the means 
of a]ti»r<)a(ii require tiiat the journey should be made on horse- 
back. So crossini^ the river on a romantic Moorish bridge, 
just before it enters the rocky cliffs that close in here upon its 
banks, we ascended the Siei-ra whicli separates its valley from 
that of the Cacin. The view of Alhama and the Sierra that 
towers behind it was ver}-, very fine. To borr<»w the imagery of 
an old Andalusian poet, "morning had gone i-ound like a cup- 
bearer, and from the vase of light in her hand had copiouslj' 
poured forth the day." The summits of the Nevatla and the 
Tejada were already brilliantly illuminated by the sun, but its 
light had not yot reached the city, which slumbered upon the 
mountain side. Its narrow, precipitous streets could no longer 
be distinguished; the white walls alone were visible, and it 
seemed an eagle's eyry susjiended beyond the reach of man. A 
few liuiidreil sti'jis more lost it to our sight, and substituted in 
its ])lace the green vallc}' of Cacin anil the snowy peak of 
Almuhacen, which was to be our beacon until we reached the 
city of Jaen, 1 may almost say (lie hespena Perros. t)n the 
way down I stoj)ped to talk with a shepherd, at whose feet 
reclined two fine dogs. 'JMiree others were ci'ouched among 
the fidck. Tlu'V were beaulifiil aiiitiials. oi' the medium size, 
with smooth, soft hair, and exceedingly intelligent counten- 
ances. He was willing to ])art with them at two dollars a 
piece, and, hail it been convenii'nt to Iransjxirt t lieni to A in erica, 
I should have yielded to the temptation of purchasing a i)air. 
At night the sheep are gathered togethei", and all the fold sur- 
rounded with a rope stretclieil on stakes. The dogs seem tacitly 
to divide among themselves the duty (d' walking around it from 
time to time, 'l^hey are fully as powerful as a woli'and almost 
as fierce when aroused. On my previous visit, while mounting 
tlie Sieri'a <le Alhama toward the close of the first <iay's journe}', 
I had bei'U struck with the grai-el'ul attitude of one near the 
roadside. Si-eiiig that we had stojipcd to look at hin>, he arose 
slowly and walked away with an air of olfended dignity, as 
though he wished to express his dissatisfaction with our imper- 
tinent curiosity. The incident was insignificant, but thei-e was 
a majesty about his manner which seemed almost human, and 



THE SICK MORTSCO. — TANTALIZING DREAM. 303 

impressed itself on my memory. I mtule frequent inquiries 
about tlie orijjjin of tlie breed, hut no one could enlii^hten mo, 
nor did it :i])pear that any particular care had been taken to 
improve it. 

Thus far we had enjoyed the coni]);niionship of a person who 
in outward appearance would have worthily passed for a 
descendant of Boabdil himself The Moorish cast of his fea- 
tures was heightened b}' the pallor of disease. He was return- 
ing from the baths of Albania. A long white garment, a sort 
of bournous, covered the greater part not only of himself, but 
of his donkey, leaving onl}' the face exposed. An athletic 
peasant conducted the animal. Such a companion was not 
inappropriate to the scene and its traditions. He lell us at 
Cacin, and our road crossing the valley and ascending the 
op])osite hill entered a countiy uninteresting in the extreme — 
a bare, undulating plain, surrounded by mountain ranges. It 
produced, however, capital gi-ain crops. The sun came down 
with an intensity that defies description, and one of our horses 
having received a sort of sun stroke the day previous, it was 
necessary to travel slowly. Diego went to slec]) ; I concluded 
to follow his exam])le. AVhat became of his thoughts, I know 
not; mine wandered home to the old plantation. I dreamed 
m^-self once more a boy, pla3'ing under the nolde forest trees 
that border its lake. Birds sung in their branches, and squir- 
rels skipped playfully about their venerable roots, Avhile a 
Southern breeze rippled gently over the water. The sound of 
many oaths, classical and unclassical, arousing me from my 
slumbers, dispelled the illusion. It was the dream of the fever- 
tossed patient, who babbles of mountains and gushing streams, 
for nothing could be in stronger contrast than the scene of my 
vision and the reality around. Water there was none, nor did 
a single tree enliven the prospect ; on every side extended an 
arid plain, bounded by stern, gloom\- Sierras. Except for a 
few dust brown villages and a narrow pathwaj', it might have 
been the morning after tlie creation. Our horses had taken 
the wrong fork, and were nearly at the foot of Kl Ultimo 
Suspiro del Moro (the last sigh of the Moor), a hillock so called 
because the unfortunate King of (Iranarla, or perhnps the 
bani.shc'd Moriscoes at a later date, are said to havr here taken 
a last view of the fairy home over which the proud flag of 
Castile was now floating. Crossing the fields, Ave re-entered 



304 si'AiN AM» Tin: Sl'AMAUnS. 

our path near ilie villai^e ot' (iarvia. whose environs seonuMl 
Vjlcssed with an unusual number of nuirder crosses, most of 
tliem, however, (latinix from the earlier part of the centnrv — 
the la'est one (alM)ut two years ohl) hearini^ an indiz^iiant 
inscription. Wiihin the villa«jjc all was festivity, as it was the 
feast of the jiatron saint. Half the population, in clean shirts, 
were asseinhled hefore the church. Various uniforms apjieared. 
A p;irtv (»f hoys, with musical instruments, were jiaradiiit; a fat 
hla<-U jiorki'r throu-fh the street on his way to the ho:^ lottery. 
lie was eviilcnti}' the centre upon which the feast was to turn, 
and the eyes of the ticket hohh'rs already feasted upon him, 
as, flutterini; his party-colored ribhons, he grunted along to his 
fate. The (iarvians were evidently hcnt upon having a gay 
time, and I have regretted ever since that I did not stop and 
take a chance for the animal. Hog lotteries are a thing ])ecu- 
liar to S|»ain, and a village feast without a pig would he the 
play of Ilandet with the part of Ilandet left out. Days hefore 
the eventful period he is subjected to the ocular investigation 
of all who can see, and the blind, a numerous class in Spain, 
who cannot see, punch him with their sticks to ascertain if his 
ribs are well covered and his lungs in a healthy condition. The 
Spaniards are great lovers of bacon in every shape, partly, it 
has been thought, to distinguish them from .lews and ^ruham- 
medans, who abhor the unclean beast. That which is i'cd upon 
the hrllofa of Andahisia and h]st reinadura is unrivalled, and the 
sweet hams from the neighboring mountain of the AI|iujaiTas 
enjoy a Huro]iean re])utation. 

Leaving the Uarvians and theii' ]iig. wc enteri'<l the i-ange of 
lofty hills that b(nind the valley of the (Jeiiil to the south-east. 
At length we emerged on the western side of the elevation, 
and turning a slioiilder of the /owirt, (Iranada and its glorious 
environs lay in the distance before us. l^arth. air and water, 
and we may com])lete tbi' list of the elements by adding the 
solar fire, had done tlicii- ]i;irt. All bad worthily contributed 
to unite, within the S})ace ola few leagues, most of the external 
charms of existence, and to cn-ate one of the most beautiful 
sj)ots in the world. To the right and left extended the famous 
\'ega, from the base of Almuhacen to Loja, its surface ever 
green in the midst of drought, for its fertility is derived from 
a perennial source. In the winter, while the snows (»f the 
mountains are congealed, the benignant heavens send down 



CHARMINO EFFECT OF COLD -WATER. "05 

tlieir gentle showers. In the summer, when for six months no 
drop of rain falls upon the parched earth, the meltinn- ice of 
the Sierras kindlj- supplies the deficiency of the seasons, and 
the Ye!J!;a blooms Avith increased hixuriance. Diagonal!}^ across 
the broad valley, through tlie blue haze, reclined the ballad- 
sung city, embosomed in gardens and vinej^ards, its dun, red- 
dish castle above the trees hardly distinguished from the hills 
that formed the back ground. 

Que castillos son a(iuellos ? 
Altc)s son y reluoian. 

El Alharabra era, Seiior, 
Y la otra la Mezquita, 
Los otros los Alijares, 
Labrados a inaravilla. 

El otro is Geucralife, 
Iluerta quo par no tenia. 
El otro Torres Bcrmejas 
Castillo de gran valia. 

Si tu quisieses Granada, 
Contigo mo casaria 
Dareto in arras y dote, 
A Cordoba y a Sevilla. 

Casada soj', rey Don Juan, 
Casada soy, que no viuda, 
El moro que a mi me ticnc 
Muy grando bicn me tenia. 

The thousand canals sparkled in the midday light, but whore- 
ever irrigation ceased the bare hill side rose precipitously in 
liarrenness; a dozen paces frcquentl}' sufficed to mark the 
transition from a land overflowing with every production of 
the tropic and teinperate zones, to naked sterility itself Above 
all was spread the pure panopl}- of a Spanish sk}", so unfath- 
on\ably deep and blue, the few healthy clouds that floated 
over seeming thousands of miles removed into eternal space. 
AVe soon descended into the Vega, and pursued our way across 
amid the humming of insects and the sound of rushing waters. 
Those who live in a country of large streams and continual 
showers know not tlie pleasure which water confers. With us 
it is a fluid for practical purjioses, to drink, to wash with, or to 
sail upon; but in Spain it is more, it is the source of fertility, 
of wealth and comfort. It is inseparably^ connected with tlie 
Andalusian idea of pleasure; is a centre of association. It 
thus quickly assumes the hue of poetry, and ballads are sung 
21 



300 SPAIN ANI> TUK SPANIARDS. 

to its honor. The well liy the wayside and the fountain in 
the city, are yet in Spain wliat they were in the days of the 
Old Testament, and to appreciate to its full extent the exqui- 
site poetry of the Hebrews, or the charming simplicit}' of their 
illustrations, one should have s6journed south of the Sierra 
Morena. It required the desert of the morning to make me 
feel the full charms of noonday on the banks of the Cienil. 
Exchanging salutations with crowds of peasants, the men in 
half Moorish, half Spanish dress, the women in the glories of a 
red petticoat, we approached the city, and crossing the river at 
the foot of the shady Salon, entered about two o'clock the 
court of tlic hotel, where I found my baggage awaiting me in 
a cliarming apartment, which commanded a full view of the 
Sierra Nevada. 



Chapter X \'1 I. 
GRANADA. 

Bull Fight — Cruelty — Promenades — The Inhabitants — Jloorish Blood — Alhambra 
— The Hand and the Key — Palio de la Alberca — Dc Los Leone? — Tocador — Res- 
torations — View from the Torre de la Vela — The Vega — Generalife — The Caihe- 
dral — Chapel of the Kings — The Cartuja — San Juan De Dios — Old Streets — 
Albaycin — The Gipsies — The Danee — Expulsion of the Mjriscoes — Romantic 
Character of their Wars — Origin of Chivalry — Pundonor. 

As a Vrnll fi<;-lit was to take place that afternoon, I dressed in 
a hurry and made my wa}' to the Plaza de Toros, where I was 
certain to find the world of Granada. The direction was un- 
erringly indicated by the immense throngs that pursued the 
streets leading toward it. A great crowd surrounded the 
outside of the building; some talking, some selling tickets, 
others the fans which are used only upon such occasions, made 
of yellow paper and costing one cent. Xor was the aguador 
or water seller absent. There was much moving to and fro. 
mingled with a vast amount of standing still. It was a com- 
bination of militia muster, county court week and Fourth of 
July. Being late, I had to content m3-self with a seat among 
the sovereigns ; on m}- left a Sergeant of Cazadorcs, on m}^ 
right a dame not over fair nor young nor graceful. ]Jehind 
me were several well dressed people, one of whom turned out 
to be a critic, fullj' saturated with Granadian "sal" (salt), by 
no means a refined article, though very salty, or as we would 
sa}', 'spicy." The Cuadrilla was the same tiiat I had met 
about in Andalusia, and was to meet again in Madrid — tliat of 
Sanchez (called El Tnto). who ranks among the best Espadas 
of Spain. He is rather under the me<liuni height, exceedingly 
graceful and with a face of girlish innocence. The perform- 
ance was not very good. Tato made a particularly bungling 
business in killing one of the animals. The critic behind, who 



308 SPAIN AND THE SPANIAUDS. 

pronounced his running comnicntar}- at the top of his voice, 
kept calling out " Vergucnza, Tatol Domingucz le hubicra ya 
matado y olvdado" (for shame Tato, Doniinguez wouM have 
already killed and forgotten him). Domingucz is a rival 
Torero, and from the continued severit}' of my neighbor's 
critique, I began to suspect that he was in the interest of the 
other jiarty. However, he did full justice to Tato, when, on 
another occasion, throwing a bespangled cloak over his shoul- 
ders, he entered the ring with the ehulos. The bull was per- 
fectly fresh and made frantic efforts to gore him, but in vain. 
Tato quietly stepped aside, lifting tiie cloak over the bull's 
t'3'es, who would turn raging around to repeat the operation 
with like success. It was a very prett}' sight and the amphi- 
theatre resounded with shouts of ''Viva el Tatol viva la 
gracia !" One of the Picadors came in for his full share of 
abuse because be held his spear too sliori. The first five bulls 
afforded no new incident, and I would not have mentioned the 
tight at all, were it not for i\n exhibition of the most infernal 
liarbai'ity and cruelty I ever beheld. The sixth bull had died 
on the way from Seville, and his place was supplied with one 
from the locality. lie turned out a regular coward, or rather 
he seemed indisposed to hurt any one. As soon as it was 
ascertained that he would not fight, under anj' circumstances, 
it was deternxincd to kill him a polos. At last a hundred per- 
sons jumped into the ring, and, by the aid of sticks, pieces of 
jilank and what not, the poor devil was actually beatcfi to 
death. My disgust nearly boiled over as I left the place. But 
this was a rare excepti<m, and I do not think it would have 
been permitted elsewhere. The lower classes of Granada are 
famed throughout Spain for their coarseness and brutality, 
(qualities that they pnjbably owe to their seini-Moorisli ances- 
try. The Cuadrilla were staying at our hotel, and though not 
very refined in their manners, they certainly gave no indica- 
tion of cruelty or brutality of disposition. Of course they had 
taken no part in killing the bull d jxdos. The old method used 
to be to introduce dogs, or to hamsiriug the bull with an in- 
strument called a incdia (una, or half moon, a sharp edged 
crescent, placed upon a spear stall*. Authors exclaim warmly 
against both. One of them even says that the rnedia luna must 
have been the invention of a heretic ! I have seldom seen 
cither used. Bandcr'dlos de fueyo arc generally substituted, 



PROMENAT>r.S. — THE PEOPLE. 309 

and an announcement is frequently' made on the bill to that 
effect. If it be necessaiy to remove a bull from the rinji;, it 
can be ver}' easily accomplished 1)y introducin*:; oxen; for half 
a dozen oxen will lead a whole regiment of bulls in any 
direction. 

As the evening advanced I found myself on the banks of the 
Darro, in the midst of a throng of promenaders. The public 
walks of Granada are worth}^ of its situation. The river 
Genii, taking its rise in the eternal snows of the Sierra Nevada, 
courses southwesterly down the Vega, almost touching the 
hills, upon Avhosc slopes the city is built. Nearly at right 
angles on the north comes the Darro, resembling rather a tor- 
rent, which, threading the ravine that separates the Alhambra 
and the Albaycin, traverses the city, going under the Plaza 
Nueva, and unites with the Genii before the latter leaves the 
city limits. On the banks of the one is the Carrcra del Darro 
running past the hotels, theatre and cafe to the Genii. The 
latter rejoices in the Salon, one of the finest walks imaginable. 
True it has no GuadaUpiivir, nor does it possess that inde- 
scribable charm which hangs over marvellous Seville, but it 
need fear no other rival. The trees are noble, resembling- 
more the productions of our own forest than the stunted dwarfs 
of Europe. Stone seats and marble statues ornamented its 
avenues, and alongside fretted the icy river, while the silvery 
beams of the moon, struggling through the arched foliage, 
threw a subdued light over the variegated groups, who, in easy 
conversation, glided past. The Granadinas are pronounced 
" rauy. finas" — partly because of the rh3'me and partly because 
it is the truth. They are certainly entitled to a place in the 
front rank of Andalusians, and there is among them a much 
larger proportion of blondes than is gencrallj' to be found in 
Spain. The higher ranks, at least the lew I have met, resemble 
those of Seville and Cordova, but the lower arc a great mix- 
ture. Elsewhere in Andalusia there is by no means so great 
an infusion of Moorish blood as is generally su]»posed. The 
Saracens, like the Goths, swept over it, seizing the go'sw^rn- 
ment, but leaving the original population almost undisturbed. 
After the battle of CJiiadaletc, the latter, having occupied it 
some three centuries, retired to the north-west, and the former 
took their place during the next five, the bulk of the lower 
classes, in both instances, being still of the mixed character 



810 SPAIN AM) TIIK SPAMARPS. 

which formed the substrnliiiu throughout the Uonian Empire. 
Upon tlie rccoiKpiost of tlic v:illey of the (luathihiuivir. the 
great^r ])art of the Mohammechma withdrew to Africa or to 
such parts of Spain as still remained in the power of their 
hrethren. IJut Granada was very ditlerently situated. Even 
under the ^foorish domination there was much comminglement 
of races, which was greatly increased during the century sub- 
sequent to the conquest bj^ the Catholic kings. The pure 
Moorish style of beauty is not to my taste. It is striking, but 
the contrasts are too sharply defined. The features do not 
melt into each other, as is the case in the Spanish countenance. 
The best specimens' I have seen were at Tarifa. Those in 
Africa itself may be handsome, but they are not visible, while 
the TarifenMs leave one half of the face exposed. Thoy have 
tine eyes, yet the expression is without that no sc que which 
renders the Spanish maiden irresisstible. It pierces rather 
than captivates, and evinces curiosity rather than love. But the 
men of pure Moorish blood are as fine a looking race as can be 
found, exceeding!}' well made and with an appearance of great 
muscular power. The violent prejudice still entertained by 
the Spaniards against any admixture of Arab or Jewish blood, 
has certainly very little foundation in reason, and meets no 
sympath}'' in other ]iarts of Europe. They are both of the 
true Caucasian stock, of which they have given abundant 
proofs intellectually, and certain!}- if piii-ity of descent is any 
recommendation, ^thc}' are entitled to it, for no other nations 
have preserved their integrity so carefully. Many persons in 
our C(uintry have an idea that a .Moor is a soi-t of negro. I 
liave seen somewliere in Europe (Magdeburg if I remember 
correctly) an image of St. Augustine ]>ainted as black as tlie 
ace of spades, u])()m tlie strenglli of liis African bisli()})ric, and 
Othello is alwa^'s presented with a most suspicious col<jring, 
which is a stage absui-dity. They ai'O no darker than tlio 
Italians or Spaniards, and those from the mountains are as fair 
as the Jewesses from tlie mountain of Libanus. But the Moor- 
ish ^ast of features is as unmistakable as the Jewish, and 
there are abundant specimens in all the country of Granada. 

The great attraction of Granada is, of course, the Moorisli 
palace of the Alhambra, the finest specimen of an extinct civili- 
zation that exists in Europe. After the thousand descriptions 
that have been given of this fairy ruin, it would scarcely bo 



SITUATION. — ENTRANCE. 311 

possible to add anything now. Yet few travellers conkl leave 
Spain without seeing and speaking of a bnilding which has 
aroused the unmingled admiration of Christians from the date 
of the Conquest to the present time. As children we have read 
and dreamed of what we were there to see, and as old men we 
reflect and dream of what we have thei-e seen. Boabdil and 
the Sultana Zoraya, the rivalries of the Zegris and Abencerrages 
have formed the delight alike of the sunny valley of the Mis- 
sissippi and of the snow}' plains of IJussia. Remote from the 
whistle of the invading locomotive, it has as yet lost none of its 
interest in the hacknej'ed description of professed travellers 
and salaried letter Avi-iters; but this is rapidly changing, and 
ere long the genius of the place will have fled with alarm from 
the tran\p of sight-seers and the droning of guide books. Even 
seven years have made a diff'erence, and it is already scarcel}'' 
possible, during the greater portion of the year, to wander about 
its enchanted halls unaccompanied save by the shades of its 
former proprietors. I count it among my greatest ])rivilcges to 
have travelled here before the throng of visitors had rendered 
necessaiy those restrictions which eifectually banish all illu- 
sions of the past. 

From its situation, upon a loftj" spur, over-looJcing the city 
and the valley, the site of the Alhambra was always occupied 
by a fortress, Avhich was called the watch tower of the plain. 
It was left to A) Ahmar, the founder of the kingdom of 
Granada, to unite tl)c security of a fortress with the charms of 
a Moorish palace. The whole hill is surrounded by a wall with 
lofty flanking towers, Avhich were formida1)le enough at the 
time of their erection, and quite sufl^cient to protect the royal 
residence against the escalades and men at arms of the middle 
ages. Within isa large, motley village, under the jurisdiction 
of a separate goverjior, once a functionary of importance. The 
outside indicates the fortress, and is forbidding to the aspect. 
Its charms, in accordaiicc with the Eastern ideas, were reserved 
for the eye of tiie master and those whom he chose to admit to 
the intimacy of his private life. Passing through the Puerta 
de las Granadas, we entered the grove which covered the hill 
side. Delicious!}' cool it was in this Sci)tember sun. The 
instantaneous transition from the glare of the city to this shady 
spot, amid fountains and gardens and the warbling of birds, 
was magical. The reign of the enchanter had begun. On the 



312 SPAIN ANn THE SPANIARDS. 

loft ascends tlie path to the massive Gate of Justice, wherein 
the King sat to exercise wliat has always been considered in 
the East the most ennoblini^ function of royalt}'. Over ihe 
horse-shoe arch are a hand and key, whose interpretation has 
puzzled the most learned of travellers. Some have supposed 
them to be symbols of faith. The key is frequently mentioned 
in the Koran in reference to the Gate of Paradise, in i)recisely 
the same manner as in the Christian relifrion ; and the fi<i;ura- 
tive manner of speaking of the keys of St. Peter is doubtless 
derived from the same Oriental source. It is moreover said, 
with what authority I know not, to have been the armorial 
bearing of the Andalusian Moors. The hand has many myste- 
rious significations. It has the universal one of power, fii'm- 
ncssand protection, which has passed into all languages, until it 
has lost its symbolical meaning in the frequency of its use. 
Fortune-tellers have sought to read the human destiny in its 
lines. Anatomists find it one of the distinguishing character- 
istics and excellencies of man; and to sucli extent have mate- 
rialists carried their admiration, that I once heard a popular 
lecturer dilate upon its glories as though it were the immortal 
portion of our being, which caused one of the company wittily 
to remark that the poor success of Lord Raglan, at that time 
the subject of conversation, was probably owing to his having 
lost one of these valuable appendages. Tlie other signification 
of the hand is mystically connected with the Moluunmcdau 
religion, whose teachings involve one point of faith — belief in 
the one God and his Prophet — and four of practice, viz : 
prayer, alms, fasting and pilgrimage. Four of these pvecei)ts 
have three sub-divisions each, and thus correspond to tlie three 
joints of the fingers; the first has only two, and corresponds to 
the thumb; so that the entire hand represents the whole duty 
of religion. This is evidently one of those pious ingenuities of 
which Europe also has been fruitful, but from it came the habit 
of using the closed fist with the thumb, the representative of 
faith, inserted between the first and middle finger, as a preser- 
vative against the "evil ej'e," the thumb being pointed toward 
the obnoxious person. The Barbary merchants at Seville and 
Gibraltar still sell charms in this shape, to be hung around the 
necks of children. Under the Spanish rule the gesture thus 
described came to be significant rather of contempt. As to the 
meaning of the hand over the Gate of Justice here^ the traveller 



PLAZA DE LOS ALGIBES. 313 

can select what signification he please, with as much probability 
of being right as if aided by the most leai-ned (lis(piisition. ]Iad 
it been over the gate of the Palace itself, and the inscription in 
the tower of Coniares alongside, there might have been reason 
for thinking it a protection against the "evil eye," but there 
was no manner of necessity for thus protecting the whole 
village, and that the founder should have selected the armorial 
bearing of his enemies, the Almohades, whose empire he bad 
aided to extinguish by the capture of Seville, is improbable. 
Taken in connection w'ith the key, and in its position over the 
entrance of the fortress, it was more likely a symbol of the 
power and protection of God against all enemies, as the other 
was a s^^mbol of faith, i^ut Allah is great ! he onl}' is all 
knowing ! 

Passing through the Gate of Justice, we enter the ])recincts 
of the fortress — whose first appearance is apt to cause disap- 
pointment — an irregular, open square, called the Plaza de los 
Algibes, or the Place of the Cisterns, Avhich lie underneath. On 
all sides are uninviting buildings, among lliem the unfinished 
Palace of Charles V, which Avould be a fine structure if 
it wei'c comj^leted. Externally it is square, of mingled Ionic 
and Doric. The interior is circular, with a double colonnade. 
Tlie architectural plan is certainly good, and had the original 
idea been carried out it would have been a great addition to 
the otherwise unattractive appearance of the exterior of the 
Alhambra. To make way for it the winter residence of the 
Moorish kings was destroyed, a matter of ceaseless regret to 
the whole world, though, in the absence of contemporaneous 
description, it may reasonably admit of a doubt whether the 
winter home were constructed upon the same scale of elegance 
as the jiortion that remains. The cold season with the Moors 
was not a period of enjo3-ment, and the great Emperor was too 
deeply imbued with the true artistic feeling to destroy what 
was worth preserving. It is much more prol»al>le that be 
intended to substitute in its place a palace in the northern stjde 
of arcliitecture, wbicli recognizes the beaut}' of winter, and is 
better suited to the temperature of that season in (Jranada, as 
coml)ining warmth with elegance, while the Alhambra should 
be preserved for the summer's delight. Tlio original entrance 
in the time of the Moors Avas on the soulli, now blocked up by 
the Spanish Palace. A small door, of most unpretending 



314 



SPAIN ANI» THE SPANIARDS. 



appcarant'O, was subsequently m:i<le to the west to supply its 
place, and liy that we were, without ]>reliniinary admonition, 
ushered into the midst of its faiiy scenes. And now the disap- 
pointment of the outside a.spect gives way to an astonishment 
which few ]>ens can describe. Within that coarse exterioi' 
glitters the sparkling diamond. Courts and air}' columns, and 
orange ceilings, gardens, fountains, everything that could aid 
in lianishing remembrance of the outer world, are here in 
profusion. 

The tirst or entrance court, is the Patio de la Alberca, the 
Court of the Pond, which occupies the centre, its limpid waters 
sparkling with gold fish and reflecting the flowers around its 
edge. An ornamental vail encircles the whole. The former 
entrance from the winter palace was to the right of this court, 
and the rooms for the attendants opened upon it. On the 
northern side ri.ses the tower of Comarcs, and within it is the 
wonder of the Alhambra, the Hall of the Ambassadors. What- 
ever expectations may have been formed of the beauties of tho 
Moorish ornamentation are here exceeded by the reality, liut 
I am warned from an attempt at description by the failure of 
all I have ever read to convey an idea of its effect. Nor is it 
wonderful that the artist should have thought it neccssar}- to 
deprecate in an inscrijdion the influence of the "evil eye." 
The size of t!u' hall is not great, scarcely more than forty feet 
square, but the centre of its dome attains a height of seventy or 
more, whose sombre gloom adds indescribably to the general 
eff'oct. The ante-chamber contains some of the best preserved 
portion of the old coloring, whose contrast with that of the 
restoration is humiliating to modern art. The views from the 
embrasured windows of the Hall of the Ambassadors are superb, 
and it is looking from them that Charles V is said to have 
exclaimed, "111 fated tho mtin who lost all this!" 

Returning by tho Patio de la Alberca, and passing through 
an ante-room, you enter the famous Court of Lions, Avhose long 
vistas and pure marble columns recall faintly the Mosque of] 
Cordova. The fountain in the centre rests upon the backs of] 
twelve heavy animals, which have euphemisticall}' been called] 
lions; while the delicate columns of the pavilions and corridorsj 
seem as thongli tho}^ would 1)e crushed beneath the suporin-^ 
cumbent weight above, l^pon this court open two of the most 
celebi'ated halls in the Alhambra — that of the Abcncerrao-es 



TOCADOR DE LA REIXA. 315 

and that of the Two Sisters. In the former are still sliown the 
lilood stains of the luckless cavaliers who paid the penalty of 
love with the extinction of their poAver and almost of their 
race. Sad, that not onl}' these marks, but even the narrative 
itself were too probably an invention of the romantic Perez de 
Ilyta. The name of the hall of the Two Sisters is said to be 
derived from two slabs of marble Avhich have been let into the 
floor — a most prosaic derivation, but one that seems to he true. 
On the east are three other halls, containing paintings of men 
and animals. In one are represented ten most venerable 
bearded Moors; in others hunting scenes and even ladies are 
portrayed. That the second commandment should be thus 
violated in the Court of Lions both by paintings and sculp- 
tures, is an astonishing and unique exception to the practice of 
Mohammedans, Avho have been fanatical iconoclasts, and Avhoso 
reformation of the Christianity jiracticed in the seventh century 
consisted principally in the substitution of an ethereal, incon- 
ceivable Deity for the gross materialism into which the world 
"was fast relapsing. Such was the horror -with Avhich the 
Avooden and stone representations of the Great Jehovah filled 
Mohammed, that he re-enacted the provisions of the Jewish 
hiAv in all their stringency, and few of his precepts have been 
so faithfully obeyed. These in the Alhambra Avere probably 
the work of Christians, but the sin consisted as much in using 
as in making them. 

I have passed over the Patio de Lindaraja, the PoA'al Baths, 
the Mosque, the Discreet Statues, charming as they all are, 
Avithout remark; but I could not ycnturo to leaA^e thus unno- 
ticed the Tocador de la Eeina. A little corridor leads to the 
pavilion so called. It is open on all sides, its frescoed roof 
being supported by slender marble columns. The object for 
which it Avas constructed is not Avith certainty knoAvn. For a 
long time it Avas supposed to be the Queen's toilet room, 
Avhence it deriA'ed its name, and the perforated marble slab in 
the corner to be the place Avhere the Sultan stood to receive 
the odor of the perfumes, a practice Avhich I haA'c knoAvn 
myself to he indulged in. But a dressing room in the open air 
would scarcely accord Avith Moorish customs. Others have 
supposed it to be a mere mirador, a looking-out place. But 
the inscription around the Frieze is thought to indicate a much 
nobler destination. As my Arabic Avas not equal to the task of 



316 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

(leci])ho!ring the flourishes of the Alhainhra. I must bon-ow 
the following transhition : '' In the najuc of God the merciful ! 
May (fod be with our Lord and Prophet Mohammed I To him 
and his be endless happiness and salvation! God is the light 
of iH'aveii and earth, and His light is like unto Himself. He is 
like unto a lamp whose rays are man}', while it is one. ]Ie is 
the light of light, like a blazing constellation, which kindles 
and illuminates, but is not itself consumed." Judging by this 
inscription and its situation, the pavilion was probably the 
Sultan's oratory, and what nobler spot could have been se- 
lected for the worship of the Almighty God ? The ]>rospect is 
enchanting. Perpendicularly below bounds the ]-)arro, amid 
pomegranates and figs, separating the hill of the Alhambra 
from the opposite one of the Albaycin. Beyond this the view 
embraces the city, the green luxuriance of the Vega, and far 
be^'ond all, the Sierras P^lvira and Nevada, towering with 
barren sides and snow capped peaks into the very heavens. 
On the left rise the blank walls of the Alhambra. The wor- 
8hij)pcr Avould seem thus to be separated from humanity and 
its works, in order that his whole soul might be poured out in 
abstracted devotion to its Creator. The example of the patri- 
archs M'ho went up into a high mountain to pray, has been 
abandoned in modern times for the charms of a fashionable 
assemblage, the rustling of silks and odor of perfumes, with 
the drowsy ])Iatitudes or, still worse, the thundering invectives 
of a favorite preacher. For the inculcation of moral senti- 
ments and the enforcement of moral duties this maybe the 
best ]ilan. But for religion, for the ajipi-eciation of the l»ond 
which unites the creature and the Creator, there must be the 
solitude of the desert or tlie solemn grandeur of the Cathedral 
at Seville. Yet neither the glories of the prospect nor the 
beauty of the Tocador itself have preserved it from the dese- 
cration of scribblers, and the Joneses of England, the Schultzcs 
of Germany, and the Petits of Prance, vie with each other in 
the i"ace of immortality upon its walls. 

I have not attempted to describe the Alhambra. That were 
presumption. Even the genial writings of our own celebrated 
countryman, whose name is a household word in tiic Palace of 
Al Ahmar, seen tanie and artiticial beside the moonlit gloi"ies 
of the reality. Of most of the great triumphs of architecture 
it is easy to convey a reasonably distinct idea by the united 



RESTORATION. 817 

labors of pen and pencil. 15ut the o-onins of Moorish art, like 
the perfume of a rose, cannot be imprisoned in fettei's. Its 
thousand columns, its endless figures, its inscri])tions torturing 
the in<;-enuity, all combine to produce the indistinctness Avhich 
is its characteristic. As a summer ])alacc it seems to be per- 
fect. Its spacious marble courts, its delicate colutnns, its 
bublding fountains and curtained doors suggest, irresistibly, 
the idea of a refreshing coolness and blissful repose. The 
Alhambra, however, to be appreciated must be seen b^' moon- 
light. Then, seated alone in the hall of the Abcncerrages, 
and looking forth upon the Fountain of the Lions, does it 
become re-peopled with the sjiirits of by-gone days. Boabdil 
and his queens, Zegris, Abencerrages, Gomeles, Gazules, Aben- 
amars, crowd its audience halls, or saunter along its silvery 
corridors, while the warning spirit points ominously to the few 
sands yet remaining ere the Christian bugles shall sound at its 
gates. The Alhambra is seldom mentioned by Arabic histo- 
rians in an}' unusual strains of commendation. Dm Pjatutah 
does not even allude to it. We can thus form some conception 
of the grandeur and beauty of the palaces of Azzahra and 
Azzahira upon the banks of the Guadalquivir, which fire the 
imagination of their writers. Indeed the city of Granada was 
built in the decadence of the Moorish Empire, when its terri- 
tory was restricted to the upper valley of the Genii and the 
sea coast of Malaga and Almeria, and its treasury exhausted 
by war and tribute, so that it boasts few edifices of note 
except the Alhambra itself. The founder of the kingdom, 
Al Ahmar, was the same I have mentioned as aiding St. Fer- 
dinand in the conquest of Seville, and this was the last of the 
great Mohammedan cities of Spain. And yet the ruins of the 
Alhambra, the least celebrated of the Moorish palaces, is the 
gem and wonder of our age. 

The Duke of Montpensier and other enlightened spirits have 
caused the work of renovation to l)e prosecuted in earnest. It 
consists as much in undoing as in doing. The horrible, vile 
tiled roof is to come down ; the whitewash is to be removed, 
and wiierc the ancient work is irretrievably destroj-ed. an imi- 
tation, the best that can be, is to be substituted. As the place 
is filled with workmen, the opportunity is eagerly seized by 
amateurs of obtaining a piece of the genuine Azulejos. They 
are open to approachetj, and di.spose of small bits at exorbitant 



318 SPAIN AM) THE SPANIARDS. 

rates; l»ut it is diaiiiond cut (iijiinoiid, for in iiiiu'ly-niiie eases 
out of a hundred, the de:ir-l><>uglit specimens are the new manu- 
facture, which cannot readilj- be distinguished hy an unprac- 
ticed eye. The ditierence in weight is an infallible criterion, 
the original being nearly twice as heav}'. This mania for col- 
lecting pieces of celebrated things, at any expense, whether of 
purse or of honor, seems confined to the British dominion, with, 
of course, a few imitators among us, as a portion of our popula- 
tion seems to have a happy facility in copying foreign, particu- 
larly Jiritish vices. Morality on the subject is suspended. It 
is hardly j)Ossible to conceive what pleasure the possession of 
such an article could give. The French excused their hauling 
the Cid's bones about, by having thus saved them from the 
English virtuosos. 1 once saw, with my own eyes, an Ameri- 
can — a member of a church at that — knock ott'a statuette from 
a tomb on the Apj^ian Way, and think he had made a tine 
" oj)eration." The nose of the A'enus de Medici, or the shank 
of Apollo, would i)i'obably suffer the same fate, if a fair oppor- 
tunity oliered. On one occasion, at the Alhambra, 1 had 
noticed a broken piece in tlie pavement, near the Hall of the 
Baths, but had ])asseil on without ihiiilviiig more of the mailer. 
Presejilly an Knglishman of the parly i-emarketl to n)e thai he 
had secured a fine specimen. I saitl nothing. His triumph 
was of short duration, for the custodian was soon seen in confi- 
dential intercourse with the guide, and Albion's son was sum- 
inonetl to restore the missing article, which he did with inlinile 
confusion. Yet I know that he was a person of honorable sen- 
timents and would have scorned to do what he consiilered a 
mean action. The most provoking thing about the affair was, 
that the same piece Iwul atti-acted the covetousness of three 
others, at different times, and had been left loose as a kind of 
bait. 

The extremity of the hill or s])ur of the Alhambra is occupied 
b}' the Torre de la A'ela (the watch tower), whose bell is lolled 
upon the anniversary oi' the surrender. It has little rest that 
day, for when rung by the hand of maidens, it has the same 
effect as the pistol of our ancestors in arousing gallants to the 
duty of deehiriiig their intentions, and the excellence of the 
husband is jjroporlionate to the vigor of the peal. There is 
said, however, to be a certain age beyond which even this 
expedient fails. On oi'dinary occasions at serves the more pro- 



THE VEGA. 319 

saic purpose of indicating to tlio farmers of the Vega the period 
of irrigation. Fornierh- it av;is permitted to breakfast under 
an arbor in the garden, Avliieh pleasure I enjoyed, Init they say 
that is now proliibited. Tlie view is enclianting. At our feet 
reposed the sliining city of Granada, girted about by gardens 
and noble walks. The whole extent of the Vega lay as a lake 
of tlowers and verdure, its velvety green intersjtersed with 
sparkling villages, all embalmed, as the scene of some knightly 
encounter between the Christian and the Moor. A network of 
canals glittered amid the luxuriant products of three conti- 
nents. Enclosing the plain, rose on all sides the wall of bai'e 
mountain, while, overlooking the whole, towered, in snowy 
sublimity, the Sierra Nevada, like some beneficent genius sur- 
veying in conscious omnipotence the glories of his handiwork. 
From its recesses trickled the gentle Genii, receiving at every 
step the offering of its trilmtaries, and placidly gliding amid 
flowciy fields until the narrow gorge of Loja stole it from our 
vision. " Why shoidd Cairo boast her Nile, Avhen Granada has 
a thousand Niles in her 8henil ?" 

The word Vega is supposed to be of Basque origin, and is 
ai^plied to any fertile plain between elevations; Itut that of 
Granada, extending from the base of the Sierra to the city of 
Loja, a distance of nine Spanish leagues, is called the Vega by 
distinction. Take it all in all, there are few spots in the world 
worthy of a comparison. A broad valley enclosed between 
lofty Sierras, whose nakedness render.s its luxuriance the more 
beautiful, is fertilized bj' ample streams floAving from the eter- 
nal snows of the highest mountain in Spain. Thus are united 
and brought within a small compass the whole range of the 
vegetable kingdom. The fervid sun of these latitudes lends his 
aid to the Avork of production, and the agricultural skill of the 
Moor has been perpetuated to our da}'. It Avould be easier to 
f>i\y what is not than Avhat is cultivated here. The climate, 
too. is beyond complaint, though the neighl)oring mountains 
cause at times fierce Avinds to bloAV. One such in the month of 
March compelled us to remain in doors a Avhole day, with closed 
shutters, for the panes Avere all liroken by its violence, and 
the falling tiles rendered it dangerous tOAvalk the streets. The 
neighl)oring mountain of Parapanda su])plies the place of a 
barometer, according to the distich — 

Quanilo Parapanda ?c pono la Montcra 
LlucTC aunquc Dios no lo quisicra. 



820 SPAIN AND TIfi: SPANIARDJ;. 

Fulfillinj^ the ]Kirt of Mount Pilatus in Switzerland, of which 
there is a similar saying, its e<jual in elegance of diction — 

Wenn Pilatus lr;igl den Hut 
Danu isl da.s Wcttur gut. 

To all tlie atlractionH of nature it must be added that every 
foot of ground is liallowed by some romantic recollection. 
Here is the village of Santa Fe, built by the Catholic sovereigns 
during the siege, to prove their tixed determination never to 
abandon this cherished object. It was at this village that the 
deed of surrender was signed, and hence, too, did Columl)us, 
with joyful countenance, set tbrth to the discover}' of our own 
continent. Farther on is the magnificent estate of Soto de 
Koma, which, presented in succession to various warriors in 
token of national gratitude, now belongs to the Duke of Wel- 
lington. Here is the Sierra Elvira, famous in Spanish history 
for the defeat and death of the Infantas. Lost in that ijorjjo 
lies Loja, and hidden behind yon Sierras is Albania. Indeed 
what s])Ot is there which has not lieen watered by the best 
blood of Moslem and Christian ? 

Tearing ourselves reluctantly away, we descended into the 
valley of the Darro, and, passing along the base of the Alliam- 
bra, mounted the bill to the (ieneralife, a fairy spot of toun- 
tains and lloweiMiig avenues. The venerable cypre8.ses wliieh 
bore sueli false witness against the Abencerrages are still 
])ointed out. The (ieneralife l)elongs to a nolde descendant of 
the Moorish race. On a still loftier eminence to the i-ear is the 
Silla del Moro (the seat of the Moor), a ruin said to be of a 
former palace. The view from this point is more extensive 
than from the Torre de la Vela. It embraces the Generalife 
and the Alhambra itself, which lie as it were upon successive 
steps of the sanie hill. On the right is the precipitous ravine 
of the Darro, separating it from the Albaycin, in which the 
Moriscoes after the conquest were required to dwell. Their 
poverty and fallen fortunes are fitly represented by its present 
inhabitants. To the left are the groves of the Alhambra, and 
beyond the wooded ravine rise the Torres Bermejas. The 
teeming Vega blooms as ever, while around, far as the sight 
can reach, struggling Sierras lift their l)ai-e ])reeijMees toward 
heaven. 

Returning by the grove of the Alhambra, we stopped at thp 



CATIIEPRAL. — CHAPEL OF THE KINOS. 321 

towci' of the vSevcn Stories (los sieto suclos). A little restau- 
rant with a garden had been fitted up to refresh the thirsty. 
One of our English acquaintances in Malaga had recommended 
in the strongest terms a visit to the Torre de los Siete Siielos, 
not to see the old gate, nor to think al)Out El Zagal or ]5oabdil 
— quite a diflPerent purpose — to drink a marvellous nectar called 
Sangria. AVhat it was he could not exactly decide, hut pro- 
nounced it worth}' of the gods on a hot day. The Sangria 
turned out to be neither more nor less than sangaree, so that 
though I failed to obtain a new sensation, I learnt the origin 
of the drink and its English ap])ellation. For the benefit of 
tyros in Castillian it may be well enough to say that sangre 
means blood, and the name is hence appropriate. 

Among the modern buildings of Granada, the most conspi- 
cuous is the Cathedral, founded upon the ruins of the ancient 
Mosque, and preserving very nearly its shape. The interior is 
too full of light for my taste, but it is nevertheless a fine edifice, 
and some ]iortions of it are magnificent. The high altar and 
the beautiful dome are especially worthy of admiration. One 
is surprised to see how much wealth it has retained, notwith- 
standing the strenuous efforts of invading armies to relieve it 
of that root of evil. As Crranada was the birth place of Alouzo 
Cano, it is fitting that the Cathedral should he ornamented by 
the works of so distinguished a son, and such is the case. The 
specimens of his art are numerous and of the first degree of 
merit. There is a series of seven pictures b}- him, ]-epresenting 
scenes in the Life of the Virgin. As is usual with a continued 
effV)rt of this kind, some are good and others much below what 
might l)e expected. But unalloj-ed praise must be bestowed 
upon his various carvings of the Virgin. The heavenly expres- 
sion which he has infused into the speechless wood surpasses 
belief Every one of these is a treasure. But his Virgins, 
however beautiful, do not approach in sanctity the ugly imnge 
in the Chapel de la Antigua, which was brought b}- Ferdinand 
and Isabella to aid the siege. Like its sister of (Juadaloupe, it 
has received the honor of bestowing a name on one of our 
islands. 

By far the most interesting portion of the Cathedral is the 
Chapel of the Kings, which, though attached to the building, 
is on a separate ecclesiastical establishment, and devoted to the 
sepulture of the Catholic kings and their daughter and son-in- 



322 SPAIN AND THE SPAM AH PS. 

law. The sliados of evening won' ;^^;UliorinL; as wo ontcrod the 
sacred spot wlierc repose the nutrtal remains of the great, tljo 
wise, the good Isabelhi, the queen of queens, whose firmness 
and intelhgonce equalled her gentleness. Among the female 
sovereigns who have dazzled the world b}'' their charms or 
scandalized it by their crimes, Isabella of Spain stands alone 
uncontaminated by the vices of her position, or the frailties of 
her sex — surpassing Elizabeth and Catharine in wisdom, and 
Seniiramis in fortune, uniting thei-ewith the peculiar charms of 
her sex — virtue, submission, piety; alike beloved and esteemed 
as a woman and a sovereign. The only blot upon her reign is 
the establishment of the Inquisition. A great deal may be said 
in her excuse or justitiealion in this behalf. The wlKtlo of the 
newly conquered count r}' was tilled with pretended converts to 
the faith, who remained at heart its bitter foes. And as this 
(litl'erence of faith involved in those days a difference of nation- 
ality, it became a ])oliti(al duly to see that the safety of the 
State were not endangered by its enemies concealed within its 
own l)osom. Such was the Inquisition as first established — an 
instrument against hypocrisy; and her meek and gentle s]iii-it 
would Avrithe in its prison house could it but behold this child 
of hell, as it soon afterwards became, blasting and Avithering 
the grass as it strode the earth, and scattering broadcast 
anguish and miser}- unutterable. Strange fate! that the most 
horrible of all human institutions should owe its establishment 
to the best of sovereigns. 

The faint twilight fell upon the niarble eftigies of the great 
queen and her husband. ><'otliing can bo more exquisite than 
the expression of her face. It is that of the CMii-istian who has 
fought the good tight, and this litt'ul dream o'er, in the eaim 
repose of faith awaits the trumpet summons of resurrection. 
Seldom has a work of art been in happier harmony Mith its 
suri'otindings. On the adjoining tomb arc similar cfligies of 
their daugliter, .1 nana la Loca, ami tlieii- son-in-law, Philip of 
Burgundy'. The whole in costumes remarkaiile ibr their sim- 
plicity. There was some difficulty about jirocuring the key to 
the vault below out of the usual hours, and as I had visited it 
upon a previous occasion, it did not seem worth while to insist. 
The coffins are plain, entirel}- without ornament. The ceno- 
taphs above had spoken of the glories of the past, the hopes of 
the future ; the shapeless, leaden boxes below told us of the 



THE CARTIJA. 323 

present, of the corruption of mortality and of tlie vanitj- of 
human greatness. 

The rest of the Chapel is occupied hy tlie liigh altar, which 
is ornamented with curious and very interesting carvings, rep- 
resenting the sui'render and conversion of the captives. The 
banners used at the siege, with the sword of Ferdinand, arc 
worthily deposited here. It is really pleasant to see the unity 
of the idea so exquisitel}'" preserved. Nothing is calculated to 
divert the mind from the conquest, iinless it be the tomb of 
,luana la Loca and her husband, Avhich, perhaps, has been per- 
mitted to remain as a commcnttny upon worldl}- pride — that 
the ])roudest sceptre of two continents should descend to hands 
bereft of reason to grasp or appreciate it. 

Of the various convents there are few at present worthy of 
a visit. The Cartuja, a little outside of the city bej^ond the 
gate of Elvira, is an exception. Though the Carthusians were 
averse to the charms of conversation, they generally mani- 
fested an appreciation of the pleasures of sight. The view 
over the Vega, from the convent terrace, is lovel}-, indeed, as 
every prospect over that magic vale must be. The cloisters 
within present a less agreeable aspect, being ornamented Avith 
frescoes of the cruelties inflicted upon the members of their 
order in England, under Ilenr}- VIII, as a set otf to similar 
acts cliarged against their own faith. Both are, doubtless, 
correct in the substance of their accusations; power and 
fanaticism cannot be united without the effusion of blood, and 
history shows that Elizabeth and her father, considering the 
small sincerity of belief in either, were as little disposed to be 
tolerant as Queen Mary. But what did arouse my admiration 
Avere the marble and the tortoise shell, the ivory and el)ony 
work of the chapel and sanctuary-. Such things rarely strike 
me, but these are quite out of the ordinary range, and are not 
onl}^ curious, but exquisitely beautiful. The lines of color in 
the marl)le have been interpreted into various fantastic figures, 
and some strangely correct representations of our Saviour, 
crowned with thorns, are considered to border upon the mirac- 
ulous. In surveying tlieir unequalled richness of decoration, I 
could not but think if such be a Spanish convent, after its des- 
ecration, what must tliej' have been at the beginning of the 
century. B}^ thus ornamenting their abode, the Cartliusians 
must have rendered doubly hard the duty of self-uiortification- 



324 SPAIN AND THK SPANIARDS. 

for what couUl hv more tuntalizini^ llian to he thus surrounded 
with so many of the charms of life, and yet unahlo to speak 
beyond the two gloomy ))hrases: "We must die;" "die wo 
must."' (Ilcmos de morir; ya lo se.) 

The marble here used came, for the most part, from Lanjaron. 
All the neighboring mountain ranges are full, and the whole of 
Andalusia abounds in vast deposits of every class, some quite 
equal to the best in the worbl. It is questionable whether any 
other portion uf Europe be so well provided. They are lound, 
too, in a greater variety of color. The abundance of so orna- 
mental and useful a material, and the excellence of the climate, 
which prevents it froin tarnisiiing, are two reasons of the ex- • 
traordinar}' neatness of the houses in all tliis province. The 
Patios of the commonest dwellings in Seville are paved with 
it, whither it is brought from the Sierra .Morena, the moun- 
tains near Ecija, and those of Uonda. On the sea coast the 
Italian marble was formerly emi)loyeil as a part return trade 
for the cxjjorts from the Indies. 

The once magnificent convent of Saint Jerome is utterly 
ruined, and even the tomb of the great Captain Gonsalvo de 
Cordova desecrated. It is an old tale, soon told : the French 
carried off everything that could be removed, and converted it 
into a stable. The so-called lilteral mob completed what the 
French had left undone, murdered the monks and rifled the se- 
]>ulchre (;f the (Jreat Captain, whoso l)ones are probably scattered 
in private cabinets, from Land's End to John o'Groat's. But 
one of the noblest monuments of a ])a8t ago survives in the 
Hospital of San Juan do Dios, founded by the Saint himself, 
who <lied in the reign of Charles V. I ha]»pened to be there 
on the day of the patron Saint, in 1S;')l;, when the llosjjital, 
with the exception of the dangerous and infectious wards, was 
opened for inspection to all who chose to enter. We followed 
along with the crowd. The ajJiiearanco of everything was 
admirable; neatness and order reigned around ; nor was this 
merely for the occasion, as the hosj)itals in Spain are better 
managed than anything else. Among the patients was a hand- 
some young girl, with raven hair; her face slightly flushed, 
but without the a})pearance of suffering. Her suffused eyes 
rested dreamily and confi<Iingly ujjoii us as we passed by. 1 
shall never forget the expi'ession of that innocent face. One 
such look of relieved sufferinir would reward a lifetime of 



VIVARAMBLA. — THE OIPSY QUARTER. 325 

charity. As we went out of the great entrance, I i>lace(l two 
pesetas (forty cents) on tlie contribution table. " You are 
extravagant," said a friend. "After paying five for a gipsy 
dance, I thinlv I can afford two to a liospital ," and two other 
pesetas kept mine company. 

As I had had some desire to see a gipsj^ dance, we conchided 
one day to mount the Albaycin, the gipsy quarter, and the 
home of the poor and squalid of every race, in order to engage 
the dancers ourselves. The old city was confined, for the most 
part, to the Albaycin, lying Avcst of the Darro, which Avas for- 
merly peopled by the Moors of Baeza, wlio removed thither 
after the capture of that city, whence its name. The Alham- 
bra lies east of it. and the Antequerula between the foot of the 
latter and the Genii. Passing from the head of the Carrei-a 
del Darro, we entered the Plaza of Vivarambla, the great 
square of the Moorish cit}', famous for its bull fights and 
Djerids, where the lance was exchanged for the reed. Gran- 
ada, formerly, had twenty gates, among them yivaraml)la, the 
Gate of the Eiver, or rather the sand, that has assumed its 
present name, by the same process which converted Al Ham- 
ra into Alhambra. The Spanish language has adopted the 
word rambla to mean the sandy bed of a river, Avhen the 
water has been dried up b}^ the summer heat. This famous 
square of the Romanceros, notwithstanding modern altera- 
tions, retains something of its ancient appearance, though, like 
the Gate of the Sun in ^Madrid, it is now in the centre of the 
city. Its poetic appellation has, with singular ill taste, been 
supplanted by the prosaic and chronic one of Plaza de la Con- 
stitucion — one of the inevitabilities of every Si)anish town. 
From that we plunged into a labyrinth of narrow streets, 
which finally became zigzags, until we at length reached ibf 
habitations of the veritable children of Moultan, some dwell- 
ing in liouses of the smallest dimensions, otlicrs in the more 
])rimitive style of caves. These latter were by no means so 
despicable as might be su]>posed. judging them b}' our own wet 
country. The earth is firm, and there is little or no moisture 
in this dry climate, so that tlie occupants Avcre probably as 
well off as the more aristocratic dwellers in houses. The 
gipsies congregate in Andalusia and Barcelona. The former is 
their favorite of the earth, and they have all sorts of tender 
expressions for this land of choice. Here alone do they seem 



32(i SPAIN AND THK SPANIARDS. 

to have a fixe(l rosiiKMicc. The date of their entry into Spain 
is uncertain, but jtrobahly after the Moorish power lia»l begun 
to (K'oline. No allusion is made to them as haviuij ]»laye<l any 
part ill the rivalry of the religions, whieh they certainly would 
have done. They were required by the royal edict to adopt a 
residence, and to conform, at least outwardly, to the Catholic 
faith; but it seems doubtful whether they have any real belief 
beyttnd this existence. 

Mo.st travellers arc wonderfully struck with the beauty of 
the young women. Elsewhere I might have agreed with the 
general opinion, but when compared with the pure l)looded 
Spaniard, they fell in my estimation far below. Their com- 
plexion is that of a dark mulatto. The contour of the fai 
resembles somewhat the North American Indian. Their eyes 
are their own — orbs of fire with no shades of softness. ])artak- 
intr as much of what is below as of what is above tlu- earth. 
Toward other nations their chastity is absolute, admitting of 
no exception. But among each other the marriage tie once 
contracted tliey live the life of ])igs j a strange medley of con- 
tradictions. The occupation of the men consists in a variety 
of ])etty employments — requiring no investment of cai>ital, of 
which they are singularly deficient— smithing, shearing mul« 
and dogs, farriery, swapping and selling horses, lying, tliieviug 
and roguiiig in general. The women helj) in these occupations 
so far as they can ; make mats and produce vast quantities of 
j'oung gipsies. The children jtiek up stray jobs, hold dogs' 
feet while the hair is being taken oft' by their elders, filch from 
the pockets of short men, or tall ones, if there bo a bench near 
by, and make themselves useful to the tribe in a small way. 
In all S])ain I knew of only one gipsy who followed a steady 
and respectable occujjation. Prom time immemorial the}' have 
been tacit!}* allowed to govern tlu'insclves. under a cajitain of 
their own choice. Hut 1 was told tlial iati'ly i" Barcelona 
they had been brought under the jurisdiction of the coinnion 
ti'ibunals, and now stand upon the same footing with other 
subjects. 

We stopped in front of a house and looked in upon a collec- 
tion engaged in }»laiting mats. A few of them, with coal black, 
dishevelled hair and intelligent, flashing eyes, did look very in- 
teresting, though there was wanting some element which is 
indispensable to beauty. AVe were welcomed with smiles, per- 



VISTA GENERAL. — THE DANCE. 327 

haps it would be more strictly correct to su}' that our guide 
was. Preferring to sit outside, rieketj^ chairs were placed on a 
little knoll in front, and we were specdilj' surrounded, the news 
linving spread that we were getting up a ''funciou." The 
3'oung hopefuls were clad in extreme summer costun\e, consist- 
ing frequently of nothing but their own skins, which, it is a 
thousand pities, they could not take off occasionally for the 
purpose of having them washed. They were intent in pursuit 
of coppers, and avowed their willingness to turn any amount 
of somersets for a cuartito. Those of a more advanced age 
were decently clad and behaved with perfect propriety. We 
whiled away an hour in this outlandish company, making our 
arrangements. Four of the j'oung ladies were selected. One 
of them was really good looking, with a frank, smiling counte- 
nance and glorious eyes; modest in deportment and evidently 
a belle. I commenced a most innocent flirtation instanter. 
With a parting recommendation to get themselves up in fine 
style, we passed on to the church which overhangs the valley 
of the Darro, to enjoy the vista general. The terrace com- 
mands the city and Vega, and gives in addition a fine view of 
the Alharabra itself, which is directly opposite. Descending 
thence by a precipitous Moorish street, the houses being within 
touch on either hand, we called at the residence of an artist, 
who was engaged by the Emperor of Russia to copy portions 
of the Alhambra on a reduced scale. The work is beautifully 
executed and faithful to the minutest line, for the present Em- 
peror seems determined to follow the example of his father in 
developing the taste as well as the material resources of his 
vast empire. Proceeding on our way, the guide pointed out^ 
one of the two houses that enjoyed the right of sanctuary, 
which he assured us was still respected, though I think ho 
must be in error. We then turned into the Zacatin, the famous 
shopping street both now and under the Moors. It preserves 
its name and appearance with scarce!}^ an alteration. An 
awning drawn over excluded the rays of noon and rendered it 
a pleasant resort for the idle fair of Granada. 

After nightfall we assembled at the residence of the captain 
of the gipsies to witness the funeion. The former dignitary 
had died. His successor was a rather young man, of hand- 
some appearance, and manners quite genteel. We foreigners, 
three in number, took our seats in a row; the performers, con- 



328 8PAIX ANH THE SPANIARDS. 

si.stin*^ of the four danisels and one of the other sex, wlio was 
a famous dancer, sat opposite. Tlie captain's wife held a cen- 
tral jjosition with the collection hat in her hand, while the 
native s])ectators scattered ])roniiscuously around. The per- 
formance was opened l»y the captain, who i^ave us several 
pieces upon the guitar. Those wlu» have never seen this 
instrument in the hands of a Spaniard, can form little concep- 
tion of its ])0wers. lie had learned entirely hy ear, yet his 
performance was wonderlul. JIaviiii!; (■atistic<l us with his 
music, he gave us a specimen of his skill, playing it hrhind 
his back, and over his head, and under his feet, and finally 
with his elbows. lie then took a tambourine and knocked 
liimself with it all over, from his crown to his sole, in the style 
of Elliiopian dancers, only more so. Our unqualitied approba- 
tion was justly bestowed and gracefully acknowledged. The 
space was now cleared for the dancers, who first appeared in 
twos. Before taking her position, each gave her handkerchief 
to one of the company to hold. ^ly beauty coinpiotod her 
conquest by the selection of her knight. There is nothing of 
the Othello about these handkerchiefs, except that they must 
be returned when called for, and it would bo the height of 
impoliteness to hand them back em))ty. I happened to have 
some American cents, of the now coinage, wliich wore dis- 
tributed among the silver, and seomod to give gi'oat satisliic- 
tion. It is to be hoped that their duslvj' red hue did not cause 
llioin to l»e mistaken for the more precious metal. It would be 
as well not to enter too minutely into a descrijjtion of the 
dances. They are derived from Ilindoslan, and are supposed 
to be identical with those which delighted the wits and joyous 
revellers of the lower empire. One of the comjiany had seen 
them on the banks of the Nile, where they would be more 
ai)i)ropriate than in a modern ball room. In a histoi-ical point 
of view they were interesting enough. Some of them were of 
later origin and proper. One called El Torillo, or the Little 
Bull, was an imitation of a bull tight, rather a difficult subject 
to j)ortray in a ballet. But I have seen Faust danced, and if 
German metaphysics can bo expressed in the poetry of motion, 
why should not the bull fight have a trial? The sound of the 
castagnettes had, meanwhile, collected an audience outside, 
who mingled their ajjplause willi our own, the gamins divei-si- 
lying the entertainment by climbing the grating and slil}' 



EXPULSION OF THE MORISCOES. 329 

pulling- our coat tails. An indignant exhortation from the 
captain, or rather a speech, consisting of some half a dozen 
score of Spanish and gipsy oaths, restored order. After a 
couple of hours I took my departure with the conclusion that I 
had seen gipsy dances enough to last me my lifetime. It is 
one of the orthodox sights, and has to be seen once, but the 
guide informed us that Louis Xapoleon was the only person, 
in his recollection, who had ever called for a repetition. 

Granada is no longer that centre of wealth which it was said 
to have been formerly. Manufjictures and commerce there are 
none. The population is purely agricultural, and quite as great 
as the country can support, unless the science of production be 
improved. Its decline has been ver^^ generally attributed to 
the expulsion of the Moriscoes hy Philip III, and this measure 
has been condemned under everj^ point of view — economical, 
political and moral. About the political I think there is room 
for doubt. The conversion of the Moors after the concpiest 
was purely nominal. Crowds were collected, a little water 
sprinkled over them with a brush, and the change of faith 
accomplished. To suppose that the opinions or sympathies of 
the ba]itized population underwent any alteration would be 
prcjiosterous. They continued at heart as they had alwaj's 
been, not onl}'- Mohammedans, but Moors longing for the return 
of their countr^^men, and read}' to join an invading army, or to 
pre]iai'e tlieir entrance. It is well enough at our day to speak 
of toleration and to condemn ebullitions of bigotr}' in the past, 
but such is not history. Questions of faith in those days were 
questions of nationality, and oil and water were easier to mix 
than Moslem and Christian, according to the practice of the 
latter. Coni])ared Avith the Moors, the Spanish were in excess 
of intolerance J compared with other nations of Europe, they 
wei'e disciples of a common faith, whose usual argument was 
the sword. AVe have had in our own country an experience of 
the inconvenience which results from the existence of an un- 
harmonizing, worldl}' and semi-political religion within our 
borders. Yet the handful of Mormons is nothing compared 
with the population of Granada, occupj-ing the seacoast directly 
opposite to Africa, where their fellows were still in the enjoy- 
ment of pristine vigor. Few will doubt that in a political point 
of view the exodus of Brigham Young was an immense benefit 
to the State of Illinois. The humanity of the expulsion in 



830 SPAIN ANI> THK SPANIARDS. 

cither case is another matter. But in the aflfairs of the wprld 
political ncccssit}' is apt to override all obstacles. The extfomo 
measures taken against the Moriscoes were harsh and liarshly 
executed; yet it is doubtful whether any of their neif^hboi-a 
would have acted more gently. Events of even a half ceuturv 
later in America depri\'C us the privilege of casting a stou , 
and the jiuiiishment of death upon a Jesuit for simply landing 
upon the shores of England estops criticism from that quartei*. 
It must, however, have been a mournful sight to witness the 
extinction of this gallant race, to which medijcval Kui-opc was 
indebted for so man}' ameliorating institutions — ameliorations 
she has not been eager to acknowledge. Most of what formed 
the romance of earlier daN-s throughout the Continent is trace- 
able to the Peninsula, where the rude, sturdy Teutonic and 
elegant, poetic Oriental were subjected to mutual influences. 
One of the most conclusive evidences of the utter rudeness and 
barbarism of Euro2>c in the eighth, ninth and tenth centuries, 
the darkest of the dark ages, is the unanimity' Avith which the 
feudal system was received. This was a great progi'ess, a 
long step in advance, Init how miserable must have been the 
condition of society which required such a remedy. It had no 
existence in Spain, because the 8})anish civilization had never 
reached such a pitch of violence and anarchy as to require it. 
About that time the IJeni Omeyah were at the acme of their 
glory, and the softening light of Cordova penetrated even to 
the farthest corners of the north-west. The Spaniard inherited 
from bis (Jothic ancestors fierce courage, valor, the sentiment 
of personal honor, the duel, the judgment of (iod, fidelity to 
his chieftain, and the other j)oiiits wiiicli chaiacterized the 
Teutonic civilization. The Oi'iental to a valor quite tiie equal 
of his rival, united other qualities which were consiilered no 
less necessary to the character of a warrior, viz : poetry, grace, 
elegant horsemanshii), skill in wetipons, gallantry, fidelity to 
plighted word, and mercy to the conquered. The result was a 
military fraternitj' between the warriors of the two nations, 
and a common military character to which the Teutonic 
element contributed the strength and the defects, the Oriental 
the virtues and elegancies. Hence sprang chivalry, which 
spread gradually over Europe, and contained the first germ of 
civilization. The contest of Iteeds (juegos de Caiias, the Djerid 
of the polished Moors) was imitated b}' the northern nations in 



ROMANTIC CHARACTER OF THE WARS. 331 

the joust and toin-naiuent. Indeed, it is questionable whether 
the institution of chivalry as described in the romances had a 
veritable existence out of Spain. No where else were cele- 
brated Pasos ITonrosos such as that of the bridge of Orbigo, in 
which Suero de Quifiones, aided by nine other knights, defied 
all passers b}', in order that he might remove from his neck an 
iron collar whieh he wore in honor of his n\istress. In this 
encounter more lances were broken than is mentioned in any 
similar trial. Wherever the Spanish authority extended, a taste 
for these encounters revived, though it had almost disappeared 
under the pi'ogress of j^olitical science. Giucciardini gives a 
detailed account of a battle of champions in the Spanish wars 
in Italy, merely from the point of honor. Numerous others 
are recorded, but all of date long subsequent to their origin in 
the Peninsula, Avhence they were indisputably derived. In one 
of the campaigns of the Ilagib al Mausour, as far back as the 
tenth centur}', an account is incidentall}- given of a similar 
challenge on the part of a Christian knight, Avhich resulted in 
the defeat of all the Mohammedan champions except one, who, 
mounted on a sorr}' nag, yd carried off the victory. Such con- 
tests, merely from a chivali'ous desire to test the prowess of an 
adversary, were favorites with the Spaniards and Moors, and 
these gallant encounters lend a charm to their history which 
none other can hope to possess. They are justly entitled to 
the credit of having revolutionized war. Before their day, it 
was a brutal, bloody, ferocious means of destruction. Gentle 
mercy to the vanquished was as unknown to the Hebrews, 
Greeks, or Romans, as to the Franks or Anglo-Saxons. Hence 
arises the charm of romantic chivalry hanging around these 
Andalusian battle fields, which will be vainl}^ sought elsewhere, 
for here alone was a distinction recognized between the armed 
foe, careering in the pride of equal strength, and the same foe 
dismounted and prostrate under the victor's feet. It is no 
wonder then that the gallant spirits of the rest of Europe 
should flock to Spain as the land of romantic adventure, and 
the proper theatre for the displaj' of knightly prowess ; that the 
Douglas should perish at the siege of Teba; that the Counts de 
Arbi and Solusber (as they Jire stj'led in the Chronicle) should 
fight by the side of the gallant hero of the Salado; that Lord 
Scales should come from the mi.sty north-west to the siege of 



332 SPAIN AM) THK SPANIARDS. 

Grannda, and tliat Clmuccr should consider the proudest recom- 
mendation of a knight — 

In Gcrnn<lc at the scigc cko ha<Klc bo be 
Of Algcsir. 

Yet wlint historian has had the justice to trace chivalry to its 
true source. Spaniards have never heou i^iven to hook makin<i:, 
and, verily, Esop's fable of the man and the lion is the expe- 
rience of all ages. 

The pundonor or point of honor, distinguished from the ven- 
geance of the northern nations, sprang from the same origin. 
As the other quality mentioned above Avas derived from the 
Oriental, so did this come remotely from the Teutonic element, 
but modified in a similar manner by contact with the enlight- 
ened Andalusians. To this day it is as unknown among the 
Italians or the Scandinavians as it was to their ancestors. But 
to pursue, in all its developments, the influence of the llispano- 
Moresco civilization upon the world would make a book, a his- 
tory of the Peninsula, such afe no one as yet has seen fit to 
write. Without such investigation, it is scarcely possible to 
appreciate the Moors. The work of Perez de Ilyta bears ujion 
its face unmistakable marks of relationship with Amadis de 
Gaula and Palinevin de Inglaterra, yet the sjiirit is doubtless 
correctly portrayed, though the narrative be mostly fictitious. 
But the Beni Serraj and the Zegris have alike disa])i)eared, anil 
they and their contemporaries are remembered rather for what 
they certainly did not than for what thoy did. 



Chapter XVllI. 
GRANADA BY JAEN TO MADRID. 

Puerto (Ic Arenas — Approach to Jacn — View from the Cattle — The Paseo — To 
Bailen — Mcnjabar — Dcspoiiapcrros — Leave Andalusia — La Jlaneha — Oil Jars — 
Beggars — Arrive at Madrid. 

It had been my intention to proceed by Murcia and Orihuela, 
two of the most beautiful Yegas in Spain, to Carthagena and 
palm-embowered Elchc, but the cholera unfortunately was rav- 
aging that country, and the seaports were all under quarantine, 
so I must needs content myself with the inland route to Mad- 
rid, whither I was obliged to return. • 

At an carl}^ hour of the next morning, therefore, I was upon 
the balcony waiting for the diligence to Jaen. The moon was 
still silvering over the city, though the daylight was visible on 
the peaks of the Sierra Nevada, coloring the snow upon their 
bosoms with a faint rosy blush. Our road ascended quickly 
out of the Yega, and afforded kaleidoscopic views of its beauties 
under the varying aspect of the morning light, until turning a 
shoulder in the ridge, we suddenly lost sight of Granada and 
its glories : but our way was still enlivened by the appearance 
of wild flowers and fields until we entered the Sieri-a Susana. 
The pass is not a lofty one, and consequently presents nothing 
that is entitled to be considered grand, but the passage through 
the Puerto de Arenas is very curious, and is really a " gate." 
It a])])ears as though a perpendicular slab had been taken out 
of the Avail for the river bed, and so narrow is the passage, that 
it is necessary to tunnel for the road, as there is absolutely not 
room for lioth. Commanding the entrance to the kingdom of 
Granada, it Avas often contested in the olden time, and its wa- 
ters were as frequently tinged witli human blood as an}- others 
consecrated in tlie ballads. No place in the country could be 
better suited for such a purpose. A few leagues farther on 



334 SPAIN AM> TIIK Sl'ANIAUDS. 

opened to us tlic luountain j)aii()ranKi of .laon. :i truly inagiii- 
ficent pros])i'ct. with all the stern j^raiideur wliieh so eniiueiitly 
charaeti'iizes the mounlain seeneryof the Peninsula. The city 
was still a considerable distance from us. It lies upon the lofty 
ground in front of the Sierra, or rather upon the proiec-linij 
breast of the chain, and appeared to be half way to the heav- 
ens. Behind it rises the bare and cheerless mountain range, 
which is so elevated, as. in winter, seriously to interfere with the 
comfort of the ])lain by interce])ting the sun's rays. The as- 
pect of the city itself was consonant with the scener}* around, 
and it wt-ll deserved the apitellation of the Citadel of Andalusia. 
The old Moorish walls can be traced winding over the hills up 
to the Castle, and the towers of its churches still give it the 
appearance of an ancient fortress. Ik'tween us la}* the broad 
vallc}' of the river Jaen. From reading the history of the re- 
conquest of Spain by the Moors, and of the many notable feats 
of arms that had been enacted in the neighborhood, I had 
formed an expectation which Mas not disa]ipointed by the 
reality. It is the beau ideal of a Moorish outjjost. and unites 
all the elements of picturesque beauty which seem to have 
guided those elegant Orientals in their choice of sites for their 
cities. Descending from the branch of the Sierra which sej)a- 
rates it from (Jranada, we crossed the fertile Vega and com- 
menced the ascent, and after much shouting and trouble, 
arrived at our destination in a clean street ])aved with rough 
stones. As few travellers halt in this time-honored but some- 
what sliruiikt'M place, the Posada was none of the best, and did 
not exceed what a reasonable traveller might have justly de- 
manded. 

The boast of Jaen, in the wa}' of sights, is its Cathedral — 
a beautiful structure in the modern classic 8t3de — and viewing 
the present condition of the cit}'^ the wonder is, why such an 
amount should have been expended in an unimportant town on 
the side of a mountain. It is graml in dimensions, of a very 
pure style of architecture, and abounds in beautitul marbles, all 
from the neighborhood. It enjoys, furthermore, the reputation 
of possessing precious relics, such as the handkerchief of St. 
Veronica with the miraculous image of the Saviour's face, 
which 1 did not see. But the ti'uo beauty of Jaen depen<ls 
upon its situation. Being thus at the base of a lofty Sierra, it 
is abundantly supplied with fountains and deliciously cool 



VIEW FROM THE CASTLE. PASEO. 335 

■water, which Avill render any spot in Andalusia charming, and 
the viewt^ from its Alameda are unsurpassed. The old Moorish 
walls still exist, in a dilapidated state, and wind picturesquely 
up the hillside to the castle, whence the prospect b}' sunset is 
superb. The mountain chain behind, running north-west and 
south-east, casts its shade over the valley even to the foot of the 
ridge Ave had descended in the morning, alternating with the 
green herbage of the river bank and the bare rocks beyond, 
across and through which wound the white road until it was 
lost in the distant Puerto de Arenas, at the entrance of the 
valley of the G-enil. To the left, at right angles, far below, was 
the ever graceful Graudalcpiivir, and crowning the valle}^ to the 
north rose, in the distance, the tremendous mass of the Sierra 
Morena, while the peaks in front and on both sides were bathed 
in the rose and purple light of the hour. Owing to the great 
elevation of the city the prospect was extensive, comprehend- 
ing a considerable portion of the kingdom of the name. No 
wonder that it proved so long a barrier to the Christian power, 
and that their armies had so often retreated from its walls 
'* farther than the Pleiades." 

As the shades of night fell I returned to the uninviting 
Posada, and was meditating upon the difficult problem of pass- 
ing an evening agreeably in a strange place, with but little 
prospect of a successful solution, when I found that my two 
companions of the morning ride, who were retui'ning from the 
Baths of Carratraca, had taken a Samaritan's compassion and 
had called to invite me to an evening promenade upon the 
Paseo. The courte.sj^ Avas as unexpected as it was acceptable, 
and we took our place among the crowd to enjoy the glories 
of a Se])teml)er night on an Andalusian mountain slope. They 
soon met some ladies of their acquaintance seated in chairs 
upon the side of the walk, and I was presented, in the informal 
way usual upon such occasions, as a Cabalhro estratigrro, who 
had made the journey with them — and this seemed quite suffi- 
cient recommendation. In the course of the conversation I 
found that the I'lderly lad}' was the mother of the two younger, 
and the names of tlie latter were Clara and Eugenia. Dofia 
Eugenia was a blonde, with bright blue eyes (ojos zarcos), 
glossj- dai'k hair, and an elegant tigure, such as nature kindly 
bestows upon most An«hduzas of eighteen. She seemed a very 
mountain rose — somewhat doubtful at first of the deportment 





336 8I'AIN AXn THE SPANIARDS. 

she ^ifplld assume towar.l a jit'i-son who lived tlic other side 
of three tliousand miles of water, but this soon wore away, and 
we eoiumenccd our conversation about the Moorish war, which 
at that time occupied all thou<;hts. The ladies were very 
enthusia.stic for the honor of Spain, and stamped their little 
feet ujton the ground when speaking of the insults which had 
been offered to the garrison at Ceuta. Thoroughly Andaluzas, 
every gesture, movement, thought, was grace jiersonified. At 
anything startling, Bofla Eugenia, exclaiming " Santissima 
Virgin .'" would cross herself so prettily that even the Emperor 
of Alniagi'clt himself would have been converted. How the 
hours llcw li}-! Star after star waned before the increasing 
brilliancy of the moonbeams, and eleven o'clock had ]>asscd ere 
we took leave of our fair com])ani(;ns and one of the gentlemen 
at the grating of their door. I lingered a monient until Euge- 
nia's lace veil disappeared behind the sjjarkling fountain of the 
Patio, and checking a rising curiosity, supposed to be peculiar 
to our countr}', exi)ressed sincere thanks to my entertainer for 
the pleasure of the evening, as we parted at tlie door of the 
Posada. 

The next morning was wearisome enough while waiting for 
the diligence from Granada. 13e3-ond what I mentioned, .laen 
offers few attractions. According to the Moorish accounts, it 
was once celebrated for its silk manufactures, and Al Makkari 
sa3's it was called Jaen al llarrir, or .laen of the Silk ; but man- 
ufactures have disappeared, and it is now the residence of a 
])urely agricultural population. The neighboring country. like 
all that which boi'ders upon the CJuadalquivir anil its tributary 
streams, was, and is yet, famous for its horses, which, in better 
days, were little inferior to Ai'al>s. Of products of the soil it 
fujMiislies a superabundance, foi- though the mountain sides and 
elevateil plains are comparatively sterile, its valleys riot in 
fertility. 

About nf)on the diligence made its appearance and we thun- 
dered down the slope. A journey of three or four leagues 
brought us to the valley of the Guadalquivir. The Pride of 
Betica was so reduced in dimensions that 1 did not recognize 
it at a distance, and was surprised to sec a strange and unusual 
airy structure extending across a part of the valley, and a clus- 
ter of tall chimneys upon the summit of the distant ridge to the 
north vomiting f(n-th their smoke against the cloudless blue of 



JOURNEY TO BATLEN. — DEgPENA-PERROS. 337 

the sky. The hitter were at the famous mine of Linares, cele- 
brated even in ancient days for its stores of lead anc^ copjier, 
and the former was the suspension bridge of Men ji bar. How 
misplaced and unnatural it appeared in this land of massive 
masonry! for Spain is distinguished b}' the almost unnecessary 
solidity of its public edifices. Both were unusual sights in a 
countrj' where the traveller seems to have left modern inven- 
tions behind him. Passing over the bridge we continued our 
way to Bailen, where it unites with the grand route from 
Seville, and we retraced slow!}' the road which I had descended 
a couple of months before. The good meal at Bailen prepared 
us for crossing the Sierra Morena, and a detachment of beggars 
welcomed us into and out of the town wishing us a good diges- 
tion — and the poorest beggars I had seen for man}^ a day. A 
gentleman from Madrid here entered the berliiia and gave me 
the pleasure of his company to Tembleque. lie was on his ivny 
to bring his wife to Andalusia to spend the winter for her 
health. Fortunately, I had met and exchanged cards with a 
friend and schoolmate of his, which at once placed us upon a 
footing of friendship, and caused him to supply me with notes to 
his famih^and friends in Madrid, which, to mj' regret, I had not 
time to deliver. Ilis manners were courteous and his informa- 
tion by no means restricted, so that his society converted a 
tedious into a very pleasant journey. 

Passing through Carolina, Las Navas, and other villages of 
what are called the '* Nuevas Poblaciones," we commenced at 
Sta. Helena the long ascent of the Siei-ra Morena. This 
famous pass, which connects Andalusia Avith the interior, is 
known by the name of Despena-perros, interpreted by some 
"throw the dogs (?'. e. the enemy) over;" by others as signify- 
ing a place where a dog might easil}' fall over. In former 
times it well deserved its name, as the most break-neck place 
in the four kingdoms of Andalusia. B}' the enlightened efforts 
of the Count of Florida Blanca, in the reign of Charles III, a 
magniticent road was constructed, quite equal to any of those 
which have been sul)sequenth' made in Switzerland, except 
that there are no avalanches to be guarded against. At this 
season of the j'car much of the splendid masonry work seems 
to be an unnecessary waste of labor; scores of bridges, built in 
the most massive style, span tiny rivulets and ravines, which 
are now perfectly dry, but in the winter and spring become 
23 



338 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

furious torrents, 8wecj)ing everything iK'fore them. The scenery 
is of th(j grandest description. On each side of the road stand 
loltv crajrs of brownish rocks, rearing their perpendicular sides 
until tlu'V are lost to view — monarchs in the solitude. Tropical 
vegetation is soon left ; all the grades of the temperate zone in 
turn disai)pear; a few firs struggle out from sheltered crevices, 
but even these cease, and the wildest solitude reigns over the 
face of nature. Descending into and crossing a deep and broad 
ravine that makes its way up to the nortii-west, we commenced 
the tinal ascent of the pass itself In spite of the warnings of 
robbers, which the neighborhood of the far-famed Venta do 
Cardenas rendered not altogether pointless, I dismounted and 
walked on aliead of the toiling mules. A perpendicular moun- 
tain side bounded the way on the left, a ]>recipice on the right. 
From the depth below rose, on the opposite side, the naked rock 
to ^n equal height. Eeaching the summit, I sat ujiun the 
])urapct awaiting the arrival of the vehicle. The situation was 
indescribably lonely. It was just midnight. A cdM wind 
swept up the valley, and the moon threw. a pale light down 
into the gorge, causing each rock to assume fantastic shapes, 
and peopling the solitude Avith giant forms. An open space to 
the north, faintly illuminated by its glimmering rays, repre- 
sented the vast plain of La Mancha. In front frowned the 
beetling precipice, and above and around i-eigned the quiet of 
desolation, unltroken save by the rumbling of the diligence in 
the valley below. The cheerless aspect without reacted upon 
the spirit within ; it was natural to feel gloomy in such a i)lace 
at such an hour and on such an occasion. At the f<^ot of these 
mountains lay I'omantic Andalusia. How dilVcrent were the 
feelings with wliicb, on lirst crossing. 1 had here welcomed the 
Land of the South ! J was now to say farewell; farewell to its 
olives and citrons; farewell to the sweet song of its nightin- 
gales; farewell to its gentle zephyrs, laden with the perfume of 
the rose and the violet; farewell to the golden waters of its 
Guadalquivir and to the pui-i)le light of its sunsets; farewell to 
those whose memory lends an undying charm to all that is and 
exists in this glowing land; farewell ! a long farewell ! 

The descent into La Mancha is by no means so gi-eat as into 
Andalusia; the table-land of the interior being scarcely less 
than 2,000 feet above the level of the sea. Manzanares and 
Val do Peuas seemed dustier and poorer than ever. On cVery 



WINE AND OLIVE JARS. — ARRIVE AT MADRID. 339 

side extended an arid, treeless expanse. The road was tlir()ni;-ed 
with vehicles returnin<i; from the transportation uf oil and wine. 
Each contained one huge earthen AH Baba jar, some six or 
eight feet in depth and of a diameter in proportion. Eows of 
vehicles would follow each other, the drivers for the most pai't 
quietly asleep in the jars, trusting the mules to '"take to the 
right," as the law directs. This confidence avus not otten mis- 
placed, for the Spanish mule is exceedingly sagacious. I have 
seen them in scavenger carts arrange the supporting stick 
themselves when told to halt; and a team of eight is frequently 
guided at half speed by the voice alone, every one seeming to 
recognize his name and to distinguish " dipitana-d-d-ah " from 
^' Jfach6-6-6." Several limes we passed companies of soldiers 
on their wa}' to the camp at Algeciras. Their spirits were 
godd. and the rate at which they moved surprising, though it 
would have been a great saving of human legs to have taken 
the railroad to Alicante and gone thence by sea. It may be 
that the rumors of the cholera caused this route to be preferred. 
At Tembleque we halted to await the train from the east. 
The same boj'S were there to ask for coppers; one was deaf and 
dumb. To him I gave two — one for each affliction. The rest 
of the passengers asked me if we had beggars in America. I 
replied no; at least not in that part of the country which was 
known to me; that ever}- honest, industrious man could at 
least g:iin a livelihood, and though there were many disagreea- 
ble things home, this alone Mould compensate for them all if 
one were reduced to a comparison with Euroi:)e. They agreed 
with me in the conclusion, but evidently did not com])rehend 
how such a state of things could exist, as the idea of one class 
having nothing to do and living upon another class, who fre- 
quently cannot find sufficient honest emplo3'ment to eke out a 
support, is deeply rooted in all European systems. A long train 
of freight cars was drawn uj) in the station, to avoid the 
trouble of going around which, 1 was about to pass between, 
but was stopped by the guard. This caused me to mention for 
their doubting admiration another precious privilege of the 
freeman in America, equally incomprehensible, viz : that of 
getting 5'oursclf killed, whenever you feel in the humor, with- 
out the hindrance of officious philanthroj)ists in jtolice uniform. 
As the train a])proachcd, we were driven up on a car and 
took our place in line. Ocaiia, the avenues of Aranjuez, !Mad- 



340 SPAIN ANP THE SPANIARDS. 

rilojos wliirlcd In' in (ho dark, and aliout eleven p. M. the li<^htR 
of" Lu C'orte" ai»i)eared in the tlistance. In a lialt'hour more I 
was seated in my former apartment, welcome, although with- 
out the loaf of Seville hread, which my hostess had requested 
me to bring, in order that she might win lier bet with a Mad- 
rilofia as to its superior <iu:i]ity. 



Chapter XIX. 
M A D E I D AGAIN. 

Second Impression — The Fire — Spanisli School of Painting — Apartado of the 
Bull;- — Procession to Atoeha — Ambassadorial Quarrel — Escorial. 

Madrid appeared under a different hue by comparison with 
Andalusia. The temperature had lowered considerably, and 
the nights were cold, 3-et the streets had a glassy look about 
them, in sad contrast with the awning shades of the Calle de 
las Sierpes at Seville. The Prado AA-as now deserted at night, 
as the air Avas too sharp for CA'ening Avalks, and the afternoon 
promenades had begun. But hoAA' tame it Avas after the moon- 
light nights on the Plaza Isabel and the banks of the (Juadal- 
quiA'ir I and the Madrilenas, handsome as the}' had seemed to 
me just from London and Paris, Avere not to be mentioned in 
the same day Avith the Avarm-hearted, graceful Andalusiane. 
The cit}' began to AA'car, hoAA'CA^er, more of the aspect of a great 
capital. Summer absentees A\-ere returning Avith a fresh stock 
of health to undergo the Avinter labors and dissipations. The 
diplomatic corps Avere already established in their old quarters, 
and the Court was soon to folloAA\ The best eA'idence, hoAA-- 
ever, of a renewal of life Avas the throng in the Puerta del Sol. 
The snatches of couA-ersation Avhich saluted your ear AA-erc 
upon CA'cry imaginable topic. The Morocco expedition, the 
English note, the A'isit of Marshal Pelissier, the funds, the 
loan, the circus, d grillo, the next bull fight, mingled up, of 
course, Avith an immense amount of scandal about everybod}-, 
from the Queen down, or up, according to the talker's stand- 
point in society. Madrid is almost the only place in Spain 
Avhere there is any GoA'ernment in the European acceptation of 
the term, that is, any organization of the controlling power, 
acting as a regulating and compressing influence. Tlie garri- 
son is quite numerous, and there is a respectable political 



•542 SPAIN* AM) THE SPANIARDS. 

police foroc, both opon and secret. Not only is there a home 
I»olice. but the French Government maintains one of its own 
to keep watch upon exiles and travelling Frenchmen. Per- 
haps it has an unknown similar estalili.shment in other capitals, 
hut nothing in Afadrifl can he ke^it a secret. One of the prin- 
ci]»al spies was i)t)intcd out to me. lie was a young-looking 
man — a Frenchman-:— and from his ai)i)carance I never would 
have thought him engaged in such a detesiahle occupati(Mi. 
ITappy is the nation whoso Government has no political police. 
The morning after my arrival I had an opjiortunity of judg- 
ing of the efficienc}' of the municipal organization, liefore 
da}', I was awakened by a tremendous noise and the sound of 
heav}' blows, and going to the window, saw the watchman 
breaking open the door of the next house. Thinking that 
some obnoxious person was concealed within, and that the 
police were in pursuit, I retired quietly to rest. The noise still 
continued, and in a few moments I felt a choking sensation. 
My American experience told me what was the matterj it was 
a fire, a thing of rare occurrence in Elurope, and almost un- 
known in Spain. I dressed with speed, seized my dagger, 
letter of credit, passj)ort and watch. With these one can con- 
front any danger — without them, existence is worth very little 
abroad. The scene from my balcony' was curious. First, the 
police stationed a force at each end of the street, to prevt-nt 
circulation. Then the water carriers commenced making their 
appearance, each widi his cask of water — this being a condi- 
tion of exercising their calling; then a company of soldiers to 
preserve order. In the meantime cloutis of smoke were roll- 
ing up, and the balcony became too hot to hold us. The 
utmost commotion reigned not only in our house but in the 
whole neighborhood. I am sorry to say (hat my two fellow 
lodgers, one a Spaniard, the other an Englishman, had packed 
uj) at the first alarm, and incontinently left. With the hajipy 
inditt'erence of a man who has little to lose, and cannot save 
even that, I remained alone to console the terrified women. 
An American can scarcely imagine how territied people do 
become in Europe about an occurrence which is a matter of 
• •vory-day life to us. My hostess wrung her hands dolorously, 
I'xclaiming, "la bomha! la homha! Oh, if la hquiha would only 
come:" Thinks I to myself, what the plague is la bomba, sup- 
posing in my innocence (for I had never witnessed a Spanish 



TTIK FIRE. 343 

fire before) that it \vns a bomb, with some stifliiijjc gas to extin- 
guish the flames. They were all too busy to explain, so that 1 
awaited with some curiosity the appearance of the beneficent 
homba. Present)}' came an order from the chief of police to 
prepare to leave ; so everything was removed from my n]iart- 
nicnt in front to the back part of the house, and we remained 
awaiting the end. In the meantime the engines had arrived. 
This was la homba, and small affairs they Avere, not yet grown 
to the full estate of fire enginehood, and rather resembling our 
garden engines. Nor was their advent marked by any un- 
usual bustle; no shouting, no running with the " mashcen." 
DraAvn up in line of battle, the}' were deliberately ^lled by the 
gallegos — smoking cigarettes — and as deliberately pumped. 
They answered the purpose, however, and I went to the head 
of the stairs to inform the trembling assemblage that the dan- 
ger was passed. While standing there we heard a noise that 
startled us all — a terrific thumping on the staircase, accompa- 
nied with the jingling of metal. It sounded as though the 
ancestral house ghost was taking his departure. The noise 
approached rapidly, and soon it appeared in the bodily shape 
of a tall, thin, half-dressed Pole, with an immense bundle on 
his back, leaping three steps at a time. Seeing us standing so 
quietly, he appeared confused and stopped short. It seems 
that he lodged in the seventh storj' to the rear, and in those 
sublimated regions the alarm had penetrated with difficult}'. 
But he was determined to make up in speed what he had lost 
in time; so, throwing all his worldly possessions into a sheet, 
had presented himself before us very much in the costume in 
which he had retired to sleep. Of course, our party were sur- 
prised at his being so alarmed, and rated him soundl}' for his 
want of pluck. The poor Pole attempted to defend his con- 
duct, but was no match for his opponents, and soon sunk, 
crest-fallen and envious of our superior courage, back to the 
heavenly regions whence he had descended. 

The crowd below had increased ; the Corregidor and the 
Governor of the Province were present in uniform with dress 
swords — both persons of high rank. It would have horrified 
an Englishman or an Austrian to see how practical an equality 
reigned between them and even the water carriers. The Cap- 
tain-General was represented by a staff officer on horseback, 
who seemed anxious to do something, but as there were no 



344 SPAIN AM> TIIK SPANIARDS. 

ftiiiiting damsels to be carried away on the gallant cli;ir:r<'i'. I'is 
office remained a siiu'eiire. I had a fair (»])p(irtunity of seeing 
our neighbors, who throngt-d the lialeonies in the sparse cos- 
tume of six o'clock, A. M. They were doubtless amiable, very 
amiable people; more than that it would be hazaivloiis to as- 
sert. They were engaged like ourselves in conteinjtlating the 
spectacle below, which was now diversified by a light — some 
astonislie<l ])asser-by having received the contents of a hose in 
his stomach, and testily resented that want of respect by crack- 
ing the CJallician manager of it over the head, which the proud 
descendant of Pelayo took in very bad part. After separating 
the coml»atiyits, all hands smiled and refreshed themselves with 
a cigarette. In an hour more the street was wasluil. and ]»ri- 
meval quiet restored. 

M}" first visit on my return was to the Museo and the Acade- 
my' of San Fernando, to see if my opinions remained the same 
after visiting the Murillos at Seville. It seemed to me that in 
the highest stjie of painting, in lofty conception and sublime 
])urity of expression, there was nothing in ^[adrid to ecpial the 
lamous San Antonio, or the Conception, or the (Juardian Angel 
which form the boast of Seville; l)iit in the semi-i-ai'thly sub- 
jects tliat are represented in the thi'ee Murillos of the Academy, 
Madrid ])ossesses a treasure which the world of art cannot sur- 
pass, and it is strange that the lian(l-ln)oks of [lainling dwell 
so little upon them. Indeed, had it not been lor the robberies 
of the French (Jenerals and their ini])erial master, it is more 
than jirobaMe that the whole Spanish school — Murillo. ^'^■las- 
(juez, Rii»era and Cano alike — would have been considered a 
mere olfshoot, with little general merit and still less originali- 
ty. Whereas, individualily and oi-iginality, both of conception 
and execution, are its distinguishing traits. It is true that 
most of their j)ainters repeat themselves, even to the extent of 
what ma^' l)e called mannerism; but this springs from those 
very traits of character which prevent the Sjianiard from 
copying foreigners even if he would. Every great artist has 
naturally some ideal which reapin-ars in his different works. A 
statesman or a soldier has a few fixed principles, which must 
be ap])lie(l to a thousand vai-ying situations, no two of which 
are alike. The ideal of artistic beauty, though a mere jdian- 
tom perhap.s, in truth has a real existence in the conception of 



SPANISH SCHOOL OF PAINTING. 345 

each great, painter. The difficuUy consists in the attempt to 
grasp it, to withdraw it from tlie misty regions where such 
conceptions must float, and transfer it visibly to canvass. It is 
probable that no such attempt will ever bo completely success- 
ful, but the Conceptions of Murillo seem to be a nearer approach 
to it than anything else which we have. The mere style may 
change. This is an accessory of execution. The highest per- 
fection is something independent of such aids. Surely no one 
would wish to see the Last Judgment of Michael Angclo in oil 
colors. A deficiency in these minor rcsjiects has blinded many 
persons to the great excellencies of some of the Spanish paint- 
ers, of which Eibera is a striking example, as if he must neces- 
sarily enter the procrustean bed with Albano, whose subjects 
required a variety and exquisite finish that would have been 
misplaced and injurious to the other. The efiect of this want 
of variety of style in Spanish artists is disagreeably felt Avhen 
many pictures of the same person are collected in the same 
room. Even the gallerj' of JMurillos at Seville makes this im- 
pression upon you. Inferior artists can stand the test, because 
they paint from Avithout and not from Avithiu, and consequently 
vary as often as they paint, but the same cannot be affirmed of 
any of the great masters except Eafaelle. The collections of 
Eubeus in Madrid and Paris, leave you with little variety of 
impression, and so do the Titians, and I doubt not the same 
would be said of Michael Angclo, if his productions were 
placed in a row, yet he was the grandest genius of them all. I 
have more than once been painfull}^ struck with this in the 
works of Guido. A single Guido, such as the Annunciation or 
the Aurora, is beautiful. A dozen Guidos in a row, as they are 
placed at Madrid, are simply oppressive. Place a Eibera be- 
tween a Titian or Rubens and one of Pafiiclle's carl}- Madon- 
nas, and its uni-ivalled excellencies as well as its defects, would 
bo visible to the most unskilled lu-holder. There is, moreover, 
very little universality or versatilif}' of talent among Span- 
iards; they seem to devote themselves to some one sulyect, 
whether b}' taste or accident. Murillo embraced a greater 
variety than any other, yet his virgins and holy female subjects 
generally seemed to have been his decided favorites. Velas- 
quez was a painter of living men, and the illustration might be 
continued through Eibera, Zurbaran and the whole school. 



346 SPAIN ANI» TFIE SPANIARDS. 

There is no one here like I?afaollo. or Titian, or Rnbons. to paint 
overythini; in the heavens, earth, and the water undt-r tlio 
earth, witli oijual faeility and felieity. 

To chan«;e the snhjoct from paintinajs tt) hulls. I wont one 
day to see the Apartudo There was to he a HL:;ht tliat after- 
noon, and three animals of the breed of Hernandez, and three 
of Bailuelos, were collected in the corral attached to the Plaza. 
Galleries are built around the corral, so that we could look 
down upon the operation, which consisted in enticiiii^ them 
separately into the loril, and enclosing them in apartments ac- 
cording to the order of their entry into the ring. The behavior 
of the bulls upon these occasions is a fair test of what their 
conduct will be in the fight. Every now and then they would 
rush at the herdsmen, who escaped nimbly l>ohind barriers 
erected for the purpose, while the bull would vainly struggle to 
tear up the wall. The herdsmen were a despcratel}* wild-look- 
ing set, and one wouhl have found itdifticult to choose between 
them and the bulls. I very naturally reflected ujion the dis" 
agreeable predicament we would be in. if the gallery were to 
break. Some of the historic families of Spain would have been 
put in mourning, for the comjiany, though small, was very se- 
lect, consisting for the most of nobles and bull fighters. The 
animals seemed much astonished and rather depressed when 
separated. It is surprising that this exhibition should bo open 
to the public, for the bulls must necessarily be somewhat discon- 
certed at fin<ling themselves exposed to the general gaze of so 
man}' pei-sons whom they could not reach. They were, after 
much scuffling, all duly separated, each one in his stall, and the 
fight took place in the afternoon, but offered no jieculiar fea- 
tures. 

J)uring my stay in Madritl the (^ueen, who had returned 
from La Granja, was to make a procession to the Church of the 
Atocha, so a friend i)i'oeure<l for me a place in a window upon 
the Calle de Alcala through which she Avas to pass. As the 
hour approached, carpets and variegated cloths were hung over 
the balconies in honor of the fete, a custom originally derived 
from the East, though known also to the Romans. The garri- 
son was soon under arms, a double line of sentries bordei-ing 
the street. The infantry were good-looking men, larger than 
the French and far handsomer, but not equal in average size to 
our people. In style of marching they are between the Eng- 



AMBASSADORIAL QUARREL. 347 

lisli aiul_ Frcncli, without the accurate drill and step of the 
former, or the abandon of the latter — I think a happy medium. 
The cuirassiers were a particularly fine bod}' and well mounted. 
Royalty was not punctual upon this occasion, and we were kept 
some time in waiting. The interval was not wholly lost though, 
for I had been joined by two .young ladies of two opposite 
styles of beautj' ; the one blonde, the other brunette, with 
clear complexion, fine forehead, and an exquisite, velvety pair 
of QjQs that sparkled as she spoke. Under the circumstances, 
her Majostj^'s speedy coming was not wished for. But at 
length the bugles up the Calle Mayor sounded the ]\rarcha 
Eeal, and the escort appeared in sight crossing the Puerta del 
Sol. The ceremonies and the equipages carried one back to 
the daj's when Spain was a great monai"chy, and her proud 
boast was uttered that the sun never sat upon her dominions. 
The pomp was the same, but the grandeur had departed. A 
number of high ofiicers preceded the procession. Thc}^ did not 
impress me half so favorably as the troops, and had rather the 
appearance of part of a show than persons for real service. 
Such appearances, however, arc very deceptive. Then came 
antique carriages and four, and still more antique carriages and 
six, filled with the Servidumbre, maids of honor, gentlemen in 
waiting, ministers, etc. Four led horses had a peculiar signi- 
ficance, I forget what. Finally appeared their Majesties. The 
Queen is far from handsome; her reputation for heaut}* does 
not equal that for virtue, nor is she at all graceful. In truth, 
though Queen of Spain, she certainl}^ is no vSpaniard in ]>crson 
or character, , and the contrast between her procession to Atocha 
and that of her former subject Eugenia to a To Deum at Xotre 
Dame, is too striking to be agreeable. The king consort is an 
uneas^'-looking, insignificant personage, and, from his appear- 
ance, would much rather have been smoking a royal pnro 
than seated by his helpmate. But grandeur as well as poverty 
makes sti'ange bedfellows. The procession passed on, my com- 
panions gave me a graceful inclination of their fans and a 
Vaya vm. con Dios, and we severally parted to our homes. 

An amusing quarrel took place at the Church, as I was told, 
next day. The 'diplomatic corps had been invited, but by some 
oversight no places had been reserved ; every apology was 
made and other places were offered, but the}' insisted on re- 
maining outside and airing their wrath, until a message was 



o45> bl'AlN AM> TllK fcil'AMARDS. 

1jrou<jrht from the Queen, begging them to take the seats re- 
served for the Infantas, with manj'^ apologies, wliich they at 
last consented to accept. As those gentlemen were jiersons 
skilled in ceremonies, the course they adopted was i)rol»al>ly 
right; but, according to a common man's idea, it would have 
beefi much more dignified to go quietl}' home and receive their 
satisfaction in writing, instead of making a scene at the door. 
The more belligerent might have challenged the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, who is not a warlike character, and thus the 
question might have been peaceably arranged. Foreign diplo- 
macy seems to consist of this sort of thing, coupknl with the 
back-stairs intriguing, characteristic of nations who suin luler 
the government of their affairs into the hands of a minister, 
instead of deciding upon their foreign ])olicy for themselves. 

It had been iiiy intention to pa}' a visit to the Escorial, but 
the queen's household had engaged the diligence for some time 
ahead, so that there would have been some trouble in getting 
there, and still greater in getting away. As the place ])resents 
but the one attraction, I concluded, therefore, to remain con- 
tent with the impressions of a former visit. I had seen it then 
in the winter, when the surrounding scenery harmonized Avell 
with the gloomy idea of the founder — an idea which the archi- 
tect has embodied with singular felicit}'. The Escorial is cer- 
tainly the eighth wonder of the world. It makes but one 
imjjression upon a visitor, but that ini])ression is so profound 
that it cannot easily be shaken off. The exterior, the church, 
the Maus(jlc'um, are all alike grandiose and over})0\vering. It 
seems scarcely possibk- that the more aiTangomtyit of s|)eech- 
less stone and mortar could ]»i-o<luce such an eti'ect, or that the 
work of human hands ccndd so master and crush the sj)iri(. 
You are overwhelmed, and breathe, on issuing from beneath 
the massive portal, as though a frightful load had been taken 
off your soul. What are the Coliseum and iSl. Peter's com- 
pared with this? Among the thousand descriptions,] i)refer 
that of Mad. Calderon, as conveying more vividly and truth- 
fully than any other I have i*ead, the unaccountable effect it 
produces. The gridiron shape seems absurd on papei-, but no 
one would discover it for himself, and the triumph of the archi- 
tect is thereby rendered so much the more complete. 

Having failed in this attemi^t, I took a seat for Burgos direct. 



Chapter XX. 
M A D E I D TO B U E G S . 

Departure — The Country — Somo Sierra — View over New Castile — First Impression 
of Spain — Aranda — Lcrma — Burgos — Las Huelgas? — Miraflores — Cardcna — The 
Cid. 

There was an unusual collection at the office of the diligence 
to bid farewell to their various acquaintances. The winter 
population was evidently returning. The principal thorough- 
fiires, such as Calle do Alcala, do San Geronymo, and others 
emptj'ing into the Puerta del Sol, were thronged with well- 
dressed crowds, and every now and then a fur tippet gave 
evidence of the change in the temperature. Madrid was be- 
coming again the centre of Spain. The hour appointed for 
starting was six o'clock. The conductor desired to start a 
quarter before the time, as all were present. Expecting a 
message which was to be brought me at the bureau, I wished 
to delay till the last moment. The conductor — a Basque — said 
he liked to be punctual. I replied that punctuality consisted 
in starting exactly at the hour indicated, neither before nor 
after. lie would not admit the general principle, but thought 
I was right in this particular case. His error was on the right 
side, as is usually the case in travelling arrangements in Spain, 
notwithstanding the reputation which the Government has 
acquired, and it may be deservedly, for dilatoriness. The 
message I had been expecting soon arrived, and at five minutes 
before si.x, amidst the usual shouting of postilions, the barking 
of dogs and the gazing of idlers, tlie various diligences started. 
We rattled across the Puerta del Sol, up the Calle do Fucn- 
carral, and salljMng out of the city gate, entered the desert 
which separates La Corte from the chain of the Somo Sierra. 
It may be laid down as a general rule that no stranger likes 
Madrid. Its hollow, insincere society, its unpatriotic and 



350 SPAIN AM> THK SPANIARDS. 

:ilisur<l efforts to engraft foreign manners and foreign modes of 
thought upon the stern oldCastillian stock, the vagahond char- 
acter of a hirge jiortion of its popuhition, and the ahsence of 
all memorials of the i»ast, combine to render it one of the least 
agroeablo and attractive cities in Spain, though as a great 
capital, it necessarily offers man}' resources for aiding the time 
to slip by. I was told by several gentlemen who had married 
in Madrid and resided there, that it improved ujion acquaint- 
ance. I asked them if they had any friends. The invariable 
answer was that although they had many acquaintances, they 
could scarcely advance any — l)eyond the circle of their marital 
connections — to the highei- rank of friendship. In trutjj a very 
great proportion of those who compose society are attracted 
hither by the Government, and an utter selfishness is the rule 
of their lives. Yet there are exceptions; and on issuing from 
the gate I did experience a sort of regret, or ratlier a sympa- 
thetic feeling with a city where I had sjicnt some pleasant 
moments. The scene around and the prospect ahead were 
calculated to awaken such a sentiment. To the west Mas the 
setting sun just disappearing beneath the horizon ; a lurid, 
threatening glare attended his departure, and a few clouds 
gathered above as if to do bondage to the expiring king of day. 
iris last rays glittered uj)on a battalion of soldiers who were 
drilling on the parade ground to the right, tilling the air with 
the clash of weapons and the sonorous music of trumpets. Far 
off to the north-west extended the lofty Guadarama mountain, 
already indistinct in the evening shade. All else was one vast, 
cheerless, broken jdain, over which the cold wind howled with 
the fierceness of a winter's blast. It was well calculated to 
make the traveller regret his well nialli'il room and sunny 
balcon}', even in Madrid. 

The road near the city was tlii'ongcd with vehicK's returning 
from the baths and luoiintaiiis. l-'roni time to time a coach of 
greater j)retension bore its noble occupant along, and once a 
coupe with fou'* horses, preceded by outriders in the royal 
livery, and containing two vi-ry lunvy individuals inside, 
whirled by us in clouds of dust. Legions of donkeys and 
mules were returning from the cit}' to their respective villages, 
but soon those disappeared, and we disposed ourselves to pass 
the night as best we could. The other corner of the berliila 
was occupied by a stout lady, a resident of Madrid, who was 



VIEW OVER CASTILE FROM SOMO SIERRA. 351 

going to Bixj'onno to visit a relative living there. She was 
talkative and good humored, and was entitled to the three F's, 
for though she might not have been strictly styled fair, 3'et she 
was as near it as most persons wlio have unwillingly^ attained 
the other two. In addition to her many agreeabilities, she had 
the tangible one of a large basket most bountifully furnished, of 
which she insisted that I should partake, and with such earn- 
estness that 1 ilurst not decline. The only article of commis- 
sariat which my foresight had provided me, would have been 
miich more appropriate in America or Ireland than Spain, 
to wit : a flask of brandy. I offered it with many apologies, 
but as the good ladj" had never tasted any before, she de- 
clined making the experience now, so that the entertainment, 
80 far as I was concerned, repeated the fable of the stork and 
the fox. 

The road to the foot of the mountain is uninteresting in the 
extreme, and two previous journeys having rendered me fa- 
miliar with its weariness, there was no inducement to force 
nature by struggling to keep awake. Fuencarral, Alcobendas, 
the historical and exceedingly ancient city of Buitrago, were 
passed by unconsciousl}'. A furious storm, fulfilling the prog- 
nostications of sunset, discharged its torrents in like manner, 
witiiout disturbing our slumbers, which continued uninter- 
rupted until daylight broke upon the summit of the Sierra 
lianging over our heads. The prospect descending this moun- 
tain toward Madrid is very impressive to those who are just 
entering Spain from Bayonne. It is one of those boundless, 
immeasurable, indefinite and apparently infinite views which 1 
have so often noticed in this book as peculiar to Spain. Far as 
the vision can reach is rolled out the uneven, rugged plain of 
Xew Castile, offering no resting place for the eye save a few 
brown villages that can scarcely be distinguished from the 
thirsty earth upon which they stand. The pass itself is al- 
most the only passage from Old to Xew Castile, and defended 
by a handful of determined men, is impregnable against any 
army that could be assembled, unless the accuracy of fire-arms 
be increased even beyond their present range. Yet Napoleon 
with a S(piadron of lancers put to flight a whole divitsion, pro- 
vided, so far as the externals went, with all the requisites of 
war. The Sj)anish character has unju>tly suffered by tliis and 
similar occurrences, but the militia of America, whoso indi- 



352 SPAIN AND THE SPAMAUDS. 

vidiial bravery none would question, have furnished fully as 
lamentable instances of panic; and the battles of New Orleans 
and Buena Vista offered the strange spectacle of one portion of 
the volunteers contendin<jr with a courage and valor that no 
regular soldier could imitate, while on the same ticld another 
portion threw down their weapons and fled without a shot. 

Descending the mountain, we changed horses at a hamlet 
where I had most unwillingly been detained twenty-four hours 
in the fall of 1851 by a sudden attack of indisposition. At 
that time all around me bore the inipi-ess of novelty as well as 
grandeur. Most of the day I had passed on the summit of a 
little elevation which afforded an uninterrujjted pr(jspect to- 
ward the snow-covered ranges that bound the horizon to the 
north and north-west. Scarcely a tree or a shrub was in sight 
to break the continuity of waste. Long trains of laden mules 
would wind along the dusty road with the well armed arriero 
trolling lustily some old ballad, perhaps of the Cid or Count 
Fernan (ionsalcz, and from time to time a soldier belonging to 
the Guardia Civil would hurry pastj otherwise no living thing 
disturbed the quiet of the solitude. The sun shone brightly, 
and the deep blue sky over head reminded one of other seasons, 
but the keen wind that pierced to the very bones dispelled all 
illusions. And, thought I to myself, can this be Spain ? Is 
this the romantic land of poetry? It was not wliat 1 lia<l anti- 
cipated. There were no green valleys, no warbling songsters, 
no gentle zephj-rs, j'ct the scene had a sti-ange fascination. 
And now this very loneliness, (iiis gi-andeur of isolation, throw- 
ing the burthen of life upon the individual, and at the same 
time developing within him the ([ualities which enalile him to 
bear its weight, seemed to me in(lisj)eiis;il)k' to tlie idea of Cas- 
tillian chivalry, Avith its freedom Iroiu dependence upon Itodily 
cnjo3-ment8. The hardy life of the peasant in these lofty 
regions may be imagined when I state that a lire was lighted 
in the village once a week for the purpose of cooking bread, 
and that during the rest of the time a few bushes to boil choco- 
late was the utmost that could be allowed, for there arc no 
trees in Castile, and the peasants tear up even those that the 
Government plants lest they should harbor birds. Spanish 
bodies have immense vitality and power of generating heat, 
and appear to be quite independent of artificial warmth. In 
the morning the unoccupied portion of the population — which 



I 



ARANDA. 353 

seemed to include the Avliole, except on tlie arrival of a dili- 
gence — were seated upon benclies on the western side of the 
street, enjoj'ing the genial rays of tlie morning sun. Wlien I 
returned in the afternoon, the village presented identically the 
same appearance, except that the progress of the sun hfid 
caused a corresponding change of position; they had moved 
over to the eastern side. Being without occupation, I imitated 
the example, and we talked awaj', until, about sunset, those who 
had gone out into the fields to labor commenced returning, and 
a finer looking race of men I never beheld. Of the medium 
height, sinewy in their persons, of grave and stately demeanor, 
these ragged peasants threw their thi-ead-bare cloaks over their 
shoulders and walked into this collection of mud hovels with 
an air of dignified, courteous self-respect which many a sover- 
eign would give half his kingdom to possess. I must do Cas- 
tillejo also the justice to sa}' the iSpains could not furnish more 
snowy linen or delightful chocolate than that which it afforded 
me. On the present occasion it presented a more cheerful 
aspect. 

The journey to Burgos was without varict}'. A cold, bitter 
cold wind; extensive and even grand views of the plains, as 
the}'' are called, bounded on every side b}' lofty Sierras; peas- 
ants wrapped in their dun brown cloaks; files of mules and 
country vehicles of all sorts, wei*e its features. About noon we 
stopped for bi-eakfast at Aranda, famous in the olden time for 
the glories of its Bishopric, and in modern for its collection of 
beggars. The purling waters of the ujiper Duero afford mois- 
ture for its Alameda, whose green was refreshing to the eyes 
after the morning ride. Aranda is the locality of a celebrated 
fair which was not long over, and workmen were engaged in 
removing the bull ring which had been extemporized for the 
occasion. The breakfast was the cause of bitter complaints 
among the French passengers in the interior. I found it very 
palatal)le after the fast of eighteen hours, and had the full 
worth of mj' three pesetas in garlic and other savor}- condi- 
ments. The vacant place in the berlifia was here taken by an 
officer of high raidc in the army, who prepossessed mc in his 
favor b}- distril)uting a handful of co])pcrs to the wretched beg- 
gars as he entered. Jle was a youngish man, from the ]>rovince 
of Burgos, near the border of Alava, a true Castillian in every 
respect, having alike the virtues and the defects of that sterling 
24 



354 SPAIN AMI TIIK SI'AMAUDS. 

race; courteous, formal at first. uiUil tlic proper relations are 
established, but then genial, high toned, and. I doubt not, true 
as the ore of his native mountains; of course somewhat j)re- 
judiced, and not very enlarged in his views, because, like most 
of*liis countrymen, he had seen hut little of the world. In 
his youth he bidonged to the anti-Carlist ]iarty, which is a still 
living division of jtolitical faction along the hoi-dcrs that were 
desolated by the civil war. and the battle is not unfrequently 
renewed even at present, on a small scale, from the depth of 
pure conservative feeling. Good Catholics as the liberals were, 
they were determined to cast off the rule of the clergy, and my 
companion broke forth in ])rivate against the whole jtarty, upon 
recogni//mg, in our fellow-passenger, a sister of one of its bit- 
terest chiefs, who had been expiating his political sins in e.xile 
at Bayonne for many a year. But to her his conduct was 
marked b}' perfect courtesy of demeanor. While we were 
standing a little distance from the diligence, he asked me, in a 
joking wa}', if I thought her handsome. I replied that no one 
could tell to what he would finally come, but at present six 
arrobas (150 lbs.) was as much as my admiration coukl well 
embrace, whereas our worthy comj^anion would probably come 
nearer ten. He seemed amused at this way of measuring 
beauty, and thought she would hardly exceed eight. That 
evening, while waiting in the bureau of diligence at Burgos, 
the idea took me of being weighed upon a pair of scales that 
were hanging idly near by. A few minutes afterward, hear- 
ing myself addressed, I turned, and imagine my horror to see 
her balanced, exclaiming to me with a tiiumiiliant air, " J/tVc 
vm. C((bctlIero, ocho arrolxis, menos cinco lihras" (eight arrobas, 
wanting five pounds). The oflicer looked uneasy-; ]H'rliai)s 1 
did too. I certainly I'ell so. for 1 have always been in doulit 
whether the rascally wind had not hoiMu- our conversation into 
the window. 

In the due course of events, Ave reached the City of Lerma, 
capital of the great countfy and dutch}- of that title. The 
famous minister of Philip III, its Duke, erected an Igle- 
sia Colegial or Collcgiata and a Palace, both finished in the 
grandest style of magnificence, and worth}' of the inheritor of 
80 great a name. They survive in a half ruined state, diverted 
from their original purposes. The War of l!i(le]ien(lence con- 
signed to the past many a relic of ancient pomp and grandeur, 



BURGOS. 355 

and Lcnna, in its green little Vcgii, will with difficulty recover 
its former importance. As something had broken about the 
axle tree, the delay gave us an 0})portunity of loolving ai-ound 
the town, and even of walking on the Pa.sco that skirts the 
trout-bearing Avaters of the Alanza. A few leagues more, 
driven at a furious rate, brought us to the crest of a Iiiil, 
Avhence in the twilight, we saw the venerable city of Burgos, 
its ruined castle, and the filagree sjiire of its Cathedral, pro- 
jecting against the tawny mountain that bounded tlie valley 
on the north-west. 

Burgos is emphatically the heart of old Castile, and here is 
to be found in all its excellence, extravagance, if you will, 
those characteristics which, in the opinion of the world, have 
constituted the Spanish character. Proud, obstinate, un3-ield- 
ing though they be, it is a glorious old race, somewhat liehind 
the world at present, and belonging as it were to a ])ast age. 
Still no one can contemplate the genuine old Castillian without 
admiration. The aspect of the city is consonant with what 
one might be led to expect, severe, bordering upon the demi- 
grand in its situation, maintaining in unabated magnificence a 
few relics of ancient times, but insignificant in the productions 
of the last two centuries. The old castle on the hill, survives 
after a I'ashion, and gives a panoi-amic view over the city and 
the valley of the Arlanzon, with its spacious promenades, 
pretty enough in the spring or early summer. But the histori- 
cal absorbs every other species of interest. Every great cit^' 
in 8j)ain is the representative of some epoch and some civiliza- 
tion ; Toledo of the Gothic monarchy, and subsecpiently of the 
Primacy of the Church; liCOn, of the earlj- struggles for exist- 
ence against the invaders ; Cordova, of the pride of the Moor- 
ish power; Granada, of its romance and fall; statel}- Seville, 
of the consolidation of the Peninsula into a glorious unity and 
its expansion over the world; and so Burgos is the rei)resenta- 
tive of old Spain, of Spain of the reconquest, the city of the 
Alonzos, the Ferdinands, of the Cid, as it behooved the crown 
of Castile to be placed upon its head. The Charleses and the 
Philips, these Hapsburg and Bourbon hybrids have no place 
witliin her walls. She is the genuine, utiadulterated cmbodifi- 
cation of Castile. Like her children, she is virja y ranria^ with 
no touch of Jewish or Moorish blood stagnating in her veins. 
Her recollections are of the chivalrous times — of the lance and 



356 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

the linked mail, not of the wig and the rapier. Several private 
houses of a date anterior to the sixteenth century yet survive. 
The site of the C'id's mansion is kept vacant, and marked by a 
pillar, that of Fernan (Jonzalez by the arch. The old palace 
of the Yelascoes is in a ruinous state of neglect, but exists. 
Time has hallowed much, destroyed something, rebuilt nothing. 

The irreat architectural attiacti<»n of Bunros is the (Jothic 
Cathedral. For grandeur, it is far inferior to that of Seville, 
nor can it rival the faiiy grace of Loon, but in all the peculiar 
beauties of the Arabo-Gothic, in tlelicacy of delineation, in 
appropriateness of ornament, in general excellence, there is 
none to take precedence. It is more amply provided with 
spires and pinnacles than even most Gothic structures, and 
seen from the Castle hill, presents quite a forest-like ap]iear- 
anco. The interior contains everything. Among the paint- 
ings of various degrees of excellence, is one of the Virgin and 
Child, which is ascribed to Michael Angelo, or as some suppose, 
the result of the joint labors of himself and Sebastian del 
Piombo. Others say it is simitly a ])icture of the Florentine 
School. They arc all agreed about its merits. Then there is 
the famous chest of the ('id, upon the pledge of which, and his 
honor, he succeeded in raising the Ilebraic loan. Then there 
is a painfully vivid image of the Crucifixion, that spares none 
of the horiMitle details of death. The individual i)ortion8 of 
the Imil'liiig thai call I'oi' adniiration are endless. The noble 
dome, the jjortals, the immense chapel of the great Vclasco 
family, hereditaiy constables of Castile, the rejas, the tombs, 
would fill a voliiine of themselves. ] have but one adverse 
criticism to make, which is that being built of white stone, 
the interior, like the Cathedral del Pilar in Zaragoza, is too 
full of light. The traveller feels painfull}- the absence of that 
solemn, sombre grandeur which overwhelms him at Seville. 

The hotel was thronged with persons on their return from 
the sea baths upon the Ba}' of Biscay, which arc much fre- 
quented. Opposite to me at the table d'hote, was a family 
from Madrid, who were to remain the next day. One of 
its members has retained a place in m^- memory as the last 
individual I met of the unmistakable t3])C of Spanish beauty. 
To say this much is ^o say nearly everything. A gentleman of 
Burgos, a charming old bachelor, to Avhom I had a card of 
introduction, fortunately recognized the party, by my vivid 



STA. MARIA DE LAS IIUELOAS. 357 

description, as acquaintances, and I was kindly- placed in rela- 
tion with them. As our time was unoccupied, it was agreed, 
much to ni}' delight, to make an excursion to the surrounding 
country together. A four seated vehicle, that Charles 111 
would have recognized, provided with an abundant apparatus 
of bells, and fluttering pieces of bunting, was brought to the 
door, and we stai'ted merrily on our wa}'. 

On the loft bank of tlie Arlanzon — a short walk from the 
city — lay the celebrated convent of Santa Maria, la Ileal do las 
Iluelgas, "Huelga" signitying "rest" or "recreation;" the 
convent being situated in the midst of former gardens and 
orchards. It was commenced b}- Alonzo VIII, ccrtainl}- before 
the 3'ear 1187; — why is not well known, though scarcely in 
token of his humiliation for the defeat of Alarcos, inasmuch as 
that battle was not fought till 1195. Before it was com^deted, 
the great victory of Las Navas gave a death blow to the 
Moorish power, and probably ma}' have added gratitude to 
other motives for tinishir.g it in style of royal magnifi- 
cence. It is an immense collection of different -dates and 
ditlferent orders of architecture. The church is a very fine 
building, and has, in particular, beautiful aisles. But the inter- 
est which this famous convent inspires, like man}' other tilings 
in Old Castile, is due rather to its past glories and grandeur 
than to the deca3ing present, stripped of its cherished privi- 
leges. No convent had ever been possessed of such author- 
ity. Its lady abbess united feudal with ecclesiastical power. 
Twelve affiliated convents, sixty-four towns and villages, be- 
sides other lands, acknowledged her as their feudal or ecclesi- 
astical superior, with all seigneural and episcopal rights, among 
them that of hearing and deciding suits, civil, criminal and 
ecclesiastical, admitting to orders, establishing and changing 
convents, subject to no bishop; and, in truth, a sort of floating 
diocese and county. A century afterward, some difficulties 
having arisen with respect to the royal prerogative, the char- 
ters were inspected, and all the privileges therein granted were 
confirmed anew in solemn terms by the king, delivering over 
all suggcsters to the contrary to the societ}' of Judas. No 
sovereign had ever before had such a sulyect, and it was irrev- 
erently said, that if his Holiness the Pope should take it into 
his head to get married, the only woman* worthy of the alli- 
ance would bo the abbess of Las Iluelgas. A position of such 



358 SPAIN ANT) TnK SPANIARDS. 

power could onl}- l)c intrusted to noble hands, and anionej tho 
list of alibesses is found all the i^ood old names of Castile — 
Guzman, Laynez, Velaseo, ZuHiga, Mendoza, Enriquez, Sando- 
val. , In addition, one of the Infantas enjoyed the nominal 
protectorate under the style of Lady Guardian. They said 
that even now none were admitted hut ladies of nohle blood. 
St. Ferdinand armed himself as a kniLclit in the chajn-l which 
is called by his name, and Alonzo XI, the hero of Salado, 
together with Henry of Trastamara, imitated the exami)le of 
their illustrious ancestor. In the Coro and Naves arc many 
tombs of the founder and his wife, of Alonzo VII, of Sancho 
the Wise, and of various other personages of ro^'al blood. 

On the same side of the river, l)ut further to the north-east, 
was the Carthusian monastery- of Miratlores, or La Cartiija as 
it is generally called, whose name is evidence of its charming 
situation. Its cloisters and some of the ornaments in tho 
church are not surpassed by any other existing remains of 
mediieval art, particularly tho choir and the tomb of the pa- 
rents of Isabella the Catholic, which are of an air}- elegance 
that defies imitation. The Padre Florez narrates that when 
Philip II behcM these master-works, he exclaimed to the by- 
standers, '' We have done nothing at tho Escorial." I have 
already remarked how strange it seems to me, that the Car- 
thusians, whose rule was, perhaps, the most stringent and mor- 
tifying in tho Chui-ch, should have always selected the most 
beautiful sites for their monasteries. As nothing can surpass 
the view from the terrace of their estalilislinu-iit near Granada 
in the gorgeous l>eauties of the tropics, so may the Miratlores 
disdain comparison in its prospect down the flowery vale that 
extends to Burgos; but it must be seen at tho projier season of 
the J'car, and on this visit it had alreath' liogun to put on tho 
sober garb of winter. 

A league or two to tho east brought us to the monastery of 
San Pedro do Cardena, precious in the e^-es of all readers of 
Spanish ballads as having been the burial place of Ihiy Diaz 
dc liivar, the Cid — the honor of Spain, the terror of infidels, 
the delight of the world. The old hero Avas interred here with 
his whole family, his father and mother, his grandfather, his 
wife, his daughters, the (Queens of Aragon and Navarre, his 
gallant cousin, Alvar Failez, and various other relatives. His 
remains have had little rest, and like those of Columbus 



CARDENA. THE CID. 359 

pri}' the penalty of iinmortality by perpetual transmigrations. 
Their first journey after death was from Valencia to Burgos, 
thence they Avere brought here. The French, among the few 
things they knew about Spain, had heard of the ('id and Dona 
Jimenez through the traged}' of Corneille. With the apprecia- 
tion of true valor, and also that disposition for effect which 
are innate in the nation, they removed his sepulchre to the 
Paseo at Burgos. In defence of an action, almost sacrilege, 
they assert that unless this had been done, the bones of tlie 
grim warrior would have inevitably been appropriated b}' the 
English amateurs in Wellington's army, and there is more 
truth in it than appears at first. The witty feuilletonist e and 
traveller, Theophile Gauticr, says that General Thiebault, Avho 
effected the removal, slept with the bones in his own bed, in 
order by .such glorious proximity to elevate his courage — a 
precaution, the author adds, of which he stood in no need. 
The Spanish indignantly restored them after the expulsion of 
their invaders. But the sequestration of the convents, which 
followed the accession of the liberal party to power, caused the 
remains to be once more removed to the city, where they arc 
pi-eserved — if in veneration, certainly in no great state. The 
monaster}^ of Cardena was one of the most ancient in S])ain; 
but apart from its historical associations, and unless in such 
agreeable company, one would scarcely have made it a second 
visit. It is mournful to see the desolation that envelops these 
relics of the past. No reverend monk seeks the evidence of 
truth in the black letter tomes of their libraries; no paintings 
smile from their walls; no full toned choir chaunts the echoing 
melody through their vaults; no blooming garden yields its 
perfume to the longing winds. Their glorj" is cFeparted. Over- 
grown by weeds and clambering ivy, they await in silence the 
sentence of destruction, and the next generation of travellers 
will ])robal)ly be moralizing over their ruins. 

The shades of evening were gathering as we re-entered the 
Posada, and I, witli inanj" regrets, bade fai*ewcll to mj' com- 
panions. They Avere to leave for the South, and I for the Xorth 
the same night. 



CllAI'TKR XXI. 

H U II C. OS TO T ir E F H O X T F E P. . 

Journey to Pancorbo — Battle of Vitorin — French Marslials — Vitoria — The Basquos 
and tbcir Fucroa — The Pyrenees — Dangers of an Upset — Xatioual Pride — Zuiuu- 
lacarrcgui — Appearance of the People — San Sebastian — Irun — The Bidassoa — 
France. 

The road to runcorbo is uninteresting in tlie extreme, so far 
as natural beauty is concerned, and I was therefore not sorry to 
sleep through it. The diligence was late in arriving, and slill 
later in starting, so that I composed mj^self ini medial fly to rest, 
feeling renewed cause for gratilication in tiic ha})py power 
Avhich nature had bestowed upon me; and passed in unconscious 
slumber over the Inirc plains and lileak hills of old Castile, 
awaking only in the celebrated detile of Pancorbo, one of the 
most striking mountain ])asses conceivable — a S])anish Via 
Mala, wheix' a cou]»le of thousand men could protect tiiis por- 
tion of Spain against any possibility ol inxasicn li'oni the iiorlli 
until it should be tui'iied. Perpendicular rocks, live huuiired 
feet high, of fantastic shape, tower above, and threaten to ci'ush 
the ti-aveller, almost excluding the rays of the sun. Between 
them flows the rivulet Oroncillo, aiul the road contents itself 
with a narrow ledge along which to })ass. In a little chapel, 
hollowed (mt of the rock, stands an altai- to oui- Lady ol the 
Koad, who pi-eserved us through its dangers. During the night 
the clouds, collected upon the mountains, had condensed, and 
its wild grandeurs were envelo])ed in mist and occasional show- 
ers. The sun made faint etlbrts to struggle out, and spanned 
the valley with rainbows. But we were doomed to have som- 
bre weatiier until we reached Vitoria. The apjjcarance of the 
countiy beyond Pancorbo was entirely dirterent from what I 
had been seeing the last two months. It j)re8ented the evi- 
dences of a reasonable tem}»eralure and a moist climate, and in 



BATTLE OF VITORIA. 361 

consequence, the productions Avere entirol}' those of the tem- 
perate zone. Orchards, Indian corn — of a most insignificant 
size, however, compared with ours — and even green fields, at 
last reappeared. But the most charming sight of all were the 
woods, of which the Castiles are utterly denuded. The aspect 
of the population, too, changed in many respects for the better. 
There was a far greater appearance of well being, and every 
one had the air of a sniall jiroprietor, who has some interest in 
the country bej'ond his daily wages. The number of farm 
houses increased, each surrounded by the little ornaments 
which characterize a temperate region and a free country'. 
Particularly was this the case when we entered the Basque 
province of Alava. The Eliro is the geographical line between 
it and Old Castile, and Miranda, the frontier post of the Span- 
ish custom house. But if natural distinctions were allowed, 
the boundary should rather be marked by the Pass of Pan- 
corbo. 

Before reaching Yitoria we passed through the l)at(le field 
of the same name, where King Joseph and Marshal Jourdan, 
in 1813, received one of the most disgi-aceful defeats that 
ever dishonored a General. A battle it can scarcely be called, 
so far as the leaders were concerned, though the loss of nearly 
ten thousand men on both sides proved that the common sol- 
diers had stood bravel}'. The plunder was enormous, for 
Joseph spent the last moments of his pretended reign in de- 
sjioiling the people whom he would fain call his children. Jour- 
dan, like his brother marshals, had but one thought in Spain, 
that of acquiring riches by all means, whether fair or foul. So 
entirely was he demoralized, that he failed to defend with 
courage what he had procured bj* downright robbery. The 
general headquarters had more the air of an aml)ulating Itroth- 
el than a centre of command. The British held on to all the}' 
took, stolen as they knew it to be, proclaiming it lawful ])lun- 
der, though the process of reasoning I never exactly com- 
prehended, as it seemed to me that the original right of the 
SpaJiiards revived upon the recover}' of the property even by 
their allies. No age of the world has ever presented to history 
a greater average of military talent and gallantry, and at the 
same time a more complete absence of every trait that charac- 
terizes men of lofty honor and tone than that in which figured 
the marshals of Napoleon. They were for the most part chil- 



862 SPAIN AM) THE SI'AMAUnS. 

dren, not of the revolution of 1789 but of 1793; neither did they 
spring from the poojilc, but from the drog.s of the biwost soci- 
ety, formiiii^ their chanicters in a school which ij^norcd virtue 
and futurity, and thought only of the sensual enjoyment of the 
moment. There was a marked contrast between the common 
soldiers and officers who represented the people on the one 
hand, anil on the other the hii^her ranks of the army, growing 
up under the baleful shade of the Committee of Safety and tl»e 
Directory. The former were far superior to any opponents 
they met. and the Knglishman or Austrian was almost a drunk- 
en savage by comparison ; but the latter were low indeed in 
everything but their profession. Like all parvenus, their great 
ambition was to be rich, as the acquisition of blood was impos- 
sible, and to this object they sacriticcd everything, even military 
duty, as Avas painfullv e.\emplificd in the case of this very bat- 
tle of Vitoria by Jourdan. That Napoleon was aware of it, 
and regretted these excesses in a military point of view, if in 
no other, is Mel! known, Imt tliough in ap})earance absolute, 
he was compelled, like all other civilized despots, to satisfy 
public opinion around him. The war in Spain was universally 
unpopular with the army ; it was the grave of reputations that 
had stood the test of lifty battles, and many a high renown was 
shattered against the walls of Zaragoza, the Guerilleros of An- 
dalusia and the Pyrenees or the serried ranks of Wellington. 
If a victory were gained, the ceaseless efforts of the Guerilleros 
deprived it of all profit, and the Emperor's eye was not there 
to reward the gallant charge or the desj)erato resistance, lie 
was therefore obliged to wink at the extortion and avarice of 
his Marshals by way of reconciling them to the ])ainful duty 
which it was necessary that some one should perform. I had 
once thought that these disgraceful scenes were enacted only 
in Spain ; but such was not the case. The rest of Euro])e bore 
abundant marks of their ravages when away from the master's 
eye. One of the worst instances of the conduct of this school 
is mentioned by General do Brack, who says that on the retreat 
from Moscow, he saw with his own eyes a Genei-al cause the 
horses to be taken from a cannon to supply the place of those 
which had diawn his baggage wagon, laden with luxuries and 
valuables ]»lundered from the burning city. Most of us will 
agree with the (Jencral that this is the lowest depth of military 
infamy. Ney and Soult, among the best of the whole, still 



VITORIA. 363 

could not ehauo-o tlieir natures. Possessed of unques(ion[i1)lo 
militaiy talent, flie one a mere creature of impulse, lietraj-ed 
first Napoleon, then Louis XVIII; the other was innatel}' 
unreliable, and without the sense of honor or dut}'. So well 
was his character known, that before the battle of Lii^ny the 
private soldiers made bold to warn the Emperor against his 
treachery, and this was the universal estimation in Avhich ho 
was held. General Napier has kindly, and, wc may say, gal- 
lantly concealed his defects from view — but they ai-e too noto- 
rious to be forgotten. Though I have a much higher opinion 
at present of the French soldiers than of their officers, yet men 
like McMahon or St. Jean de Angelj- would never stoop to the 
commission of such acts as disgraced the children of 1703. 
The British officers in the Peninsula, however inferior to their 
opponents in capacity, Avere generally high-toned men, who 
Avould scorn to steal or rol>. Bon sang ne menf pas. The Duke 
of AVellington fortunatel}' united both moral and mental great-, 
ness, and the consequence was inevitable. Every ^larshal, 
from Soult the best, to Junot the poorest, received defeat and 
dishonor at his hands, for the French soldiers then^selves 
ceased to feel confidence in chiefs who were absorbed in their 
desire for amassing wealth. 

The entrance to Vitoria, passing by the public walks, is very 
pretty. The Alameda and the Florida arc scarcely surpassed, 
in Spain ; and the latter, with its flowers and healthy grass, and 
children running about in its alleys, possesses a new charm 
after the solemn stateliness of the rest of Spain. The ton-n 
itself is divided into two portions, the new and the old. The 
new, glorj'ing in its Avide, clean streets and lofty houses, orna- 
mented with balconied fronts, was a fair example of progress. 
There are churches and things to be shown, but the view from 
the tower of Sta. Maria over the plain, in the centre of which 
is the hillock that forms the site of the old city, is best worth 
the trouble. It affords a fine prospect over a well cultivated 
country, containing, it is said, more than one hundred villages 
and hamlets, scattered over tiie green expanse, and bounded in 
the distance by the Pj-renean s])urs which separate it from the 
neighl)oring provinces of Guipuzcoa, Burgos and Santander. 
The population is lively, much given to dancing and playing all 
sorts of athletic games in the Alameda, which is crowded on 
a Sunday afternoon with as animated a coUoction of men, 



3G4 SPAIN AN1» THK SI'AMAUDS. 

wonuMi and children as tlio world can show. I speak this from 
the expcriLMico of a previous visit ; for, upon tlie present oeca- 
sion, our dehi}' was eontined to an hour for breakfast, the 
greater part of which I spent upon the Ph\za. a tine square, 
with arcades. I remember the phice well, as having offered 
to me the first sight of a mantilhi worn in actual life. In 
leaving Vitoria for Burgos our postilion had also sjiortod a 
calailes hat, both of which arc properly 2)arts of the Andalusian 
costume, and seldom seen in the north. The costume of the 
JJasques and of all the north-west provinces is by no means so 
gay as that of the rest of Spain. The damp weather would of 
itself be enough to impose a more sober gai-b. The various 
fancy head drosses are replaced by a flat woollen cap, the bouina, 
such as is in favorite use on our plantations, being a kind of 
hybrid between a Scotch and a sailor's, and the women content 
themselves with the trcnsa, or plaited hair hanging down be- 
hind. The chocolate at the Fonda was another evidence that 
we had left Sj)ain ]>roper ; for it was cidro inaij claro, that is to 
sa}', thin, as is the fashion in France, and to me, just fren\ 
Seville, almost without taste or substance. 

The Basques arc an enduring example of the length of time 
Avhich a ])0oi)le may retain their characteristic ])i'euliarities. 
Small in number, and inhabiting a country very limited in 
extent, they have never been thoroughly subdued. Celts, Ro- 
mans, Moors, Spaniards, French, have met them, with but little 
reason to be prou<l of the encounter. For the maintenance of 
their cherished liberties (fueros) they have shrunk from no 
sacrifice. AVhen the privilege of trading with America was an 
inestimable boon, they refused to accept it at the price of the 
surrender of these fueros, though among the best seamen in 
Spain, and producing the very articles most needed for that 
trade. 'Y\\q " fueros" consisted in the right of self-government 
and freedom from the c<;nscri)ition, the customs, the excise on 
stamped pajjcr and tobacco, and from individual taxation. In 
war they were to rise en masse, and their i'air proportion to the 
support of the central Clovernment was to be levied by their 
own assemblies. The King of Spain was Lord of Biscay, and 
as such tlieir leader. The oak of Guernica, under wliicli the 
assemblies were held, is the symbol of their freetlom, and is 
engraven on the heart of every Basque. This portion of the 
Peninsula used to be treated as Tyi'ol, in the Austrian Empire. 



THE TYRENEES. 365 

But its extraordinaiy exemptions are quite against tlie spirit of 
modern nionarcli}'. Any premature attempt, howevei*, to in- 
corporate it definitely witli Spain must be followed by furious 
couvulsions. They show the advantage of free government. 
Robbers and office seekers are compai'atively unknown. A 
charming simplicity reigns in their life. The men are honest 
and industrious, the women virtuous and loyal; and, though 
they do not arouse j^our ontliusiasm or touch your heart as the 
Andalusians, you feel they are fully entitled to^'our admiration 
and respect. 

Soon after leaving Yitoria, we commenced ascending the 
Sierra of Elgu, for which it was necessary to hitch on three 
5'oke of oxen, two under the charge of boys, and one conducted 
by a brisk, skinny old Avoman — all of Avhom worked with a 
hearty good will. The oxen were not large, but appeared well 
trained and intelligent, and their treatment was humane, which, 
in my experience, is always evidence of an enlightened system 
of agricultui-e. On the other side of the ridge is the province 
of Guipuzcoa, Ij'ing to the north of the great P3'renean chain, 
or, rather, in the midst of it, and emptying its waters into the 
Bay of Bisca}'. The Devu rises at the foot of the pass, and 
rivals the streams of Switzerland in the purity of its waters. 
On both sides of the Sierra the scenery is entirely pastoral. 
The vast prospect-views of the Castiles and the grand inspiring 
solitudes of the Andalusian mountains j-ield to a country of 
unsurpassed beauty, in the style of the Pyrenees, whose pre- 
cipitous sides are covered with the green of Ireland. Such 
scenery is certainly very pleasing; but your thoughts never 
rise to the height of sublimity, and 3'our feelings are as cir- 
cumscribed as your vision. Be that as it may, there are few 
prettier valley's than that of the Deva. The Celtic scholars say 
that Cantabria — Centiberia — the ancient name for this portion 
of Spain, is to be derived from Kent-AI>cr, the "corner of 
Avater," just as Celtiberia — Kelt-aber — the Celts of river, and 
Havre, or Aber, and Aber-dcen, and various other places in 
Europe derive their names, Kent being the corner, as in the 
County of Kent in England, and Abcro-Aln*o-p]bro, being 
the river itself, all of which would seem to be in direct conflict 
with Humboldt's theory that the Basques were the original 
Iberians; for, if so, the}' would never have allowed a foreign 
name to be given exclusively to the country of which they only 



3'36 SPAIN AND TIIK SPANIARDS. 

were in possession. Tlio aiipropriatcness of tlio ikhuo would 
seem to justily the Celtic derivation ; for, while the rest of 
Spain has always sulTered from want of moisture, and often* 
times been desolated 1)}' dron<i;hts, there is a never-failin-:; siip- 
Yi\y of rain in all the north-west corner, and the purest trout 
streams are in superabundance. This continuation of the Pyr- 
enees, ]»arallel to the Bay of Biscay, seems naturally to attract 
the clouds, l»ut all on the northern si<le. The 15asques have 
generally much faii-er coinjilexioiis than is usual in the other 
portions of tlie IV'iiiiisuhi. a circumstance which some have 
attributed to the influence of ^'orman blood, whereas, ft)llow- 
ing the universal law of nature, it is caused sim])ly by the 
moisture of the climate. Remove them to La Maiuha for a 
ft'W <^eiieratioiis, and all distinijuishini^ marks of complexion 
Avould soon disap])ear. Lieutenant (Jibbon, in his explorini^ 
expedition over the Andes, notices the same fact that on the 
west of the Cordilleras, where it seldom rains and the sky is 
unclouded, the ladies resemble the Spanish in comi)lexion ; 
whereas, on the east, amid the continued showers and dampness 
brought over by the south-eastern trade winds, they are as fair 
as in German}'. 

Our company had been reduced to a good lady of some fifty 
years "y j)ico" in the bcrliHa, who appeared the soul of kind- 
ness, and another lad}- and a French Commis in the interior. 
I'arl of our way lay upon (juite a steep precipice overhanging 
the river without a parajiet. As luck wt)uld have it, the pos- 
tilion's horse was a miserable-tempered beast, which took a 
fancy of stopj)ing short at occasional intervals and kic-king the 
rest of the animals toward the river. Kvery such pi'i-lormance 
produced a volley of oaths in lln-ee languages from the ban- 
quette, and considerable commotion in the interior, with the 
protrusion of an alarmed })hysiognonn' at each Avindow. My 
companion's e([uaniinity began to give wa}' at these signs of 
fear, and though she had instructed me in the morning ujjon 
the subject of rainbows, informing me gravely that they sucked 
u]) the water, liei- ])liilosopliy failed to give her assurance upon 
the edge of a preeijnce. In response to her inquiries as to the 
danger of an upset, 1 gave her the Turkish consolation that 
we could die but once, and that it was the mayoral's business, 
not oui-s, to guard against accidents. Half convinced, she 
recovered the natural courage of a Spanish woman. Not so, 



BASQUE NATIONAL TRIDE. 367 

however, in the interior ; once wo approached nearer than 
usual to the edge, and suddenly open flew the door, outburst 
the hidy, followed by the Commis, sacre-ing most fearfully, and 
vowing that he was not in the least frightened for himself, but 
only for "cette pauvre dame." With difficulty the}'- were per- 
suaded to enter again, the Frenchman swearing that at the 
next station he would give the postilion a bit of his mind, 
which he did in desperately bad Spanish, opening the attack, 
however, very flnely, by calling hini a p-n-t-rro. But was there 
ever such a Tartar! The jiostilion, as soon as he compre- 
hended the object of his assailant, gave back as good as he got, 
repaying his debt with such interest that the capital seemed 
to double with every ten words. Fortunately, the road-bed 
was not shaken, and we continued the journey in safety. 

It was Sunday, and the road was thronged with persons well 
dressed and of pleasant countenance. Numerous solidly-built 
villages, with sounding names — Castanares, Escoriaza, Arech- 
avaleta, Mondragon, were scattered along the valley. At Ver- 
gara, celebrated for the Convention which put an end to the 
civil Avar and procured for Espartero the title of Duke de la 
Victoria, we left the Deva, and, appealing again to oxen, crossed 
the ridge which separates the valle}- from that of the Ureta. 
On my first entry into Spain in 1851, the only other passenger 
%vas a political exile, an old Carlist and a thorough Biscayen, 
■\vho was returning after a long absence, his heart filled .with 
the glories of his native land, upon which he dwelt with much 
em])liasis, pointing out the various tilings worthy of admira- 
tion. While ascending this ridge we had stopped at a farm-house 
to get a glass of milk, which Avas really very fine and worthy 
of all praise; but, in the midst of his eulogy upon Ba.sque 
milk and liutter in general, nn- attention was unfortunatcl}' 
attracted by a wooden plough, a sort of stick, the jirccise 
counterpart of the one represented in the school ])icture liis- 
tory as held bj' Cincinnatus. lie was a little confounded when 
he caught sight of this implement, but soon recovei'ing, waved 
his hand majcsticall}' toward the obnoxious object, exclaiming 
" the classic plough !" I was puzzled at first to know whether 
he was serious or jesting, but never was a man more in earn- 
est. This was only patriotism, a very good quality in itself, 
carried to an exaggeration, for lie Avas not only polite but even 
kind, considering that 1 was a 3'ouug stranger, not very famil- 



368 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

iar either with the laniruago or the peojile, and, at his home in 
Vitoria, he afforded me opportunities of seeing tlie working 
of things, which a formal letter of introduction Mould scarcely 
have ijrocured. 

At Villa-real wc dined or lunched upon a superh dish of trout, 
just caught before the village inn and scarcely dead. How 
many an old epicure would have made the journey expressly 
for that enjoyment ! Appealing once more to our oxen, wo 
crossed into the valley of the Oria, passing by the village of 
Ormaiztcgui, where Zuniahuarregui, the Carlist General, was 
born. This remarkable man is little known in America, and 
as he supjiorted an unsuccessful cause, his reputation in Europe 
is waning. Init there were few greater liorn in the eighteenth 
century. A larger field or more romantic times only were 
recpiisite to make him a hero in the history of the Avorhl. An 
officer of the arm}- at the death of Ferdinand, he espoused the 
cause of Don Carlos and was its main support. Taking his sta- 
tion in the Basque provinces and gathering up a handful of 
peasants, he cast cannon, armed his troops from the spoils of 
his enemies, and subjected every army that approached to igno- 
minious defeat. The laurels of Mina himself, the invincible 
Mina, wilted in this contest. But the hand of resistless fate 
was interposed to arrest his progress, and when he was prepar- 
in"- to march upon Madrid a stray l>all at the siege of Bilbao 
relieved them from the unconquerable foe. Had he been dis- 
posed, like most leaders of civil war, to accept a compromise, 
lie would have received dukedoms and countships Mithout 
number; yet the chieftain who wielded, one may alnu^st say 
the destiny of his country, left scarcely enough to inter him. 
This is the stuff of which true heroes are made. The higli road 
from Vitoria to Ernani, near San Sebastian, jxisses through a 
country every foot of which was contested, not once only but 
frequently. One of Zuniahu arregui's greatest victories was 
just here about his birthplace, ly which he foiled the well laid 
iilans of four times his lunnber, led ly the best of the Chris- 
tianist <aMierals, to envelo]) liim in a ti-ap. After his death the 
(^arlist army continued to ie>i>t with like success. Even the 
British legion of auxiliaries, commanded by General Evan.s, 
which were to sweep them off the face of the earth, met 
nothing but humiliation. At Ernani it made a "reconnaissance 
poussee unpen trop loin" and was utterly defeated. Several other 



APPEARANCK OF THK PEOPLE. 369 

'' reconnaissances" were niadc with tlic like result. Tlie sur- 
prising resistance made by the J^asqiies in their mountain fast- 
ne.sses against tlie united opposition of Spain, France and 
England, finds its onl}^ parallel in the exploits of Marian among 
the SAvamps of our own country. Between the two heroes there 
was a striking resemblance of character. Both Avore upon the 
highest tone of honor. Chivalrous, unselfish, indifferent to the 
charms of wealth or luxury, they moved with a single purpose 
of patriotism. Appearing u])<)u the theatre of action in the 
midst of prostration and despondency they restored confidence, 
created armies, and with naked, starving soldiers gained victo- 
ries over troops who enjoyed every advantage that money 
could procure. Whether Marion would have displayed also 
the talents of a (reneral is not known, as his force was always 
small. Zumalacarregui was more fortunate in opportunity, 
but both will fill an enviable place in histor}-, and in their deeds 
will offer fit subjects for the Muse of succeeding generations. 

The sk}' had now cleared, and the whole population were out 
of doors amusing themselves. The men gathered at the fives 
court, which appears to be a universal amusement here, as it 
iised to be in the Carolinas; the elderly females seated around 
little tables playing cai-ds. I tried, but without success, to 
make out the game. The sin was doubtless venial as the 
stakes were decidedl}' low, seldom exceeding three coppers. 
An abundant fund of good humor seemed to be at the di.sposal 
of the players. The valley of the Oria is densely populated, 
and contains a very considerable number of manufiictories and 
forges, the iron being plentiful and good. These mountains 
abound in it, and that of Somorostro is, I believe, the most 
malleable in the world. The country is distinguished through- 
out by marks of prosperity and content. Tolosa, its ca])ital, 
is a beautiful town, beautifully situate, and is becoming an 
excursion city for fishing parties from the watering places 
around the Bay of liisca}'. Several fat Frenchmen were walk- 
ing about, looking exceedingly foreign and un-at-home. 

After leaving Tolosa, we enjoj-ed the jdeasure of hearing a 
quarrel in the JJasque tongue, the veritable Fuskara, between 
our niaj'oral and some lazy fellows who had been swinging 
behind the diligence. Of all the incompreliensible sounds that 
ever issued from the throat of man these were the most 
astounding. First one, then another, then altogether, com- 
25 



370 PPAIN ANI^ TIIK SIWNIAUP.S. 

moncinuj in a lii^h \i*.^y, and cndini; in u low one or vii-e versa, 
liroiidsidos of consonants were disc-harmed ai^ainst each other, 
with destructive ettect, at least so far as reixards the distortion 
of the c(»nntenancc. Once a bonih. thirteen inch at least, 
hurst in the mouth of one of the mortars, and produced a vio- 
lent tit of cou<fliing, which was music compared with the 
noises that had preceded. It is said tiiat the devil was ]ii(pied, 
ahout the time of tlie i>irt]i of Ahel, with an anihition of learn- 
in*; this Iani!;ua«;e, for which purpose he resi(le<l at Hilhao seven 
years, and in all that time ac(|uired three words. His children 
have succeeded no better. The liasques say that it was the 
hone^'cd phrases of the Euskara which Adam whisjiered into 
the listenin«r ear of Eve. It has certainly ])uzzled ])hilol()ti:ists, 
and the leai'ned investigations of Ilumholdt, Larramendi and 
others, have only establislied that it is a fully, nay exuberantly 
developed lan<:!;ua<j:;e without a coj^natc uj)on the earth. Like 
lill lanj^uages which have ceased to convej' the mandates of 
political power, it is doomed eventually to disappear. In some 
])arts of Biscay it is still tiie onl}' speech, but the Spanish is 
creeping in. On the French side of the Biilassoa, the ]>rogress 
is even more rapid. A gentleman from that jiai't of France 
t<»ld me that he and his lirotliei- had established a ]iri/.e for 
imj)r(jvization in the hiUskara, but the tendency to extinction 
could n(jt lie an-ested. In the mouths of the mayoral and his 
opponents, howevei", it gave no signs of decay. Our (piarri'l 
had continued some minutes, when the ])assengers, apjjrehen- 
sive let+t so much thundering might cause a shower, insisteii 
U|)on ])roccediiig. and conipai-ative (inlet was re-established in 
the valley of the Oria. Another mountain ridge was then 
crossed into the valley of the Urumea, which we descended 
until, about dusk, a cast le crowned (iniiiencc was descried 
rising steeply from the waters of the Hay of Bisca}*, and a few 
minutes afterward we entered the fortress gate of San Sebas- 
tian. 

The situation of San Sebastian is commanding, both in a 
inilitary and commercial jioint of view. Sebastian and Cadiz, 
at the two extremities of Spain, have both been approj)riately 
compared to Venus rising from the sea. It is built on a nar- 
row neck of land connecting the immense rock — some four 
hundred feet high, called ]\rount Orgullo, upon which stands 
the castle — with the maiidand. The French seized it during 



I 



SAN SEBASTIAN. — IRUN. 371 

the Peninsula war. From them it was taken by the Britisli b}^ 
storm. Tli()ui;-h an allied town, being S^^anish, and thou_i!;]i the 
Spanish contingent at that very time were nobl}- jiroteeting 
the besiegers against the efforts of Soult at San Mareial, it was 
sacked with a ferocity unparalleled even among savages, and 
was finall}' burnt. The English officers did their utmost here, 
as at Badajoz, to restrain the excesses of the soldiers, but in 
vain. At the latter place, the Duke of Wellington was com- 
pelled to flee, lest he should be shot by the infuriated demons. 
As may be imagined, the English are held here in utter abom- 
ination, and are considered the Cagots of the world. The 
burning had, however, the good effect of causing the town to 
be relniilt in fine style, with clean streets and regular houses, 
though the confined space causes them to be rather higher 
than consorts with S})anisli customs. The harbor is ver}' se- 
cure but rather small, and, they sa}^, difficult of access. As 
a military post it is of the first importance. No enemy could 
safel}- invade this portion of Spain without first securiug pos- 
session of it. The view of the P^'renees and of the sea from 
the castle in the afternoon, when the peaks of the giant chain 
are tipped with fire, and the little town at its foot, with the 
placid harbor, are shrouded in vast shadows, is indeed magnifi- 
cent. The people of San Sebastian being engaged in foreign 
commerce have not so many prejudices as their neighbors, and 
are quite disj)0sed to give and receive. I speak again, however, 
from tiie recollections of the previous visit, for upon this occa- 
sion my view did not extend beyond the street, and my con- 
versation was confined to the landlady and her daughter, a 
buxom, bustling lassie, with health and energ}- enough for a 
dozen lives. 

After an hour's delay we repassed tlu' fortified entrance, and 
whirling along the Alameda, over Avhich swept a delicious 
breeze from the sea, commenced ascending the high country 
that lies between this and Irun. We w<»und around the Bay of 
Los Pasages, which is so C(>m])lctel3' lan<l-locked as to ajipear a 
hike, and finally came to the little town of Irun, the last in 
Spain, situate upon a loft}' hill that overlooks the opposite 
shore of the Bidassoa. For the first time since my cntr}- by 
the Puerto dc lienasque, I heard the word " passport" from the 
mouth of an official. I handed it to him. It was an old one 
well supplied Avith visas of a past generation, a couple of bun- 



372 Sl'AlN AM) THK SPANIARDS. 

dredor more, and sccmuhI to puzzle him aniazin«jjly as he tnruod 
it first ono side and then aiiothor, hut tl>ore had not been the 
scrape of a Spanish pen within the hist six years at least, lie 
looked at nie, an<l then thon<;ht of the little fee which he 
deniaiuls of travellers on their leavini^ Sjtain, as though tliat of 
itself <lid not render one suiHciently niiscrahle, and finally con- 
cluded, with the help of a small hoy and a dim lantern, that all 
was right. It wa.s formerly the hahit, also, to search the bag- 
gage at Irun, lest specie should be carried out and the country 
thus impoverished, but sounder teaching has shown that noth- 
ing is so useless to a country as the overplus of coin, so that wo 
were allowed to carry out all that we might have the good 
fortune to possess. 

The whole population of Irun seemed to he in the streets or 
on the balconies. As it is the first town upon entering Spain, 
and otfers a marked contrast to the Bayonne side, travellers 
are apt to remember it. Some difticulty had, on my first visit, 
detained us there a couple of hours, and in that time I became 
])ractically acquainted with several little Spanish customs 
Mhich I have since i)ut to good use. One was, that on wishing 
to pay for my chocolate, J lound the tK-bt hail been discharged 
by an unknown friend. J had Ibrgotten this peculiarity of 
Spanish manners, and for some time could not comprehend why 
the Mozo would not receive ni}- money, thinking thei-e must be 
some mistake. In our own countr}", I fear the waiter would have 
condescendingly received jiay fi-om both pai-ties. My comjian- 
ion in the berliila was ;u<|uaiMti(l in \]\c town and proposed 
that I should accomj)any him on a visit, which I, nothing loth, 
agreed to. An elderly lad}- and a younger one called at the 
house while we were there. The latter smote me through at 
once. She was of medium lu-iglit, beautifully rt)unded b)rm, 
rcular features, daik Iciir, and jjcarly teeth peeping from 
behind a pair of rosy lips. As her large, lustrous eyes fell upon 
me, 1 thought I had never seen anything to resemble her upon 
earth, and began to fear that a death stroke bad at last been 
received. But Andalusia had not then been seen. 1 woidd 
have been glad to meet once more the fair maid of Irun, in 
order to compare her with the daughters of the Guadalquivir. 
Perhaps, though, it was loiiiinate that I did not, as the sight <»f 
half a dozen young additional Basques would have spoilt, or at 
least marred the romance sadly. 



THE BRIDGE OF THE BIDASSOA. 373 

The diligence rattled down the steep eminence to the Bidas- 
soa, which we wei*e to cross on the famous frontier bridge that, 
could it speak, might tell such eventful talcs. How many a 
steel-bristling battalion and plumed squadron passed that 
bridge never to return ! How often has the tide of battle raged 
over this ver}- little stream, now so placid, with the thousand 
stars of the milky way glittering from its bosom! and all to 
gratify the selfish ambition of worms like themselves ! But 
these are trite reflections, though peculiarl}' appropriate to 
the locality. To say that I regretted the necessity of leaving 
Spain would bo superfluous. Seven times had the orange 
bloomed since I first set foot upon her soil, yet it now seemed 
to me as of yesterday". Enjoj'ment, far bej'ond the most san- 
guine expectations, had fallen to mj- lot. The romantic dreams 
of 3'outh seemed to be half fulfilled, and no subsequent events of 
life, however untoward, could deprive me of those pleasing 
recollections. As we approached the bridge, a guardia civil 
opened the door Avith ^-Ildgan me vvm. el favor de siis pasaportesy 
Satisfied with the inspection, the}' were returned. At the 
entrance to the bridge stood the Spanish sentinel in national 
3'ellow and red, with dark ej'cs and moustache. A couple of 
dozen steps bi'ought us to another, a sandy bearded sentimi in 
familiar red pantaloons, the imperial eagle sjiread upon his hat; 
at the same moment the door was opened again, but this time 
Avith ^' Vos passeports, 3£essi€urs, S. V. P." We were in P'rance. 



THAI'TKR XXTl. 

GEN H II A L. 

Political Divisions — States Rights — Self-Estccm ami Loyally — Fonlinanil VII — 
Tho Carlisls— Revolution of 1854— Espartcro—O'Donnel— The Nohility— (Inin- 
decs — Number — Character — Liberality in Politics — Wealth and Poverty — The 
Spanish People — Dignity and Worth — Middle and Industrial Classes — Pride — 
Indolence — Want of Respect for Life — Independence of ^loney — Heggars. 

The Spanish Empire was compai'cd by Etliimiul ]iiirke to a 
whale stranded u])on the sea-sliore. In his time, the eoin])arison 
was not inai)pi'()priate. Exliausted with a life of unwonted 
activity-, it lay sui>inely inert, scarcely heeding the current as 
it whirled past. But the present century has witnessed tho 
passage of fearful storms over the political surface of the Pen- 
insula, which have lashed its waters into fuiy, and seemingly 
threatened the destruction of all existing institutions. Since 
1888 many revolutions have taken place, whose causes and 
results have seldom been accurately comprehended by for- 
eigners. Here, as elsewhere, rages the conflict of two ideas — 
tlie one that mankind are made for government, the other that 
government is made for mankind; and were Spain isolated from 
the rest of Europe, Ihe troiiblcil watn-s would soon subside 
into reasonaltie quiet. But the neighborhood of Ei'ance intro- 
duces two other ideas, antagonistic in themselves, which have 
KUKill following, yet whose adherents take advantage of every 
commotion to make themselves felt. These two latter schools 
resemble each other in this, that both, nominall}'^ democi-titic, 
undertake to shape the destiny of every citizen through the 
agency of a great central power — prescribing what he shall 
do, and what he shall not do, and for the free will of the indi- 
vidual substituting tho opinion of an Emperor or of a committee 
of safety. It is difficult to say which of them is most in con- 
tradiction to the sentiments of the great body of tho Spanish 



SARTORIUS. THEIR SELF-ESTEEM AND EQUALITY. o(5 

nation ; yet that they exert considerable influence bj' i>;etting 
upon the end of tlic lever is undeniable. vSartorius was a dis- 
ciple of the first, and attempted, b}^ means of a coup d'etat and 
force, to rule throuirh the more edicts of a sovereign. His 
ministry was overthrown by counter violence at Vicalvaro and 
in the streets of the capital, and it is to be hoped that he and 
his followers are buried for ever. The mob of Madrid, headed 
b}" Pucheta, the bull fighter, attempted the second b}' similar 
violent means, and were similarl}'^ overthrown. Neither had 
the slightest sympathy in the heart of the population, who 
silently looked on rather as spectators than as participators in 
the drama. 

If there be one trait in the Spanish character more strongly 
develoj)ed than another, it is self-esteem, a conviction of his 
rights, and his dignity as a man and a Spaniard, and for that 
reason alone. In comparison with this, all the accidents of 
birth, wealth and ottice are as nothing. A certain degree of 

" Or? 

respect is acknowledged and paid to some of these accidents, 
but it is a respect of form, and confined within very narrow 
limits. Hence comes the pi'actical equality that reigns among 
all classes, manifested even in the jealous application of Usted, 
a contraction of Vuestra Merced (your worship), as a style of 
address which is used to Counts and street sweepers alike, 
though the title may be recognized occasionally as an ap]iella- 
tive — a strange contrast to the Teutonic nations, where French 
is sometimes found convenient to avoid the eternal recurrence 
of Durchlant, Iloheit, Excelenz, Grace, Lordship, and other 
relics of a barbarous social system. In the Austrian service I 
believe the proper use of "Du" and "Sie" is made a matter of 
military regulation. I<]ven in Italy, the distinctive sl\-le3 of 
addressing equals, su])eriors and inferiors is still to a certain 
extent retained. All this is utterly unknown in Sjiain. If a 
S])anish boot-black were addressed as "Thou" instead of lasted, 
"your worship," he would be at a loss to comprehend the use of 
a grammatical form, which is expressive only of tender affec- 
tion, and would attribute it to an ignorance of the language — 
not to an assumption of superiority. The origin of this exter- 
nal qualit)' must be sought in their history. From the time of 
Pelayo, personal slavery among Christians was scarcely known 
in the Castiles, unless it were in the Scigneurics bordering upon 
France, where the feudal svstem took some root. The nature 



37G SPAIN AM) TIIK SPAMAIIDS. 

of the roli^^ions wars, carried on nnooasiu<rly witli the Moors, 
rendered inipossilile an>- other distinetion of persons than tliat 
of faith and of individual prowess. The road to wealth, power 
and reputation was open to everyone who chose to make a 
guccessful fora}- against these invadei's. The downfall of the 
Moorish power was followed hy the discovery of America — a 
still wider tield for natural talents, where every European was 
a demigod, and mere pig-hei"ds, such as Pizarro, could acquire 
kingdoms. To this sense of personal dignity, the pre-eminence 
of their country under Charles and I'liilip, atlded a national 
j)ride, little in liiii-iiioiiy with its fallen fortunes of the present 
day. An amusing instance is iiarrate<l of this during the reign 
of Louis XIV. When the Sjwmish nohles were signing their 
adhei-enee to his descendant, their King, they respectively 
aftixed to their names the words "as nohle as the King," and 
one ad<led ''y algo mas," at which a hori-ilied French courtier 
exclaimed, "Surely you do not think youi- family more ancient 
than the ]k)urbons?" "Yon forget, sir, that /am a C-astillian," 
was the reply. 

The States rights jirinciijle is jtrofoundly ingrained in the 
Spanish heart — far more than in the United States. Though 
the foundatidii of llieii- charaeler l»e the same, the differences 
are striking, and are marked hy the houndary lines of the jyro- 
vinces, which seem to be moral as well as geographical fron- 
tiers. Kov have these differences as yet yielded to the influence 
of railroads and mutual emigration. The Catalans are indus- 
trious, energetic and irlx-liioiis. The .\ragonese, pt'rtinaciiMis, 
firm, even obstinate, and at times ([uarrclsome. Tlu- \ alen- 
ciaiis. hard working, fond of amusement , lull of genius, but j>ass 
quickly from one extreme to another, and aiv prone to the 
shedding of idood. Tlu- (iallicians and Astui-ians, wt-il disposed, 
industrious, honest as the day is long, and easily satisfied. The 
Castillian, serious, formal in demeanor, dignified, consistent, 
and worth}- of entire confidence. Tlu' .\ndaliisian. gay, grace- 
ful, imaginative, enthusiastic, exuberant in genius, a charming 
companion, and entirely opposed to unnecessary labor. There 
is little love lost between these various provinces. Spain has 
felt in her civil wars the evil effect of this want of unity, for 
evei-y such difference is apt to assume a sectioinil aspect. Thus 
till- party of Don Carlos was almost confined to ]iiscay, Na- 
varre and Aragon. But, on the other hand, it saved the 



LOYALTY. 377 

countiyin the great contest with Najioleon, -who vainly tliouglit 
Spain conquered with tl)c capture of ^ladrid, just as Kossuth 
mistook the mob of New York, jelling at his carriage wheels, 
for the great American people. The necessities of modern 
times have required that the bond of union should be drawn 
closer, but Narvaez and his successors proceeded too far in 
that direction, and one of the good actions of the present 
Ministr}' has been to undo their work and to restore vigor to 
the extremities. Such is evidently the path of true statesman- 
ship. Unit}' to a certain extent is consistent with the feelings 
of the nation, and having a natural, not an artificial origin, can 
be ]>rescrvcd without violence. Commerce, aided by railroads 
and the telegraph, will bind it firml}' enough Avithout recourse 
to the vulgar acts of force and the army and navy; the great 
jiostal and railroad lines in which the central government is 
interested, the immense herd of officers, who derive their 
appointment from the same source, will consolidate its power 
sufficientl}' for all purposes of good, while the strong local 
attachment and intense personality of the Spaniard Avill pre- 
vent him from becoming a floating Proletariat, and justif}- a 
considerable delegation of ijrovincial powers. He is intensely 
conservative also, and much more disposed to submit to the 
past than to the varying whim of any man or set of men, 
however great their pretensions to wisdom, which disposition 
is, indeed, an invariable characteristic of those who prize indi- 
vidual liberty and hate des]>otism. 

Of all the countries in Kurope, therefore, Spain seems to mc 
the best fitted for a republic, and the Spaniards to ]iosscss most 
happily the combination of national, local and personal pride, 
which fits men for living in an organized community, with the 
advantages of self-government. Yet the chances for any such 
results are small, for though the present Queen has lost all iiold 
upon the respect of the nation, the Spaniard is b}' nature 
lojal. Attachment to the .'sovereign is essentially a part of his 
character, and it is surprising with liow much JcnienC}* they 
treat her frailties, and with hnw much delicacj- she is s])ared 
even in the Puerta del Sol. I Avas at Seville when 3Ierino 
attempted her life. There was but one sentiment in the popu- 
lation high or low ; the word " infame " resounded throughout 
the city, though the government was at the lime tending in a 
mo5t unpopular direction, and peculiarly odious to that prov- 



378 SPAIN AM) THE srANIAllDS. 

ince. The idea of u republic enters into tlie heads of very few. 
Indeed, tlie conduct of the so-called republicans of the Fau- 
bourg; St. Anloine. in June. 1S4S, has brouicht discredit upon 
the very name, and I'rii^htened or disgusted all except the lol- 
lowers of Kspartero and Cavaignac, who are really republi- 
cans, that is to say, they believe that liberty consists in the 
absence of tyranny and unnecessary control, not in a mere 
change (jfrnastcrs; that power begets ojipression, and that that 
govern ntent is best which governs the least — necessary to pre- 
serve llu' society for whicli it was established. It may be said 
that the whole ot French ])olitics vibrales bi'tween the two 
extremes, and the sole question is, who shall rule us? For as 
J)e Toc<iueville truly ren)arks, the only ertect of the frequent 
revoluti(jn8 of the last half century has been to substitute the 
red cap, the golden and the iron crown successively for each 
other. Ever}' party as it ascends the seat of power, adopts the 
same means antl manner of government. The Bil)liollie<iue 
Xationale becomes the Bibliotheque Royale or Imperiale; 
otherwise little alteration is visible. In Spain thei'c is no 
question as to who shall be King. Nearly all have settled 
down upon the present Queen and the Cortes. IJut the questiou 
warmly contested, is /io<r shall we be ruled y and this involves 
the ])ractical distinctions of Spanish jjoliticsT 

The i)atriots of the War ot Independence, who found llieiu- 
selves at Cadiz deserted by their cowardly monarch, and 
charged with the duty of governing the country, at least the 
jiortion of it which was pi'cserved from the invader, set about 
forming a constitution rather in the spirit of philosiqihers, 
dealing with abstract principles, than as statesmen, and gave 
birth to the instrument of 1S12, which might have answered 
the purp(»se well enough had they also enjoyed the ])Ower of 
creating a luiticjn to suit their constitution. Hut taking the 
S|)aniards as they were, hampei'ed with the relics of ancient 
and irreconcilable institutions, it was uttci'ly unfitted for the 
j)urpose, and has always failed when ]Mit in ju-actice. Upon 
his restoration, Fei-fjinand, who, if devoid of the courage of his 
great ancestors, inherited their arbitrary nature. Bourbon-like, 
Ibrgetting nothing and learning nothing, subverted their labors 
and treated the members of the convention as his greatest 
enemies. Persecution became the oi'der of the day, and every 
evil tiling that a contest of six years had swej»t away was 



DON CARLOS. 370 

restored; even the Inquisition resumed its autliority. In 1820, 
a reaction took place, and tlie pendulum swung to the op])osito 
extreme. The philosophic hands of Martinez de le Rosa, pure 
as snow themselves, were unahle to restrain the violence of liis 
part}-. This charmin/2; writer, and excellent parliamentarian, 
was deticient in the stern determination of a revolutionary 
leader, imposing the law not on]}- upon his enemii'S but his 
friends. Personally brave himself, and read}* to die at any 
moment, in defence of the good cause, he yet belonged rather 
to the class of martj-rs than of heroes. Disorder ran wild. 
The blood of innocent priests and helpless old monks detiled 
the garments of liberty, until the Duke of Angouleme cantered 
through the Peninsula, without a hand being raised in defence 
of this abortive revolution. From that time, until the death of 
el Ixeij ahsoluto, a perpetual gloom overhang the nation. What- 
ever it possessed of intelligence or virtue languished in exile. 
At length, to the inexpressible relief of humanity, el Key abso- 
luto was gathered to his ancestors in the Escorial, and then 
arose a civil war, which, in the origin of its parties and the 
various motives of the combatants, was unique. The King, in 
dying, bequeathed the realm to his daughter, for the sham 
Cortes is not worthy of mention. His brother, Don Carlos, 
claimed the throne by virtue of the fundamental salic law, which 
liad been established upon the entr^^ of the Bourbons. The 
Liberal party su])ported Christina and her daughter; the Abso- 
lutists, Don Carlos, so that, according to appearances, the roles 
were reserved, those who were in favor of a free government 
shedding their blood in defence of the right of Ferdinand to 
Avill awa^'the country at his death, and the Absolutists uphold- 
ing the established law against the despotism of this royal pre- 
rogative. But the contest was really \ory different. Christina 
JKVving neither law nor reason to sustain her, was compelled to 
court the men of ISli', who with their sympathizers, accepted 
the overture, l)ringing to her support nearly- the whole of 
Spain. The Alj.solutists were so(m subdued. But the Basque 
provinces, seeing in the centralizing tendencies of the new 
trovernment, a dan<rer to their local and ancestral liberties, 
rallied under the heroic Zumahicarregui around their fueros to 
which, as well as other existing institutions, the programme of 
Don Carlos offered protection. With these went Aragon and 
Catalonia rather from a general disposition to rebel, than from 



380 SPAIN ANP Tin: spaniauhs. 

any svmnatliv with absolutism. The loss of Zinnalacarreffui 
by a chance shot before Bilbao, was a death blow to the hopes 
of Don Carlos, and the convention of Veri^ara completed the 
ruin of the Absolutist party, willi their i<h'as of Divine rii^ht. 
The victors jjradually fell into the inevital)le division of those 
who are almost content with things as they are — the ^lotlera- 
dos — and those who are in favor of a stead}' progressive move- 
ment — the Progrcsistas. Of course, the extreme Aloderados 
were so a])prehensive of going ahead, that they went l)ack- 
ward, and the extreme Progresistas were in favor of dispens- 
ing with every thing except the locomotive itself. In the 
course of events, all reasonable apprehension of the Carlists 
having disap]>eared. the Moderados became more deciiledly 
pronounced for their favorite policy of guarding against the 
dangers of license by strengthening the central power, and 
gradually absorbed the outskirts of the C'arlist part3\ Success 
crowned their exertions. Espartero Hed for his life, and Xar- 
vaez, a man of consummate ability, finally assumed the reins. 
Things went on steadily in this direction until Sartorius 
made a deliberate attenijit to overthrow liberty and re-estab- 
lish the govei'nnient of I'liilip 11. Tlie revolution of lsr)4 
hurled him into tiie ab3-ss of inliimy. The revohition was 
commenced b}' O'Donnel and the other military chieftains, but 
they having faiiL<l in tlieir first effort, the molt of Mmhid took 
it iji hand, and the (Jovernment, true to its centralized imbe- 
cility, having nothing to rely upon but unreliable soldiers, and 
still more unreliable officers, 8uccuml)cd to t\\e populacho of the 
capital, as such (Jovernments always will do, sooner or later. 
Sartorious and Christina escaped paying the penalty of their 
treason. "The life of the one and the ill-gotten wealth of the 
other were justl}' forfeited to their outraged countrj*. O'Don- 
nel, doubtless much to his disgust and astonishment, found, 
himself the hero of a mob. \^\\i the universal voice of the 
nation called for Espartero, who, with unfeigned reluctance, left 
his retirement at Logrofio, and attempted anew to shape the 
destinies of his countr}-. Old TJeni'i-al Saii Miguel had by his 
personal jiopularit}' ari'ested the mob when, in their thirst for 
blood, they marched to the ])alace ilenianding the lives of 
the royal family. But the task of stemming the c-urrent, 
finally and effectually fell to Es|)artcro, who with infinite diffi- 
cult}-, succeeded in so doing, and in mooring the storm tossed 



ESPARTERO. — o'dONNEL. 381 

vessel once more in safety. This done, tlie Avlieel of fickle 
fortune a<;-ain revolved, and he was relegated to his mountain 
reti-eat. O'Douuel stepped into the vacant phiee, and thus lar 
has nianag-ed to sustain his position. 

The life of, Espartero has been a chequered one. With none 
of the usual advantages of fortune or birth, he has twice been 
hailed as the saviour of his country, and twice has he been 
driven from almost sovereign power without in any degree for- 
feiting the esteem of the nation. He possesses the two virtues, 
rare among European statesmen, of truth and honesty. Sin- 
cerely attached to the principles of constitutioiuil libert}-, he 
has endeavored, Avhen elevated to office, to carry 'them into 
practice. 1 am sorry to believe tliat Napoleon was half right 
in saying that this is not the age for Washingtons. Europe 
seems to need and to desire tlie hand of iron, even if the velvet 
be somewhat worn otf the glove. Espartero resembles rather 
the early statesmen of our republic, who were content Avitk 
serving tlieir country Avithout the prurient ambition of wear- 
ing the liver}' of oftice, and whose intellectual statue did not 
require the advantage of a pedestal in order that it might bo 
rendered visible to the world. Such ideas of self-abnegation 
are not in vogue be3'ond the water, and those who are gov- 
erned by them can with ditttcult}- contend against the palace 
Camarillas that undermine the ground beneath their feet. The 
general disposition is in tiivor of a unity of arbitrary power.. 

O'Donnel's character is in better harmony with the prevail- 
ing opinions. Unscrupulous as a politician and in ftict little 
more than an adventurer, he has sufficient wisdom, or jieriiaps 
patriotism, to see that downright absolutism docs not accord 
with the necessities of Sjiain, and has succeeded in i-alhing to 
his administration the eidightened liberals without forfeitinsr 

CD ^ 

the support of the conservatives, llis policy seems to be that 
of the moderate Progresistas. At least they have su])jiorted 
him. Order and security arc maintained, while the tendency is 
to restore to the Ayuntamientos as much liberty as is consist- 
ent witli tiie necessities of national defence. Yet, during the 
whole of my sojourn in Spain, his tenure of power was very 
precarious, and I would not have been astonished at an}- mo- 
ment to hear that he Inid been deposed. An atlem])t at a mili- 
tary insurrection was actually made at Seville, but without 
success. The execution of the offenders gave opportunity for 



3S2 SPAIN ANP TUK SPANIARDS. 

iniuiy Mtiiiij coinitarisons bctwiHMi tlio revolution or successful 
rebellion which had elevated him to authority, :>iid the ivhellion 
or unsuccessful revolution which had sent them to the block. 
In America, wliere every measure is subjected to the scrutiny 
of an Arijus-eyed pivss, and the country resounds.with the din 
of a ]»residential c<»ntest, wa^ed for many loni; months before 
the rriiis are changed, we can form no idea of the thousand 
secret and personal machinations which are here made to put 
the "ins" out, and the ''outs" in. One prominent olijection 
made to the administration of O'Donnel is that he liaa be- 
stowed all the honors of the country upon the Vicalvarists. 
After a revolution, it is but reasonable that the successful 
part}' should seize the vacant spoils, and provided the best 
men, who are really competent, be selected, this is hardly a 
fair ground of complAint. Whether O'Donnel has so acted is 
a much more doubtful matter, and there is perhaps too much 
reason for believing that he has sometimes gratified his per- 
sonal and party feeling, to say no more, at the expense of his 
country. His enemies charge that he considers the Vicalva- 
rists to have saved the countr}-, and consequently entitled to 
divide it among themselves, not being content wilii a reason- 
able salvage. The breaking out of the Moorish war was a 
fortunate occurrence for his administration, ^'othing could 
have been more popuiai' with tiie mass (»f the nation. The 
stirring ballads of the t'id have lost little of their interest in 
the hearts of true Spaniards b}- the lapse of ages, and the song 
of the solitary muii'teer 3'et makes the Siei'i'as echo with the 
romantic adventures of the re-concpiest. The terms of the 
peace do not appear to have lound favor with the nation, and 
the ])i'(»baliiiilies ai'e that iiostilities will again be resumed 
soonei" or later; but as the Mooj-s ari' without naval ])ower, the 
evil consc(piences, if any there be, will fall u[)on the army 
alone, while the glory will be of the whole nation. It will 
nioi'covei' ai'ouse the dormant national pi'ide as it has already 
done, and cause them to feel that their eounti-y is once more 
entitled to occupy the attention of I lie woi-jil. If victory fol- 
low their standai-ds, it is possible that O'Donnel may continue 
Ibr some time longer to rule, though Spain is doomed to un- 
dergo many changes yet ere she settles down into stability. 
The whole condition of affairs, at least so far as the external 
form of government is concerned, is transitory, so that it is 



THE NOBILITY. fiRANDEES. 383 

Rcarocly wortli the tronlilc to (les('ril)o it more niimilcly. It is 
better to s]ieak of tlio various classes and institutions wliioh 
will influence any crisis and any form of government tliat may 
arise. 

The nobility naturall}' occup}' the first place, and though by 
no means so influential as the similar class in England or Aus- 
tria, is yet not without its importance. The feudal times, when 
rank and wealth were so inseparablj' connected as almost to 
be synonymous — when the Count was the ruler of a county and 
the Duke of a dutchy — have passed away in the greater part 
of Europe, and a nobility of birth has taken their place. Tlie re- 
mains of the old s^-stem still linger in Spain, and there arc cer- 
tain lands, the ownership of which gives by courtesy the right 
to be distinguished bj- a title. It is needless to say that such 
titles are little respected, and confer about the same importance 
which the rank of a colonel or major of militia used to do in 
the ruder settlements of America. The real nobility, recog- 
nized by the law, is one of descent, as distinguished from an 
aristocrac}'', a nobleza dc Sangre, comprehending the various 
grades known in other countries, with the exception of the one 
of prince, Avhich is not a Spanish title, the only exception I 
remember being that of Godo}-, Prince of the Peace. ]\^)r is 
the importance of these titles measured \)y the grade, but 
rather by the antiquity of their origin ; for there are many 
persons, uniting all grades, who 3-et select, in preference, some 
ancient title of Count, thus affording another exemplification of 
the independence of the Spanish character, for, though the 
Cxovernment was apparently' an absolute despotism, the mon- 
arch was thus virtually denied to be the sole fountain of honor. 
In blngland, the title of Duke conferred upon a nobleman 
Avould immediately, like Aaron's rod, swallow up all his other 
distinctions, and on the morrow the humble backs would be 
bent still more humbly before the new dignit}*. Such is not the 
case in Spain. Nor, indeed, docs a title of itself give any 
acknowle<lged pre-eminence over a simple gentleman ; the very 
excess of Spanish pride thus correcting itself. There is, how- 
ever, a distinction among the nobles of an acknowlcrlged pre- 
eminence. \\z.: the grandccships. All grandees are practically 
equal, whatever may l>e the class of grandeesliip, though 
there are formal differences amr»ng them as {<> the time of 
covering themselves; and individual ones ai*e entitled to certain 



384 SPAIN AND THK SPANIARDS. 

finjtty i)rivile^os which havi' lii'cii inhi-riUMl from tlio iniddk* 
aires, the most h<tnoi*;iltle Itoiiii; that eXL-rcisod hv tho Duke of 
Medina Ccli of claiiniM<jf the crown at every coronation, in his 
right as representative of the Infants dc la Cerda, who were 
dis[)osscssc<l hy their uncle Sancho el Bravo in the thirteenth 
century. Those whose fanulies date from tlie great feudal 
chiefs, hy no means aili;iit a social equality with the new men of 
the last two centuries; and so strict was this formerly that the 
old •'■randees refused to address the new hy the familiar apiiel- 
lation of " tu," which was given to each other as heing all 
cousins, as in fact they were, and even of the king, he heing 
on\y pri in i(S inter ])ares, ixud intermarriages hetween the royal 
family and those of his companions, the counts, heing of fre- 
(juent occurrence. The power of the sovereign himself was 
unaltle to i>reak down this harriei-. It was l<i creme de la enhne 
of \'ienii;i. By intermarriage and otherwise, many of these 
nobles are possessed of immense estates, and unite in them- 
selves several grandecships. The Duke of Ossuna, for instance, 
is ten times grandee of Spain, hesitles ])ossessing various other 
titles. The remainder of the tilled nobility are styleil Titiil(t<lns 
del Jtcino. As I have said before, the feudal system jtroper was 
never introduced into the grealei- ]>art of Spain, so thai the idea 
of the alter nonentity of younger compared with older sons, 
or ol" daughters compared with masculine colhilerals. formed 
no jiarl of their civilization. The I'Utail of a title to the male 
deseeiidaiils only was seldom made. This e.\i)lains how in 
.Spain tiie loftiest honors fi-e(|uently descend to daughters, and 
by marriage pass ovei- into ditlerent families. Such was, in 
fact, the Spanish development of the Teutonic idea as distin- 
♦••uished rr<»ni the feudal, uliieli latter ])roceeded entirely upon 
the notion of actual service in the tield. AVhen the Goths 
adopted the idea of hereditary descent, they eai ried out the 
principle to its legitimate deductions, while the Knglish, under 
the feudal law of William the Contpieror, introduced from 
France, reached the ojjposite conclusion. The most honoi-able 
of these titles are tho.se derived from the great warriors before 
the age of the Catholic sovereigns, such as the Mendozas. the 
(juzmans,the Velascos, Sandovals, Zuiligas, Pachecos, the (I irons 
and those conferred during the three succeeding reigns, when 
merit was necessary to distinction. In the last hundred years 
the privilege of thus ennobling has been used unspaiiiigly. 



CHARACTER. 385 

General iSan Mignol, a most worthy old gentleman, -was made 
a duke for arresting the mol). Espartero, Xarvaez, Palafox, 
Castafios, Taeon, received the same distinction for services 
which we would scarcely' think Avorthy of such honoi-s. The 
Moderado chiefs seem to have a particular fancy for that of 
marquis. As the value of the decoration decreases, the facility 
of acquiring it increases in proportion^ and vice versa. One 
title is actually del Socorro, because the recipient, like Prince 
Torlonia, in an opjiortune moment, i-eplcnished the coffers of 
his sovereign. Thus has the sentiment of aristocracy under- 
mined that of nobility. Yet with all this, the number is not 
greater than in other countries. At present, there are about 
seventy-nine dukedoms, six hundred and sixty-five marqui- 
sates, five hundred and thirty-eight countships, seventj'-three 
viscountships, and sixty-one l)ar()nies. held b}' eight hundred 
and eighty-four individuals, one hundred and nineteen of whom 
divide among themselves one hundred and ninety-seven gran- 
deeships. The number of untitled persons claiming gentle 
descent, with huge coats of arms over their famil}' mansions, is 
much greater. Their abundance is very natural when it is con- 
sidered that every man, during a contest lasting from 711 to 
1402, was a soldier, and many must have honestly and honora- 
bh' won their spurs. Those Avho Avere in the battle of Las Navas 
placed a chain or a ci*oss upon their shields in commemoration 
of the event. Others derive the scallop shell from the battle of 
Clavijo, in which the forces of Spain Avere led b}' Santiago. 
Tiie cross of St. Andrew represents the battle of Baeza. The 
niemorj^ of Salado and other battles is in similar manner per- 
petuated. Perhaps the most appropriate and soldierlj- of them 
all, unless it be a fiction, was the device of the Count of Bar- 
celona — four upright bars formed by drawing the fingers, dipped 
in the blood of the wounded Wifred, down his shield. As I 
have before mentioned, the inhabitants of cert^iin provinces in 
a mass are nominally noble, which does not, however, prevent 
them from bi-ing the most industrious in Spain. 

Most travellers are profuse in their condemnation of the 
Spanish nol)ility. Certainh*, an aristocracy of any sort, wheth- 
er of monc}-, blood or intellect, is absurd in our age of the 
world. But considering the circumstances in which they are 
placed, the nobility in Spain, notwithstanding some very poor 
specimens, is about as good I suspect as in other countries. 
liG 



3!^G SPAIN AM) THE SPAMAllDS. 

Persons on(io\V('(l with an attribute or a distinction, which \» 
respected, arc apt to respect tliemseives, and to hcconic wortliy 
to a certain extent of the respect of otliei's; at least such 
shotiM he the rule. If mankind in their wis»h»ni had ai^reed to 
revere Ion<; noses, long nosed peojih' wouhi probahly he hii^her 
toned than before, and a family who had j)ossessed this attri- 
bute for j^cnerations. would ho a <;reat family. This I take it 
is the only sensible foundation for the jn-inciple of hereditary 
Ijonors. But the Ivatiti nations have been weaned from the 
idea of an aristocracy, and consequently the difference between 
their aristocracy' and their commonalty has ceased to be so 
great in aj)pearance as that of some other nations still envel- 
oped in the fog of medianal l':ii-l>;ii-isin. The closing of the 
interval between them is due as much to the elevation of the 
lower as to the dojircssion of the uj)pcr classes. The etVect of 
this ])rou;ress of ideas, tliuii^-li i)y no means so great as in 
France, is yet visil)le in Spain. The number of men who, 
since the constitution, have risen from the humblest ranks to 
the lu-ad <»f the government, without olijeetion on that score, 
is a fair example of it. As a l>ody, the nobility is without 
distinctive influence, because without cohesion. Any such 
government as that oi' l*]ngland, where both parlies unite in 
reserving the honors and emoluments of olHce for the younger 
relatives of their leaders, woidd not be tolerated a week. In- 
deed, one ol* the most liiiious railieals in Spain is a martpiis. 
But family and wealth are not without reasonable influence, 
and individuals of tiie higher i-ank of nobility, if (•onij)i'tent, 
can easily ol)tain any jxisition they may covet. As a class, 
they have always been in favor of lilierty whetievei' it was not 
brought into too dii-eet o|)]io<iiioii to loyalty, nor is it uunat iiral 
that gentlemen, who consider themselves by their birthrighl 
the e(pnil of any human being, however surrcumdi'd by the ex- 
ternals of powi'r, should desire the privileges of freemen. The 
majority of the ai'istocrac}' certaiidy do not nnike great exer- 
tions on ordinary occasions. Why should theyl:' They carry 
out one of our maxims, tliat the post of honor is the private 
station, and are content with the position to which they are 
entith'd by birth. If any value is to be attached to anli(pnty 
of descent, they nvv ct'rtainly entitled to it in its fullest extent, 
for there arc really some, in comj)arison with whotn Henry V 
is a 7WVUS homo, a mere upstart. Men deducing their origin 



WEALTH AND rOVERTY. 387 

from individuals wlio were i;-reat persona_<2jes wlien Sjiaiii was 
a riieniciaii colony, and wlio are Iionorahly mentioned hy the 
Roman liistorian.s, not to .sjieak of tiie descendants of (iei-yon, 
may be excused for holdinji; themselves a little hi^^Mier than 
others in Europe that pride themselves upon an inferior degree 
of the same distinction. Unfortunately for our day they rely 
too much upon the past. There is one exception, however, 
even among the grandees, a gentleman who would be an orna- 
ment to any class in society, and I have heard of no English 
dulce worthy of a comparison. Among other accusations 
against them, is their want of corporal weight, few reaching 
two hundred pounds avoirdupois. This is true, but size i.s a 
poor measure of greatness. Napoleon I, Napoleon III, Ca.'sar, 
Alexander, would have fared liadly by this standard, nor would 
Marion and Hamilton, two undouI)ted geniuses, have thought 
it less strange to be weighed in such scales. One hundi-cd and 
seventy-five ])ounds is well enough, but fifty or a hundred nu)re 
are not necessary to nobility-. Spanish men are elegantly 
formed and muscular, and Spanish women ai-e beautiful, but 
there arc few leviathans of loveliness in the Peninsula. Adi- 
l")Ose matter is rare, the only fat things I saw being the hogs, 
which, during the sweet acorn harvest, present a rotundity 
truly aristocratic. 

I have heard foreigners sneeringly say, what kind of a noluli- 
t}' is this which does not spend monej^ gives no grand dinners, 
few^ balls, and eats no more than common mortals? Such mani» 
festations of excellence are not in accordance with the customs 
of the country-, and another fact is that the fortunes of tho 
great families are eaten up by their stewards and retainers, 
who form a part of their famil}', and who are Ruj)ported out of 
the common fund. Such was always the case. Nor were they 
mere servants, but included men of learning and literature also. 
The necessity for these great armies of retainers has ])as8ed 
away, but the retainers remain, sometimes to the numljer of 
thousands, and neither they nor their children arc ever dis- 
charged. Then again the loss of the South American provinces 
and the invasion of the Erench and the JJritish, in the War of 
Independence, have caused a great diminution of their formerly 
inordinate wealth. .Manj'of tlicm are comparatively poor, for 
the cft'ect of progress in increasing the value of landed proper- 
ty has not yet made itself very sensibly felt. Furthermore, to 



3S8 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

restrictcfl means, is united tlie recollection of the groat era wlicn 
a Spanish grandee was acknowledged throughout Europe as 
second only to a reigning prince. It ma}' easily be conceived 
that tluv are not anxious to make a display of their altered 
fortunes. I should lie sorry to advocate the Spanish aristocracy 
or any other aristocracy, l)ut all aristocracies alike, that is all 
who live upon the hihor of otlicrs witliout contrilmt ing llioir 
])ropiirtion to the advancement of the common country are 
di-ones, and it is hardly fair to select this as the scape-goat of a 
general principle. The length and breadth of the wide world 
do not olfer a finer example of nature's nobility tluui a true 
Spanish gentleman, whether of great or humble family. It is 
true that the old Scotch maxim about declining families is ap- 
plical>le to Spain, and that the women of distinguished origin 
are better than the men, since the one are formed and educated 
at home, the other abroad. But this, though the misfortune of 
the latter, is the glory of the former, and I freely confess that 
when the fairer part of creation — to the charms of personal, 
moral and intellectual beauty — unite an untainted descent from 
the .stalwart knights, who in the mist of ages defended the out- 
post of Christianity against its enemies, I do find an additional 
reason for worshipi)ing at their shrine. 

The people of S]»ain are I'cally worthy of admiration. The 
tyrannv and coi ruiition which have enervated the higher 
classes passed lightly over them. Their niaidy but uneducated 
virtues ceased to arouse jealous}' in the gloomy despot of the 
Escoi-ial, whoso most sincere ambition was to check the pro- 
gress of liberty and inquiry, and to retain the human intellect in 
fetters which it had outgrown, and whose pressure was wear- 
ing away the very substance, so that the nation presented the 
sjiectacle of an unexampled oppression ujion the one portion, 
while the other enjoyed a liberty practically without bounds. 
One can thus comprehend how the}' so long submitted to a 
government in appearance the most absolute of Western Eu- 
rope. Here are found those virtues which eminently cliarae- 
terizc the nation — courage, fidelity, temperance and dignity. 
Whatever may have been one's anticipation of their character, 
it is fully realized in the peasantr}^ of Old Castile. By no 
means so brilliant as the inhabitants of some of the other 
provinces, they possess more solidity, and when well oflficered 
make superb soldiers, the last to complain on a march or to 



PROGRESS OF EDUCATION AMONG TIIEM. 389 

boast in the camp. The}' consider tlieinselves the heart of the 
earth, and cannot conceive that other nations should be put 
in comparison with tliem. But as a set-off to their pride, 
they aspire in their deportment to be worthy of their position. 
Taciturn, grave in demeanor and dignified in gesture, they are 
yet by no means averse to amusement if confined M'itliin proper 
bounds, and are the type of Spanish courtesy and loj^alt}'. 
Lilve most persons whose friendshij) is worth possessing they 
are reserved upon first acquaintance, but when once friends no 
steel can be truer. In this respect there is a marked difference 
between them and the English, whose reserve is attributable 
to their want of sociabilit}'. I have already alluded to the dif- 
ferent characteristics of the various provinces, more decidedly 
developed among the peasantry' than the Hidalgos, who natu- 
rally resemble each other. The Andalusian will ever be enthu- 
siastic and graceful, nor can anj-thing eradicate obstinac} and 
tenacity from the Aragonesej but, Avith all these variations, 
the foundation of their character is still the same. All classes 
of the population, unless perhaps in the extreme north-west, 
which I have never visited, are distinguished by a dignified 
courtesy of manner. Something of the same sort still lingers 
in the peasantry of the south of France, but it is there owing 
rather to good nature and a certain species of gallantry that 
have always distinguished the French. In Spain it springs from 
a genuine self-esteem, a feeling of what is due to tlie person 
himself rather than a disposition to please another. A mule- 
teer will, therefore, offer his meal to the passing acquaintance 
with all the air of a grandee, and beggars salute each other 
with regal majest}*. People endowed with these personal quali- 
ties are capable of anj* elevation. As 3-et no great effort has 
been made to eradicate the vices of a past age, but the work 
of amelioration is commencing. The necessit}' of diffusing 
education is acknowledged, and the number of persons vrho 
can read and write compares favorably with any country in 
Europe except Prussia and Scotland. I did meet at Turin a 
scion of a noble house in Seville, who not unnaturalh' thought 
the world had better remain as it was, Init the journc}- had 
opened his eyes to the necessities of progress, for subsequently 
in Andalusia I found his ideas had undergone considerable 
change. There arc scattered here and there a few of the same 
opinion ; the vast majority, however, are warmly in favor of 



390 SI'AIN A.\t» THK SP.VMAIIDS. 

entering; the /xroal race of national iin])rovonu'iit. If the effect 
of this movement is to he tlic destruetion of their nohle, chival- 
rous sentiments. I should prefer them as they are, hut there 
are «fo«id reasons for hoping hotter results. Spaniards are 
by nature conservative. If they run into excesses, it will he 
only i'or the moment. Their formal manners, grandiloquent 
st3*le ami anti(iuated notions of honor ma}' seem ridiculous in 
the eyes of foreigners, who are unahle or unwilling to pene- 
trate into the recesses of their character. So, too, may tlu-ir 
sincere religious faith appear ahsurd to those who have oman- 
ci])ateil themselves from every control except that of pure 
reason. Yet who wouhl cast this hallast over for the j)leasure 
of heing tossed about by every contrary wind that blows? 
The examjije of Cervantes has not been followed with suHicient 
discrimination. Don (Quixote was a satire upon the unnatural 
romances of chivalry ; iiis imitators have held up to laughter 
and ridicule every disinterested sentiment which does not loolc 
to some material i-eward as its legitimate object. The lofty 
inspiration wdiich inculcates a contempt for bodily enjoynu iits, 
and preempts its subject to defy the perils of sea and land in the 
accomplishment of an ideal object, is scorned as vulgar fanati- 
cism. If the result of pi-ogress is to ln' the elimiuation of this 
element from Spanish iharacter, better a thousand times for 
them to remain as they are. 

For a long time Spain suffered under the usual want of a 
middle class to interj)ose between the nobility and the peo])le, 
sympathizing in many resj)ects with both, vi-t opposing the 
preponileranc<; of cither. In the mifliile ages the cities ful- 
filled this function. With the consolidation which took ])lace 
in i^iii'opc during tlic tiftcciith ct'iitiiry, thcii- political iiiHuenco 
disajjpcai'cfl. But some such class must exist in every socie- 
ty, otherwise thei-e would i-age a perpetual conflict, residting 
alteiMiatcly in a victory of the one and tiie siavcM-y of the 
other. Vi)i' threi' centuries the Church was the safety valve of 
S])ain. Now that its ])()wer is broken down, a middle class, 
similar to tiie English, ami foiinde(l mainly on ])r()perty, is 
beginning to rise and to assei-t its claims to a share of i)Ower. 

By the side of these is gradually sj)ringing uj) another, 
known in France by the appropriate designation of " Indus- 
triel." It is the growth of this class which has added most to 
the progress of the age, and at the same time, has caused most 



MIDDLE AND INDUSTRIAL CLASSES. 391 

of its dilliculties. AVlu'tlier the solidity niui severily of the 
Spanish uationtil chariicter will control its manifestations of 
(liseontent, or whether it is doomed to bo here also a hot-hod 
of revolution, time alone can show. At pi'osont it iw contined 
ahnost exclusively to a few of the northern provinces. The 
traveller frequently meets its agents in the shape of ("ommis, 
who are certainly not calculated to make a favorable imjircs- 
sion. Though without the impertinence of the Parisian, the}' 
are far inferior to tlie (Jerman or English om])lo3'oe of the cor- 
responding rank, and disj^hi}' a taste for eating and drinking, 
a forwardness of manner, and a general disposition to mere 
sensual enjoyn\ents, which sh.ow how far they have departed 
from their countrymen. They are evidently a foreign importa- 
tion, and their parasitical union with the sturd}^ Spanish oak 
has not a very congruous appearance. 

Foreign commerce is slowly reviving, but many j-ears must 
elapse before it can rival its former pre-eminence. Tiie honor 
of the vSpaiiish merchant in old times was proverbial. Vol- 
taire has preserved a beautiful instance of it in their i-ofusal. 
dni-ing one of the wars of the seventeenth century, to allow 
the debts of the French creditoi's to be confiscated by the Gov- 
ernment. Of their integrity now I know nothing of my own 
experience. Foreign merchants have com]>lained of them, but 
that is the same everywhere over the world. There is no good 
reason why S])aiu should not bo a commercial nation. The 
present flourishing condition of English commerce did not 
alwaj'S exist, neither were the harbors of Italy always sur- 
rendered to fishing smacks. Why nations should thus rise and 
fall is beyond the reach of human ken. Tyre, Carthage, 
Greece, Italy, Spain, Holland, England have all had their day, 
and the trident is now passing (o America in obedience to 
some law not revealed to statesmen. There is, therefore, no 
reason in the nature of things why those nations which once 
Avhitencd the sea with their fleets mny not do so again. But 
it cannot be accomplished by the wave of a magician's wand. 
Commerce no longer depends upon the mere carrying trade; it 
is one of the conse<piences of a general internal develojtment, 
and Spain has j\ist entered u]»oii this new direction. 

There are certain defects in the Spanish character, whose 
salience exposes them to the view of the most hast}- traveller. 
One of these is their pride, wliich is excessive, and coupled 



392 SPAIN AM) TIIK SPAMARnS. 

with an unconqueraljle lenacity of jMirposo, exercises great 
influence over tlieir contluct. It exists in all classes ofsociet}', 
home and abroad. Even the Sjtanish Jews in London, as I 
liave already mentioned, who have little reason to rememhcr 
their former country with jileasure, have always hehl them- 
selves aloof from association witli those of other nations. 
There is nuich to be said in excuse for this sentiment. 
No nation in modern times has jjossessed so proud a past. 
Nor is it possible to write the liistory of any country in Ame- 
rica, Euroj)e, Asia or Africa, unless perhaps it be Kussia, with- 
out assigning a place of more or less prominence to the .Span- 
iards. During a considerable portion ot this period they have 
stood in the first rank, and have been the principal support of 
a religion which rules the consciences of the greater half of 
the civilized world. Their ancestors were enjoying the advan- 
tages of enlightenment at a time when the bare-legged princes 
of the north were living the lil'e of semi-brutes in straw hovels. 
True, their country no longer occupies the same exalted jtosi- 
tion it once did, hut those who are concei-ned actively with the 
present have little time to tiiink upon the subject, and secret 
])ride dwells more complacently upon i)ast than present glories. 
This qualit}' ])roduces in some respects injurious, in others, 
beneficial effects. It certainly does elevate their tone, jireservc 
their anti(piated, i)erhai)s, but still lofty notions of honor, and 
guards them from the commission of many a deed of low vil- 
lainy. On the oilier hand, it ire(|Uenlly pi-events a j)oor gentle, 
man fi-oni engaging in honest industry, anil causes him to 
jjrefer lounging ahout some jdaza, envehtped in a thread-bare 
cloak, and pinched with want, rather than stain his lineage by 
embi'acing a plebeian oeeuj)ation. However much one may dis- 
j>rove of such j)rejudices, there is nothing ludicrous about these 
relics of the past. For my own part, 1 consitler all honest 
occu])ations alike honorable, and cannot conceive why a capi- 
talist is more respectable than a street ditcher, provided they 
be otherwise equal. No doubt such will he the opinion of the 
world at some future day j it certainly is not at present, and a 
laugh or sneer at these old Castillians comes with a poor grace 
from us who are daily conunitting the same errors on })ei'haps 
a minor scale. 

But the genei-al idea which jnH'vails of Spanish indolence is 
grossly exaggerated. No douhl there is a vast quantity of 



INDOLENCE. 393 

idleness there :is in oilier eountries, where the rewai'ds of labor 
are not sufficient fully to develop its energies; and it must be 
admitted that it is delightful to sit upon the edge of an Anda- 
lusian fountain, beneath the orange groves, watching the ^^had- 
ows as they pass over the face of the dial. But to attribute 
this indisposition for labor to the enervating effects of the 
climate is absurd, if for no other reason simply- because the 
climate is not enervating. Very few people labor for the 
amusement of laboring. The Avhole arrangement of our life 
and actions proceeds upon the opposite supposition. There 
must be an inducement, consisting for the most part in the 
gratification of wants and desires. In addition to natural 
wants and desires, civilization creates artificial ones which arc 
more imperious still. In Andalusia the delicious climate and 
the temperate, enduring character of the people reduce the 
reasonable wants of man to the smallest compass. Fuel is 
supplied spontaneousl}^ b}^ the sun, and food by the earth. 
Doctors, cai'riages, and other necessities of northern life, cease 
to be so regarded here, and most of the artificial enjoyments, 
such as eating, drinking, rich furniture, equipages, are posi- 
tively penalties. Art and skill can offer no gratification equal 
those which are furnished them by nature. In the north 
nature docs nothing; cold and drear}-, she frightens and rejiels 
rather than attracts. Industr}- is a relief from the (.'imui of a 
leisure which offers no pleasure in its inanit}-. The primeval 
curse, " Thou shalt earn th}- bread b}- the sweat of thy brow," 
falls bcavil}- upon its inhabitants. Their wants are natural, 
their pleasures mosth' created, and constant labor is requisite 
to prevent society from relapsing into semi-barbarism. The 
same pressure of necessity elsewhere will stimulate the same 
industr}' quite independent of climate. Thus the pojuilation 
of Valencia, where the sun darts down his rays with African 
intensity, is yet exceedingly industrious, for the soil, thougli 
fertile, absolutely requires the labor of irrigation, and the 
crowded numbers im})0se the necessity of exertion. They 
seem to appreciate, also, one of the most sensible triluinals 
in Christendom, that of Los Alcaldes de las Aguas, who sit once 
a week, without lawyer or law beyond Justice, to decide dis- 
putes about irrigation. For this, however, they are indebted 
to the Moors. In Andalusia, these great incentives are want- 
ing. The soil is fertile as the banks of the Nile. Benignant 



304 SPAIN AM» TIIK SPANIARDS. 

iKiluiH' lias ]>oure<l out tin.' last contents of her CorMuco])ia. 
TluTc is a (leficioncy i-atlior than a surplus of jionulation. Its 
inhahilants are tlu'rofore neither driven to (oil hy want, nor 
enticed to it l>y (lu- jirospict of some higher gratification. Set 
forth an adc<iuate inducement, create some want, such as a 
taste for the arts, a thirst for glory which nature cannot grati- 
fy, and no people are moi'o energetic than these gay loiterer.s 
of Andalusia, who will ire»iuently undergo more fatigue for the 
purpose of attending a dance ov hiill tight than would sutiico 
to gain a small livelihood. Their lack of industry is the fault 
of their civilization, not of themselves. It mIII he said that 
men make civilization, which is partly ti'iic. iuit so is the con- 
verse, and it requii'es generations to eftect a change. 31 any 
races are intlustrious by inheritance and habit. The Andalu- 
sians are not ; their ancestors returned to their long lost homes 
as conquerors, who considered mere labor inaiiprojn'iate to a 
soldier. They subse(|uently became the recij)ii'n(s of a wealth, 
wliicli was hai'dly their own. ami for tit'ty years of this eentury 
it has scarcely been worth while to sow, since it was lar from 
certain who woidd reap. That there is vast room for improve- 
ment, south of the Sierra .Moreiia. none can doubt, but it is 
tiresome to hear the reiterated ])latitudes about the climate, as 
if laziness, like malaria, wei'C iiise|)aralile from certain coun- 
tries. As for the rest of Spain, ami particularly (lallicia, tiie 
Basque Provinces and Catalonia, 1 think tiie i)easanlr3- ai-c in 
an eminent degree hard woi-king, when one considers (hat no 
amount of lab<n* can, cxcej)t in rare instances, ilevate llu-Mi 
much above the ])osition in which they were l)orn. 

There is another defect in the Spanish charaetei-. a vi'i-y 
serious one — their want of a])preciation of human sutiering. 
If cruelty means a ])leasure in indicting ]iain, I do not think it 
a charactei'istic of the Spaniards, but there certainly is vast 
indifference (o suffei'ing and even to life. If a Spaniard \)vo- 
poses to himself the accomplishment of some end, (he fact that 
a cei"(ain nuiiibci- of lives must lie sacrificed is a nKi((er of 
snndl consideration. 'JMie doctrine that the least possible 
amount of ])ain is (o be inflicted, which is sufficient to the 
attainnu-nt of tlu' ol)jeet, is scarcely recognized in practice as 
an acknowledged rule of action. It is (he same with beasts as 
men. To tell a Sj)aniard that bis bit was too ])owei'ful and 
inflicted unnecessai'v pain, and sboulil, (bei-efore, be changed, 



INDEPENDENCE OF MONEY. 395 

would be an unknown sort, of lang-uage. If it injurcMl the 
horse, tliat would l)e anollier matter. By not niakini;; this 
distinction travellers have thought that Spaniards ]K>sitively 
enjoj-ed tlie suiierings of the animals at a bull tiglit, whereas 
they are merely indiiTerent. They go to see the contest, and 
if allowed to choose, would probably prefer that tlu' animals 
should be insensible to pain. But there is none of that restless 
sentiment upon the subject here which characterizes the mod- 
ern French, or the better class of the (Jerman or English peo- 
ple, though tlie brutal disposition of the lower class of the 
latter is alike without a counterpart. It may bo said, too, by 
way of palliation, that (he Spaniards have no more respect for 
themselves than for others, and never coin])lain of suffering. 
If any suppose that the Spanish race is essentially cruel or 
indirterent it Avould be an error. Our ideas of humanity^ are 
entirely things of the last hundred years. For two centuries 
the Spanish people have been very little influenced by external 
nations, and to a considerable extent retain their old ideas 
unchanged. V]) to the agitation of the rights of nuui in 1789, 
it is amazing what cruelties Avere perpetrated everywhere by 
those in power. So completely has the change of society 
altered tlie relations Avhich exist between man and man. that 
wc thiid< the Spaniards ferocious because they act jjretty 
much as their and our ancestors did a half century ago. But 
the hand of progress and reform has seized them Avith a firm 
grasp. The rays which formerly illuminated onl}' the loftiest 
peaks are now peneti'ating into the valleys, and we may rea- 
sonably expect to see the day, and that shortly, when their 
darkest recesses will be filled with light. 

There is one feature which distinguishes Spaniards from all 
other nations in Europe — the absence of that respect and ado- 
ration for the mere possession of wealth which is the moving 
spring of societj^ elsewhere. Men are not ranked according to 
the length of their ]>urses, and poverty is neither a sin nor a 
disgrace. The poorest beggar feels his full dignity as a man, 
and maintains, by his conduct, the apparently self-evident 
truth that the earth was made for man and not man for the 
earth. Their habits of life and even their dress are admirably 
calculated to uphold this independence of worldly means. 
The enjoyment of intercourse is mostly out of doors, on the 
Paseo, at church, in the theatre. The bouse \a really a homo 



396 SPAIN AM) TlIK Sl'AMARKS. 

not intended fur llie disidu}- of vain glories, l»ut for the charms 
of donicstic-ity and that jirivacy which is inconi])atihlo witli 
the presence c»f mere strangers. In countries not hlessed with 
so fine a climate, a different stylo of life is forced upon tho 
inhabitants; the sacred enjoyments of home are sacrificed for 
the absorbing ambition of disjday; men spend their time in 
amassing the means, and wives become indexes to the cajtacity 
and liberality of their husband's pockets. The national cos- 
tume in Spain is simple, and the distinction consists not so 
much in the costliness of tho dress as in the elegance of tho 
wearer, so that this fruitful source of ruin to families does not 
exist. It would puzzle the most keen-eyed tax assessor to 
detect the various grades of rich or })Oor among the hapi)y 
throng. Even in the deportment of the fair promcnadcrs it is 
difficult to distinguish the difierent ranks. In England or 
Germany there is an unmistakealtle ditterence between tho 
higher and lower classes, not only in dross but in manner; this 
latter has as little existence in Spain as llu- I'ornui', all are 
gentlemen alike, and it is often imiiossiblo lor a stranger to 
judge of the exact social position of the i)arties even alter a 
slight acquaintance. 

But this virtue, when carried to an excess, produces j)racti- 
cally an evil efiect in encouraging beggar}-. The Spanish beg- 
gar is a very diftereut person from the English, Italian, or 
even the CJerman, where the childi'cn carry their mania's com- 
pliments on the fine weather to a neighbor, and ask if she will 
not go out a begging. He is proud and dignified; suggests 
the propriety of alms, but does not insist, because such a 
course would be shocking to his Castillian pride. Ho sees 
nothing humiliating in tho occupation itself, but only in the 
manner of exercising it. There are various classes, some are 
really objects of charity, honest persons reduced to want, who 
would work willingly were there any to employ them. Hea- 
ven forbid that these should be received with a sneer, or that 
we should adopt the religion of Ch., I us. Montague, and let ilum 
starve in God's name. But thei-e are others, l)eggars by j)ro- 
fession, sons of beggars and beggaresses, inheriting poverty 
from a long line of mendicant ancestors. A ])ari of the Sei-ii)- 
tures is carried out by them in strict obedience, fi)r they take 
no heed what they shall cat, nor what they shall drink, nor 
wherewithal shall they be clothed. The sight of these pro- 



BEGfiARS. 307 

duces no indio-iiation in tlic minds of Spaniai'ds, avIio give or 
do not 2;ive ns the ftiney strikes them, always Avith courteous 
speech and without that exhibition of contempt which foreign- 
ers disphiy. The pcrdone /»e inn. por Dios is an effectual guard 
against them. This hereditary race of beggars will disappear 
very soon. In the days of convents and monasteries they 
found a steady though humble support, and whatever they 
obtained from strangers was considered the legitimate fruits 
of their industry, so much clear gain to capitalize; but general 
charity is too uncertain a reliance to marry upon, and future 
travellers will regret the absence of a characteristic if not 
very ornamental feature of Spanish scenery. 



CUAPTER XXIII. 

GENERAL (; O N T I X U E P . 

The Cliurch — Reforms — Religious Sincerity of the Spaniard? — Tlic Army — Tlic 
I'ress — lutcrnal Improvements — Police — Political Wants. 

The Clnifch has alway.s oxercised a proniiiioiit iiifliioucc in 
the govenunont of S|)ain. and llie ]ir()S])erity of the country 
has dcpi'ink'il in no small dcifrcc upon tlie chaiMctrr ot its 
ecclesiastical ])opulation. A considcral-le part ot its iiistory 
has been engrosseil by contests in Avhicli questions of faith were 
involved; tirst, with the Moors, then with the Turks, and, 
finally, with the Protestants. It is. therefore, natural tliat tho 
whole nation shoidd be overspread with a religious hue. More 
than that, the Spanish character is essentially religious. Their 
fervor, devotion, their indift'erenec to most of the pleasures of 
the body, their poetical temperament, attract them toward 
some influence beyond the earth. Spain has, therefore, always 
been the home of enthusiasts, and though we may, perhaps, 
never again behold Loyola and Santa Tensa, the same spirit 
survives in all de|)artments of human life, and re(jnires only 
the influencH' of propitious circumstanci's for its (levi'Io])ment. 
Tl»e extravagances, therefoi'c, wiiicli liavt- appeared in conni-c- 
tion with their pi'ominent institutions must l)e looked njion 
with some allowance, as they ai'c the legitimate fruits of the 
national character. Thei'e is nothing mediocre in the countr}'. 
Everything is in the sujierlative either for good or evil. .More 
particularl}- is this the case with regard to the Church. The 
liorrors perpctiatcd by Alexander VJ and Toi'cineinaila are 
more than counter-lialanced by the virtues of Las Casas, and 
an infinite number of others, who have given a lustre to hu- 
nninity by their Inilliant cpialities. The fierce, unanimous, 
undying resistance otlered to the invasion of Napoleon, Avas 
due, in no small degree, to the patriotic efforts of the priest- 



i 



THE SPANISH CHURCH. 3!)9 

hood, wlio surroiidorcd evorvtliiiiif for tlie inaintonancc of the 
Hational honor and llu' national religion. Ci'oss and sonictinics 
sabre in liand, they animated the (h'fenders to tlic breach. 
Often defeated, they yielded not to their oppressor, and with 
their last breath still maintained the rights of the coward 
prince who had ingloriously acknowledged himself a subject 
of the great tyrant. Of course their enemies stigmatize them 
as ianatics. By the same rule of logic Marion Avas a fanatic, 
Washington a fanatic, and every other patriot who weds him- 
self to his country's cause for weal or for woe. Where educa- 
tion is so much neglected, the lower ranks of tlie clergy must 
frequently present lamentable instances of ignorance, but the 
world cannot show a nobler liody of Christians than the l~!])an- 
ish prelates. iSecured as they are by their religion against 
most inducements to nepotism, and deprived b}' the late reforms 
of the means of gratifying that unworthy sentiment, their lives 
are devoted to the duties of their station. Amid all the scandals 
which are uttered indiscriminately by natives and foreigners. 
I have never heard a breath whispered against tlieni. The 
})olitical influence enjoyed by their predecessors no longer 
exposes them to the tem})tations of worldly ambition. Nor is 
there any such division of parties as calls for their interfer- 
ence ; so that religion, in its strictest sense, engrosses the 
whole of their thoughts. Would that the same could be said 
of other countries. 

The history* of the 8])anish ("hurch is a noble monument to 
the independence of tlie nation. From the earliest times it 
Avas distinguished for its resistance not onlj- to the encroach- 
ments of the Papacy, but to the introduction of foreign doc- 
trines, come they whence they might. In becoming members 
of the great Catholic Ilierarch}' they never ceased to be Span- 
iards, and asserted the independence of the national church 
upon all suitable occasions. These events, from a false shame, 
were concealed by those Avho wrote in later dajs, after the 
e^taldishment of the Inquisition, when any departure from the 
established rule, whether in matters of jirinciplc, or jiractice, 
or prejudice, Avas visited with fire and swoni. IJut a more 
enlightened spirit has been awakened, and their early ecclesi- 
astical Avill soon be as great a source of pride as their profane 
history- lias been. The hard, material features of the feudal 
age, subordinating man to man, or still worse to a mere clod 



400 SPAIN AND THE SPANIARDS. 

of oartli, were relieved l»y the prepondcnmec of the theocra- 
cy, Avhieh spread its protectini; wiiii^s over the ojipressed. and 
taught the haiiglity baron that there was a living spirit in 
whose eyes the rich and the poor, the powerful and the obscure 
were equal. With the extension of its empire in the sixteenth 
century, Spain became the most powerful son of the Church, 
and almost the Church itself Unfortunately with it came the 
baleful Inquisition, stifling every thing generous. It is not 
strictly correct to \iiy the blood}' monster at the foot of the 
Catholic faith, for none resisted its introduction more sincerely 
than the secular clergy. It Avas at first, at least in Spain, 
essentially' a political institution, both within and without the 
Church, intended to prevent freedom of thought and discussion 
everywhere. But it soon souglit a new theatre of action. 
Protestants there were none; Jews and Mohammedans, except 
a few in secret, had been banished, antl for want of pi-oper ali- 
ment, like the fabled monster, it devoui-ed its own entrails. It 
is difficult to speak with nioderalion of an institution, one of 
whose rules of action was never to confront the witness with 
the accused, and which treated the suspected with a severity 
surpassing that of the condemned. The silent efi'ect whieli it 
produced upon the Spanish character has seldom been exag- 
gcrate<l. It nearly destroyed theii- natural Southei'ii Jrank- 
ness, foi" what heart could expand when the bosom li-iend, the 
father, the wife, might, pei-hai)s, be one of its accursed spies? 
Whatever of suspicion yet lingers about them may be justly 
traced to this S(juree. 

The enormous Avealth of the Spanish clergy was formerly a 
"■reat cause of scandal to the world, and it Avas reasonably and 
ti'uh- aflirnu'd that the quantity of lands held in mortmain 
opposed a serious obstacle to the progi-ess of the nation. The 
clergy were naturally poor administrators of tln'ir proi)crty, 
and felt none of that necessity for enlightened economj- which 
struggles to increase (he interval between receii)t and expenses. 
In the middle ages the lands of the Church were, compara- 
tively, the garden spots of the kingdom, because cultivated by a 
peasantry whose mild servitude enabled them to feel the energy 
of freemen. In the progress of events, the balance of the scale 
was turned, and they eventually became the very worst cultiva- 
ted of all. Whatever evils may have flowed from this source, 
have now ceased to exist. The ecclesiastical property has been 



REFORMS. 401 

absorbed by tbe State. ^Fonks and friars arc matters of his- 
tory. The salaries of tlie eleri!:}' are paid by tbe Government. 
There are no bislioprics of Durliam or Canterbiuy, no sine- 
cures, no ])lura]ities. The emohiments of their offiee are barely 
sultieient to snppoi-t tliem and to cover their private charities, 
and the Spanish Church, so far as its government is concerned, 
is really a reformed church. The change was inevitable, for it 
is impossible long to resist the progress of ideas; the new wine 
threatened to burst the old bottles. In the days of aristocracy, 
the church govei'nment naturally accommodated itself to the 
condition and exigencies of society. The laws of jtriinogeni- 
ture secured the pre-eminence of the heads of noble houses. 
Bishoprics, masterships, abbeys, offered corresponding positions 
for the younger members of the fiimil}-, and for great intellects 
born out of the privileged classes, whose efforts might other- 
wise have been directed to revolution. In a woi-d, they were 
the safety-valves of the system. The philosophers of the eigh- 
teenth centur}' struck a death blow at the root of aristoeracj', 
by preaching anew (with very little religion it must be admit- 
ted) the doctrines of the New Testament as to the natural 
equalit}' of man, which had, during seventeen centuries of vio- 
lence and oppression, been practically forgotten. The acknowl- 
edgment of the new sj'stcm involved the destruction of the 
old. It was no longer necessary to society that the Church 
should be a great civil institution, standing between the class 
of wealth and power and those who possessed neitlier. In 
England and Austria only does it still maintain its civil influ- 
ence and unnatural prerogative. In Spain they have utterly 
disap))eared, aim :st as much so as in America. 

Still the Catholic is the established religion, and the exercise 
of any other is strictl}* forbidden. Persons of different faith 
cannot even intermarry within the territorial limits, though 
provided with the papal dispensation, and Giltraltar or liayonne 
used to l)e the Gretna (Jreen for impatient lovers. Such is the 
law of the land. Koligious liberty, therefore, in its largest 
sense does not exist. The United States of America prou«lly 
stand alone in the world as the only country wjiere tiic privi- 
lege is allowed to every one of selecting and supporting the 
form of worship or the faith most congenial to his convictions 
or jirejudices, which is certainly the beau ideal of religious 
libert}'. No such tiling exists in Europe. The French system 
27 



402 8PAIX AM) THE SI'AMAUDS. 

is eiilightenctl in so far as it supports all religions — Catholic 
Protestant, Jewish and Mohammedan. The other countries 
for the most part tolerate a difference of faith, but impose 
restrictions and taxes upon dissenters for the maintenance of a 
creed which they sometimes regard as little better than hea- 
thenism — the very worst species of oppression, admitting as a 
theoretical right what it refuses in ]>ractice. The denial of 
toleration in Spain is ])racticall3- productive of little hardship. 
There are no Protestants in that country, and probably never 
will be any, for the heart of the people is essentially Catholic, 
and (he age of profound religious conviction, and consequeiitly 
of conversif)ns, is almost gone. The dominant religion, too, 
has been shorn of its power to oppress. So far as the rights of 
the S])aiiish pcojde are involved, therefore, it is a matter of 
suprenu^ inditl'erence whether other religions be prohibited or 
not, and the few strangers who travel among them seem either 
not to suffer very much from the want of spiritual consolation, 
or have laid in such a supply in advance as would last them 
during the journey, the latter probabl}^, as their religion would 
otherwise be a poor reliance. The resistance which the (Jov- 
ernment for a long time made to Protestant burying grounds 
should not be j^assed over so lightly, as it was a relic of bigotry 
unworthy of a great nation and disgraceful to the age. A 
Protestant, Jew or Mohammedan, who had the misfortune to 
depart this life within her borders, was buried in an old field 
with the horses from the bull ring, or cast into the sea, il upon 
the coast. Even now any public religious ceremony at (ho 
funeral jirocession is pi'ohibited. This privilege, thus Jealously 
restricted, was most grudgingly yieltlc*! after a series of j)erse- 
vering applications on the part of lioid Palmerston. 

So many years have elaj)sed since the abolition of mon- 
asteries, that a new generation has grown up. Their restora- 
tion, therefore, is impossible, and it is time that history should 
begin impardally to balance (he virtues and defects of these 
institutions, wliicli ])layed so impoi'tant a part in the Christian 
world. Hitherto it lias all been upon one side. Their worst 
and e.\ct'i)tional features alone have been brought into relief by 
the light of adverse criticism. They had undoubtedly lived 
out their lives, for there is a life of institutions as well as of 
men. The labors and sorrows of fourscore were upon them, 
yet their youth and manhood had been vigorous, and their old 



RELIGIOUS SINCERITY. 403 

age not devoid of virtue and respect. If nieddlinni; and wurldly 
brethren sometimes disturbed the peace of families, there are 
also iununicrablo instances of bannoii}^ restored, of Avounded 
hearts healed, of broken-spirited and despairing victims sootlied, 
which liave been forgotten in the privacy of domestic events. 
That tliC}' have frequentl}' nourished idlers is true, but it is 
likewise true that the most industrious and painstaking of 
Spanish authors came from the depths of a cloister. 

The Spanish are sincere in their faith, and practice it as they 
understand its precepts. Mohammedans complain that the 
followers of Christ, having a very good religion, though a false 
one, utteidy neglect its duties, and in general there is founda- 
tion for the criticism. The contrast between the two in any 
common meeting place, any neutral ground, such as Gibraltar, 
is ver}- disadvantageous to the latter. The Spaniards have 
verj' justifiably the same opinion of Protestants, judging them 
b}^ the travelling public, who, to all appearances, are without 
any religion whatever. It is a vain-glorious boast to exalt the 
pi'ecepts of our faith when those precepts are systematically 
overlooked in practice. That there are great moral defects in 
Si)ain ever}- traveller must see, but they are derived from the 
false system of government under whicli they have so long 
suffered, and not, according to my experience, from their re- 
ligion or from an}' extraordiinuy disobedience of its injunctions. 
Certain of the Commandments are never broken, and if some of 
the rest are infringed, it is to a much less extent than in other 
European countries, and may be explained by tlie lack of 
industrial employment and the consequent habits which idle- 
ness engenders. That superstition still lingers in remote lo- 
calities, and that mere sjinbols of faith have frequently been 
confounded with the faith itself, is true, but the advancing tide 
of free thought is rapidly sweeping all this into the past, and 
of the two evils it is certainl}^ the less. The spirit of the age 
is entirely against not only superstition, but, I am sorry to say, 
religion, that is a religion in the vital sense of the word, and 
the real ground of apprehension at jiresent is from a deficiency, 
not an excess of belief. The atheism, deism, and jt]iiloso|tliistic 
religion, so prevalent in the soi-fIis(int enlightened countries, 
and which once threatened to invade the Peninsula, have dis- 
appeared here now that the success of the liberal paity is 
assured and the material power of the Church placed under 



404 SI'AIN AMI TIIK SI'AMAHnS. 

reasonable restrictions bj* tlio concordats of the past ton years. 
Priests and monks have always furnished olijects for the witti- 
cism of Spaniards, frequently for their abuse, and sometimes 
their violence, but woo be to the unwary anti-Catholic who 
confounds this with any want of respect for religion itself. 
The Spaniard may jest about the housekeeper, nephews, 
kitchen and good wine of his spiritur.l j^uide, but doubt as to 
tlie i»ropriety of his lielicf in the pnrit}- of the Church and the 
immaculate conception of Our Lady would be perilous in the 
last degree. There would be ali<)ut as much chance for a 
Protestant proj)agandist as for a Mormon prophet. 

In another point the itrevailing (i])inion of outsiders about 
this country is equally at fault, viz : in their estimate of the 
efficiency of Spanish soldiers, simi)ly l»ecause they persist in 
regarding Spain as a country still ])rof()un(lly asleep, if her 
army is to be judged b}' that of the eighteenth century, they are 
of course correct, but Spain of the eighteenth and Spain of the 
nineteenth centuries are very far apart, and in no department 
more than in the niilitar}'. She has fared badly at the hands 
of forei«£n historians. The Eni^lish writers, and at their head 
Sir Charles Napier in his admirable history of the I\ uinsnlar 
war, have studioush' striven to deprive her citizens of all credit 
during the War of Independence, whether for skill, (organiza- 
tion, courage, or general efficiency, and their statements have 
poisoned the public mind wherever the language is spoken. 
The French, with chai-acteristie imjjartiality, have been more 
disposed to do tlu'in justice, luit the great mass of our country- 
men <lo not take the troulde to seek for truth when hid under 
the iiushel of a sti'ange idiom. The Sjiatiish accounts are 
unknown, and so arc liie histories of the (icrnian olticora serv- 
ing in those campaigns, who wei'o, by the nature of their posi- 
tion, the most unpi-ejudiced ol>servers. The erroneous opinions 
thus formed have remained fixed in the general iiiiiid with 
unshakcable tenacity. Yet the evidence of eveiy traveller 
during the last ten years, capable of forming a Judgment upon 
the matter, is otherwise. If it be possible to estimate the efli- 
ciency of troops by their appearance in time of peace, I slnnild 
have no hesitation in assigning the Spanish army as high a 
rank as any in Europe, except the French, and the expei-icnce 
of the Moorish war has certainly not been inconsistent with 
that position. The Spanish infantiy and cavalry were once 



J 



THE ARMY. COlNirOSITION OF. 405 

the best in tlie world. The latter were entitled, by their ebiv- 
alric genealogy to be the worth}' representatives of a nation 
where caballero and gentleman are still synon^-nious. The lat- 
ter, until the fatal battle of Kocro}', made Eurojie tremble at 
the sound of their approach. The same individual qualities 
exist, the same muscular strength, the same physical endur- 
ance, the same activity of person, the same temperate life, the 
same excitability of disposition, the same tenacitj' of pui'pose, 
the same pride of character continue to distinguish them. The 
curse of Spanish armies, for the last two hundred years, has 
been the incfficicnc}* of their battalion officers, but this evil is 
rapidly disappearing, and with its disappearance the horizon 
will once more become bright to them. 

The conscrijition for a service of eight 3'ears is the usual 
method of recruiting. At tirst it was odious to the last degree, 
and was styled '' the contribution of blood," but the natiun is 
gradually getting used to it, and the service is, moreover, 
becoming more popular, so that, in 1859, a large proportion 
of those who were discharged re-enlisted immediately. The 
infantry has been latel}' organized into forty regiments of the 
line, each with two battalions of eight companies, one re(jiinerdo 
fijo, at Ceuta, of three battalions, twenty battalions of caza- 
dores in imitation of the chasseurs a pied. There are, in addi- 
tion, eight}' battalions of " milicias jirovinciales" as a reserve. 
The former organization was somewhat different, the number 
of the companies being less and that of the battalions greater. 
The Koyal Guard is abolished, as giving rise to unjust prefer- 
ences, and the only household troop arc the llalbadiers. Their 
uniform is not so showy as the Austrian, nor so ugly as the 
French, but combines suitability with a reasonable amount of 
good looks. The movements of the drill occupy, in like man- 
ner, a medium place between the French and Engli.sh, not so 
board stiff as the one, nor so entirely nonchalant as the other. 
The men are larger than the French and much handsomer fel- 
lows, though witlnnit that good humored expression which i)rc- 
possess in favor of the latter. The cavalry is divided into 
nineteen regiments. They are, of course, fine ridei's, and 
mancuuvrcd well enough, but I was somewhat disappointed in 
the horses. The pride of the arm}', however, are the artiller}- 
and engineer corps. In addition to the ordinary artiller}-, the 
Spaniards, like ourselves, have been comi^elled by the nature of 



40G SPAIN AND TIIK SI'ANIARDS. 

tln'ir roiind'v, intersected as it is everywhere bj' steep valleys 
and rocky Sierras, to develop the system of mountain hatteries 
Avith three mules to a gun — one to carry the piece itself, an- 
other the carriage, and a third the ammunition. It is precisely 
what is i-e(|uired for the country, and there is suitable material 
at hand. The paths, though narrow and steej). are firm ; the 
mules, large, sure-footed, quick-moving and hardy, and the 
activity of Spaniards in climbing hillsides was proverbial even 
in the da^-s of Muza, who, in his report to the Caliph, pro- 
nounced them to be " cabras para escapar en los monies." 
Marshal Pelissier paid a visit to ^ladrid while I was there, and 
after i-eviewing the garrison, expressed, warndy, his surprise 
and satisfaction at the efficiency of the artillery. During the 
War of Independence this branch of the service was always 
well conducted. In our day it has kept even pace Avith the 
progress of improvement, and seems to have been the principal 
cause of the victories in Africa. Of the engineers I can give 
no opinion, but they rank even higher in the estimation of those 
Avho are capable and have had ojiportunities of forming a 
judgment. 

The preponderance of onicers in the Spanish army is surpri- 
sing at lirst glance. That there should be a larger number in 
the lower raidvs than is usual in (»(her countries may be de- 
sirable, for the mcii see little actual service, and when the 
contingency comes it is therefore necessary that they should 
have a sufficiency of leaders educated in the science of war to 
direct them. Such is tin' case with our volunteers, who will 
follow if well led, but certaiid}' not otherwise. The objection- 
able feature in Spain is the vast number of generals. The 
highest rank is that of caplaiii-genei-al, corresponding to mar- 
shal, of whom there are a dozen or so. some of them merely 
honorary. The title of captain-general, as the ruler of a \n'0- 
vincc, is very ancient, and until this century their powers were 
ver}' great, in fact almost sovereign, imitated prolial)!}' fron\ 
the AValis of the Cordovese empire, who united all sorts of 
functions, even dispensing justice, just as the captain-generals 
of Spain used formerly to ])reside in full uniform over the 
Court of Chancery. The kingdom is still divided of!" into 
capitanias-generales, Init they are mere military districts, and 
the officers in command have been shorn of all civil authoi-ity. 
Next como sixty-seven lieutenant-generals, one hundretl and 



OFFICERS. 407 

fiftj-sevcn mariscalos dc canipo, four Inuulrcd ami one briuja- 
dicrs — numbers perfectly preposterous upon the footing of ac- 
tual service. The rule of advancement is, I believe, nominally 
that of senioritj^, but this rule is enforced only in some depart- 
ments, such as the artillerj^ and engineers, in which the exami- 
nations are very strict; whereas, in the infantry and cavalry, 
such is not and could not be the case. A friend at court, there- 
fore, is worth more than any amount of capacit}'. The con- 
sequence is that comparatively young men, if supported by 
palace influence, are early advanced to the highest places in 
the military hierarchy. After that there is no object in the 
department to which they belong to concentrate their ambi- 
tion. Their rank has been obtained without any distinguished 
deed of valor which could sanctify it in the public respect. 
They are surrounded by a collection o'f persons as little distin- 
guished as themselves, and if they desire to occup}^ a place in 
the world, to rise from the common herd of generals, they 
must needs enter the field of politics. It is very difficult to fix 
upon a sj'Stem of promotion which does not pi'oduce injustice 
practically. Nothing can be more unfiiir than that men of 
energy, industry and capacit}' should be compelled to wait the 
slow revolution of the wheel, Avhile their seniors, without per- 
haps a single recommendation, are mounting. At the same 
time it is equally demoralizing to see an undeserving junior 
pushed up through all the grades by the supple adroitness of 
some friend, male or female, about the court. The system of 
advancement b}' seniority tends to overflow the higher ranks 
of the arm}^ which, however, is a minor evil, if the depart- 
ments of military and civil life are kept distinct. But such is 
not the case in Spain or Europe generally. They sit in the 
Cortes or ministry partly as soldiers, partly as civilians. If 
their adversaries maintain too firm a grasp upon the reigns of 
power, they appeal readily to pronunciamentos and revolution, 
and hence for the most part spring the various commotions 
which have agitated the Government since the peace of 1814. 
It is honorable to them that in the majority of instances the 
army has pronounced for liberal government. A despotic cen- 
tral power can hold out to them no prospect of glory, such as 
gilds the bitter pill beyond the Pyrenees, and they consequent- 
ly follow their natural bent which is for freedom and equality. 
The people of Spain have general!}' taken little part in these 



408 SPAIN AND THE SI'ANIARnS. 

demonstrations, but the nation is becoming tired of tliem ; 
tlierc is a universal desire for stable peace if it can be jmrchas- 
ed on reasonable terms. The Morocco war, too, has withdrawn 
the attention of the army chiefs from domestic concerns, and 
oft'ered a more honorable object for their ambition; and the late 
renunciation of the Count of Montemolin has removed a ^talld- 
in<; source of dissatisfaction, so that there is ground for hoping 
that the day of organized military insurrections is })assing 
away. 

The press, as usual in Europe, is mostly concentrated at the 
capital. The centrifugal tentlency of Spaniards prevents such 
an entire absorption by the metropolis as happens in France 
and England, but very few provincial journals venture to havo 
a policy of their own. Being a thing of comparatively late 
introduction, and its birth occun-ing in the midst of revolution- 
ary throes, it is essentially and bitterly partisan, and directed 
lieart and soul to the establishment of the princi])le8 it may 
espouse, yet in the midst of the most violent excitement it 
never, so far as I have seen, descends to personal abuse. There 
were a number of ephemei-al charivaris, such as cl grillo, during 
the^past summer, which gratified the taste of the ^LidriUi'iua for 
wit and satire to its full extent, but the establishod organs hold 
themselves above tliis style of arguuu'ul. In fact, llie ]»rin- 
ciples involved in their contests are too imjiortant to be over- 
lookeil in the mere scramble about men, and tlie i)()inl of honor 
is too high to i)erMiit those personalities alxuit \W candidate, 
his wife and children, grandfather and grandmother, his nativ- 
ity, the length of his boily anil his ])urse, which form the charm 
of our dailies All such are considered private matters. Nor 
would it be consistent with Spanish ideas of propriety for 
George Washington Worniu<io(l to convert the Squash 'fown 
Harbinger into a machine for the ventilation of his personal 
malignity. The editors are almost always gentlemen, and 
many of the most distinguished men in Spain were connected 
in youth with the press, it being quite the fashion at that day. 
It does not follow, however, that this system is the best be- 
cause it may be the most gentKiuanly. The press is a terrific 
jtower in its verj* nature, and when it adds the weight of ro- 
S])ectability to its already almost irresistible influence it as- 
sumes f)roporti()ns tlial endanger the stability of government. 
The London Times is really a fourth estate, and more potent 



I 



THE PRKSS. 400 

in Groat Britain than any coniinon ministry. In fact, if the 
House of Lords were to declare war against the ThuiKh'rer, as 
tlie hitter during tlic Crimean war once dared it to do, the re- 
sult is far from being certain. So long as the master of this 
power is right all goes well ; but an editor is not necessarily 
right, because he is decent or honest. In France the editors 
are obnoxious to punishment for publishing false news, Soxonice 
''lying," but what would l)ecome of the American press if any 
such law were enforced with us? 

Our system of license is beneficial in one respect, since it 
destroys tlie influence of the press as a press. What persons 
read in the Times they believe, Avhich is far from the universal 
case in America. This minute distribution of its influence 
among small, if sometimes not respectable recipients, is also 
favorable to the rights of minorities, which it is the object of 
constitutional government to protect. Every clique of a thou- 
sand voters can make itself heard throughout the land, and 
generally does, for the smaller the minority the louder the 
trumpet blast which frightens the old fogj' organs into silence. 
If these ends could be attained consistently with a high edito- 
rial tone, of course it would be better for individuals and the 
countr}', but then the laws should be enforced more rigidly to 
counterbalance its power. In England the jurj' never hesitates 
to give damages even to a candidate who sues for a libel. Un- 
fortunatel}' in America we have too much chivalry to justify 
such a mode of seeking reparation, 3*et not enough to frown 
down the off'ender who thus oversteps tlie boundary of pro- 
priety and abuses his trust. But upon the whole our plan 
seems to be the best, even if we should have to adopt Franklin's 
idea — unrestricted libert}'' of the press, together with unre- 
stricted liberty of tlie cudgel, b}' wa}' of constitutional limita- 
tion, for thus ever}* class of societ}', however exalted or how- 
ever debased, finds a suitable organ for the exjiression of its 
Avants and sympathies. European statesmen liave yet to learn 
what a safety valve tliis is in a free government, or in any gov- 
ernment. An excitement commences; the partisan press takes 
it up; things look squally; penny news]»apers commence to 
blow ; inflammatory speeches are made ; rust}* muskets cleaned 
up; ferocious meetings held; Fourth of July orators have to be 
held down by the seat of their breeches lest they should gooff 
into infinite space and di